Front coverExperiences withOracle 10g Databasefor Linux on zSeriesInstalling a single instance of OracleDatabase 10gInstal...
International Technical Support OrganizationExperiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux onzSeriesAugust 2005           ...
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page xiii.First Edit...
Contents                 Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
Chapter 3. Installing Oracle 10g single instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21                3.1 Installing ...
5.2 Linux setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82   5.2.1...
7.3.2 Makefile output for sample1 program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163                   7.3.3 Execut...
Appendix A. VM setup and useful commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213VM setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
viii   Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
Figures                 1-1     Linux application deployment on server farms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6   ...
4-9    Recovery configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66               4...
5-37   Install panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185-38   E...
xii   Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, servi...
COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrates programmingt...
Preface                 Linux on zSeries offers many advantages to customers who rely upon IBM                 mainframe s...
Dennis Dutcavich is a zSeries Oracle Specialist with the American sales               division. Dennis is part of Sales an...
technical information provided in this book and the technical reviews of the        material. We appreciate all the suppor...
xviii   Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
1   Chapter 1.   Overview of Oracle                Database 10g for Linux on                zSeries                Oracle ...
1.1 What is Linux               Linux is a UNIX®-like operating system initially created by Linus Torvalds when           ...
Linux on zSeries is an ASCII environment that takes advantage of IBM zSeries         hardware, especially for system avail...
Linux on zSeries offers many advantages to customers who rely upon z/OS               systems to run their businesses. Whi...
1.3.2 Cost savings           A new feature designed specifically for the Linux operating environment, the           Integr...
O r a c le 1 0 g     O r a c le 9 i   O r a c le 1 0 g                                f o r L in u x     f o r L in u x   ...
The unique capabilities of zSeries for running multiple operating images           simultaneously and sharing processing r...
The following functions are not yet provided:                   OracleText does not have the INSO filters.                ...
infrastructure to achieve cost efficiency. Oracle Collaboration Suite is supported         in a split tier mode where the ...
development. If this is a vendor’s application, they may be able to provide sizing               assistance for their appl...
2    Chapter 2.   Best practices for installing                 an Oracle Database 10g on                 Linux on zSeries...
2.1 Memory sizing and configuration               The sizing and allocation of memory is one of the most critical areas of...
The Program Global Area is memory outside the Oracle instance. This               generally used by users who create conne...
It is best if these are actual numbers from a system tool such as vmstat.               Approximations can be provided, bu...
2.2.3 Setting shares           The workload of Linux virtual machines can be managed or controlled by setting           of...
Control Priority of Linux guests                 SHARE settings determine access priority for                             ...
2.3.1 z/VM paging           One of the common mistakes with new VM customers is to not allocate paging           space (al...
expanded storage or paging DASD. The use of VDISK for swapping is                  sufficiently complex that we have writt...
A final thought on this is that faster and newer is always better. Some           implementations have experienced up to a...
better. Memory assigned to Linux should be enough to cover the needs of the                  Oracle database (SGA + PGA) a...
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482
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Experiences with oracle 10g database for linux on z series sg246482

  1. 1. Front coverExperiences withOracle 10g Databasefor Linux on zSeriesInstalling a single instance of OracleDatabase 10gInstalling Oracle 10g RACUsing ASM Kathryn Arrell Laurent Dupin Dennis Dutcavich Terry Elliott Bruce Frank Chris Little Barton Robinson Tom Russellibm.com/redbooks
  2. 2. International Technical Support OrganizationExperiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux onzSeriesAugust 2005 SG24-6482-00
  3. 3. Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page xiii.First Edition (August 2005)This edition applies to Oracle Database 10g (10.1.0.3).© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2005. All rights reserved.Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADPSchedule Contract with IBM Corp.
  4. 4. Contents Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv The team that wrote this redbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Chapter 1. Overview of Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries . . . . . . 1 1.1 What is Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Linux on zSeries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Why Oracle9i and Oracle 10g for Linux on zSeries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3.1 Expanded application portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.2 Cost savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3.3 Server consolidation and faster time to market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4.1 Oracle9i Database Server and Oracle Database 10g . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4.2 Oracle9i Application Server and AS 10g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.4.3 Oracle application solutions for Linux on zSeries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.5 What distributions of Linux Oracle supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.6 Obtaining a copy of Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries . . . . . . . . . 9 1.7 Sizing workloads for Oracle10g for Linux on zSeries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Chapter 2. Best practices for installing an Oracle Database 10g on Linux on zSeries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1 Memory sizing and configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2 CPU allocation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2.1 Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2.2 CP allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.2.3 Setting shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3 Paging, swap, and I/O considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3.1 z/VM paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3.2 Swap space for Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3.3 I/O considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.3.4 Monitoring the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. iii
  5. 5. Chapter 3. Installing Oracle 10g single instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.1 Installing Oracle Database 10g on zSeries with Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.2 Preparing the system environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.2.1 Setting up the fixed buffer option with ECKD™ disks . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.3 Setting up an xWindows interface using VNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.4 Downloading the code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.4.1 Finding the documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.4.2 Checking the Linux kernel settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.5 Running the Universal Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.5.1 Starting the OUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.5.2 Initial OUI panels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.5.3 Inventory directory panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.5.4 Changing to root screen for oraInstroot script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.5.5 File location panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.5.6 Installation type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.5.7 Selecting database configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.5.8 Database configuration options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.5.9 Selecting the database management options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.5.10 Selecting the database file storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.5.11 Selecting the backup and recovery options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.5.12 Choose the database passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.5.13 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.14 Install completing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.5.15 Configuration Assistant panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.6 Verifying that the database is running . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.7 Enabling Async IO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.8 Using the LOCK_SGA parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.9 Using OEM to manage an Oracle database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Chapter 4. Installing an Oracle 10g Database with ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4.1 ASM overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 4.2 Setting up ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 4.3 Binding disks to raw devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4.4 Configuring ASM instance using DBCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4.5 Managing ASM using SQL commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4.5.1 Connect to the ASM instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4.5.2 Creating a new diskgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4.5.3 Modifying an existing diskgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4.6 Managing ASM using OEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 4.7 ASM best practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Chapter 5. Installing CRS and RAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5.1 VM set up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78iv Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  6. 6. 5.2 Linux setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5.2.1 Setting the kernel values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 5.2.2 Moving the scripts to both nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 5.2.3 Creating the raw devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 5.2.4 Create Oracle account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 5.2.5 Set up logical volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 5.2.6 Making symbolic links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5.2.7 Binding the raw devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5.2.8 Set up the /etc/host file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5.2.9 Set up ssh to work without password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885.3 Preparation review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895.4 Oracle CRS installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5.4.1 Cleaning up CRS if you need to reinstall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005.5 Oracle RAC installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 5.5.1 VIP configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065.6 Oracle Database creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5.6.1 Setting up the user profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119Chapter 6. Using Tivoli Storage Manager and Tivoli Data Protect for Oracle Database 10g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216.1 IBM Tivoli Storage Manager overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1226.2 Tivoli Storage Manager architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236.3 Tivoli Data Protection for Oracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236.4 RMAN and Tivoli Data Protection for Oracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246.5 Overview of installation process of TSM and TDPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 6.5.1 Configuring RMAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 6.5.2 Installing TSM server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 6.5.3 Install Tivoli Data Protect for Oracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1326.6 Back up the user tablespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396.7 Restore and recover the users Tablespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 6.7.1 Restore and recover process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1476.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152Chapter 7. Using Cobol and C/C++ with Oracle Database 10g . . . . . . . . 1537.1 Working with Pro*Cobol and sample programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.1.1 Install the Pro*COBOL precompiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.1.2 Sample Pro*COBOL programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1567.2 Using ACUCOBOL-GT Version 6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7.2.1 Relinking ACUCOBOL-GT with Oracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7.2.2 Work with the Oracle Pro*COBOL samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 7.2.3 Prepare and run the sample programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1627.3 Running MicroFocus Cobol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 7.3.1 Makefile for sample Pro*COBOL programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Contents v
  7. 7. 7.3.2 Makefile output for sample1 program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 7.3.3 Execution of sample1 program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 7.3.4 User programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 7.4 Oracle 10g Pro*C/C++ Precompiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 7.4.1 Run the Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 7.4.2 Pro*C/C++ demonstration programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 7.4.3 Creating demo tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 7.4.4 Precompile and compile C source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 7.4.5 Creating and executing sample2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Chapter 8. Monitoring VM and Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 8.1 Oracle measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 8.2 Configuration guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 8.2.1 Minimize Total Storage Footprint® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 8.2.2 SGA must fit in memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 8.2.3 Use Oracle direct I/O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 8.2.4 Use virtual disk for swap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 8.2.5 Enable the timer patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 8.2.6 Use virtual switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 8.2.7 Use expanded storage for paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 8.2.8 Ensure sufficient page space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 8.3 Storage analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 8.3.1 Detecting storage problems - Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 8.3.2 Detecting 2 GB storage problems - Paging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 8.3.3 Detecting 2 GB problems - Demand scan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 8.3.4 Detecting 2 GB problems - State analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 8.4 I/O subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 8.4.1 LVM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 8.5 Processor analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 8.6 LPAR weights and options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 8.6.1 Physical LPAR overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 8.6.2 Converting weights to logical processor speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 8.6.3 LPAR analysis example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 8.6.4 LPAR options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 8.6.5 Shared versus dedicated processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Chapter 9. Using Radius Server and z/OS RACF LDAP for Oracle DB user authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 9.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 9.2 FreeRADIUS on Linux on z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 9.3 z/OS LDAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 9.4 Oracle DB Advanced Security Option (ASO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 9.5 Oracle client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211vi Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  8. 8. Appendix A. VM setup and useful commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213VM setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 VM guest definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214VM System definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215Cloning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 FLASHCOPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217Booting same Linux either as VM guest or LPAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219Useful VM commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220How to remove Oracle code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221Appendix B. Overview of ESALPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223ESALPS overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224ESALPS features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Critical agent technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Monitoring requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Standard interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Contents vii
  9. 9. viii Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  10. 10. Figures 1-1 Linux application deployment on server farms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1-2 Linux application deployment on zSeries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2-1 Using shares to manage guest priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3-1 VNC Viewer with a window for oracle and root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3-2 VNC server IP address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3-3 VNC password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3-4 First panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3-5 Welcome panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3-6 Specify Inventory directory panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3-7 orainstRoot script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3-8 Results from running orainstRoot script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3-9 Specify FIle Locations panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3-10 Specify Installation Type panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3-11 Select Database Configuration panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3-12 Specify Database Configuration Options panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3-13 Select Database Management Option panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3-14 Select Database File Storage Option panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3-15 Select Backup and Recovery Options panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3-16 Specify Database Schema Passwords panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3-17 Summary panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3-18 Installation progress panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3-19 Configuration Assistants panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3-20 Database creation panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3-21 Password management panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3-22 Unlock Scott panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3-23 Setup Privileges panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3-24 Results of running root.sh script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3-25 End of Installation panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3-26 Logon screen to OEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3-27 Home screen for Oracle Enterprise Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4-1 Step 6 - Storage options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4-2 Step 7 - Create ASM instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4-3 ASM instance creation confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4-4 ASM parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 4-5 ASM diskgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4-6 Create Disk Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4-7 Disk group selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 4-8 Database files location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. ix
  11. 11. 4-9 Recovery configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4-10 OEM primary panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 4-11 ASM main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4-12 Diskgroup view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4-13 Add Disk window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4-14 Files window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4-15 Performance window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5-1 Possible RAC setup on one zSeries system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5-2 For the first installation entry the inventory path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5-3 Request to run root.sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5-4 Enter the destination path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 5-5 Specify language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 5-6 Enter the cluster nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 5-7 Specify the network interface usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 5-8 Cluster registry location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 5-9 File name for voting disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5-10 Request to run root.sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5-11 Summary for CRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 5-12 Installation of CRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 5-13 Configuration script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5-14 Configuration assistants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5-15 End of CRS installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5-16 Select the cluster nodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 5-17 Select installation type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5-18 Select database configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5-19 Summary of the RAC installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5-20 Running the root.sh script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 5-21 End of Oracle RAC Database installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5-22 Welcome screen for DBCA process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5-23 Select the DBCA operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 5-24 Select the RAC nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 5-25 Select the database template for DBCA to use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5-26 SID same . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5-27 Choosing OEM or GRID manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 5-28 Enter password information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 5-29 Choose storage option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 5-30 Chose recovery option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 5-31 Using custom scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 5-32 Expand the service information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 5-33 Validate the memory for SGA and PGA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 5-34 Check file locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 5-35 Select database creation options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 5-36 Review the database options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117x Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  12. 12. 5-37 Install panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185-38 End of database creation panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186-1 Configuring TSM server with Web Admin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1306-2 Successful results after configuring with Web Admin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1316-3 Set time out parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1316-4 Registering the TDPO node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1346-5 Registration for TDPO client completed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1356-6 Creating additional backup storage pool space - Backup pool . . . . . . 1376-7 Configuring the new backup pool volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1386-8 Additional backup pool complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396-9 Query the storage pool for results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426-10 Results of query of storage pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1436-11 File space name to query the file space occupancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1446-12 Query file space occupancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1456-13 Query results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1467-1 Select Installation Type panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1557-2 Summary panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1558-1 ESAUCD2 report (Linux memory analysis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1748-2 ESAUSR3 (user resource utilization) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1758-3 ESAVDSK VDISK Analysis Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1778-4 ESAUSRQ - User queue and load analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1798-5 ESAPAGE - Paging analysis 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1818-6 ESAPAGE - Paging analysis 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1818-7 ESASSUM subsystem activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1838-8 Custom extract for demand scan measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1858-9 ESAXACT - Transaction delay analysis 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1868-10 ESAXACT - Transaction delay analysis 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1878-11 ESAUSEK - User DASD seeks report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1888-12 ESAXACT transaction delay analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1898-13 ESAUSR3 User Resource Utilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1908-14 CP commands to get a trace of diagnose 44 instructions . . . . . . . . . . 1908-15 Sample CP trace of diagnose code 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1918-16 Rexx exec to reduce trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1918-17 Reduced trace of diagnose code 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1928-18 Fragment of Linux system map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1938-19 ESALPAR Logical Partition Analysis Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1948-20 ESALPAR Logical Partition Analysis Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1958-21 LPAR physical CPU management time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979-1 Order of processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2029-2 Oracle Advanced Security pull-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2099-3 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2109-4 Oracle Advanced Security Other Parameters tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2109-5 Promotion of radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Figures xi
  13. 13. xii Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  14. 14. NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consultyour local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area.Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBMproduct, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service thatdoes not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the usersresponsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document.The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send licenseinquiries, in writing, to:IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where such provisionsare inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDESTHIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimerof express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically madeto the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM maymake improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication atany time without notice.Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in anymanner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of thematerials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate withoutincurring any obligation to you.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their publishedannouncements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirmthe accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions onthe capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.This publication is intended to help those who are installing Oracle Database 10g for the first time. Theinformation in this publication is not intended as the specification of any programming interfaces that areprovided by Oracle. See the PUBLICATIONS section of the Oracle publications for more information aboutwhat publications are considered to be product documentation.Information concerning Oracles products was provided by Oracle. The material in this document has beenproduced by a joint effort between IBM and Oracle zSeries Specialists.The material herein is copyrighted byboth IBM and Oracle.This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate themas completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual businessenterprise is entirely coincidental.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. xiii
  15. 15. COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrates programmingtechniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs inany form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing applicationprograms conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which thesample programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM,therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. You may copy,modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM for the purposes ofdeveloping, using, marketing, or distributing application programs conforming to IBMs applicationprogramming interfaces.TrademarksThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both: AIX® Multiprise® S/390® ECKD™ MVS™ Tivoli® ESCON® OS/390® VM/ESA® Footprint® PR/SM™ z/OS® FICON® Redbooks™ z/VM® IBM® Redbooks (logo) ™ zSeries® ibm.com® RACF®The following terms are trademarks of other companies:PDB, Solaris, and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States,other countries, or both.Windows, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, othercountries, or both.Intel, Intel logo, Intel Inside logo, and Intel Centrino logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of IntelCorporation or its subsidiaries in the United States, other countries, or both.UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.xiv Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  16. 16. Preface Linux on zSeries offers many advantages to customers who rely upon IBM mainframe systems to run their businesses. Linux on zSeries takes advantage of the qualities of service in the zSeries hardware—making it a robust industrial strength Linux. This provides an excellent platform for consolidating Oracle databases that exist in your enterprise. This IBM® Redbook describes experiences gained while installing and testing Oracle10g for Linux® on zSeries®, such as: Installing a single instance database of Oracle10g instances for Linux on zSeries Installing Cluster Ready Services (CRS) and Real Application Clusters (RAC) Performing basic monitoring and tuning exercises Using options such as: – IBM’s Tivoli Data Protector (TDP) and Tivoli® Storage Manager (TSM) – Automated Storage Manager (ASM) – LDAP and Radius Server for security – COBOL and C programs with Oracle Interested readers include database consultants, installers, administrators, and system programmers.The team that wrote this redbook This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Poughkeepsie Center. Kathryn Arrell is an Oracle Specialist at the IBM/Oracle International Competency Center at IBM San Mateo. Previously she worked as an ERP specialist at the ITSO in Poughkeepsie, New York. Laurent Dupin has worked on z/VM® and Linux performance since he joined the EMEA zSeries Benchmark Center in Montpellier, France. He previously worked for 10 years as a z/OS® and Sysplex specialist for IBM Global Services, and became interested in Linux on zSeries during a two-year assignment at the Boeblingen Lab in 1999.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. xv
  17. 17. Dennis Dutcavich is a zSeries Oracle Specialist with the American sales division. Dennis is part of Sales and Distribution in the Americas. He is Technical Sales Specialist supporting Linux on zSeries opportunities. Terry Elliott is a zSeries Specialist working in the IBM/Oracle International Competency Center at IBM San Mateo. He has over 30 years of experience in information technology. Before joining the IBM Oracle International Competency Center six months ago, Terry was as an ERP zSeries Performance Specialist. Bruce Frank is a zSeries Oracle Specialist in the IBM/Oracle International Competency Center at IBM San Mateo. Chris Little works at the Department of Human Services as a Unix/Linux/z/VM Administrator. It was his pressure that got DHS into the Early Adopters Program for Oracle, and he helped implement one of the first production Oracle databases on Linux/390. Barton Robinson is president of Velocity Software, Inc. He started working with VM in 1975, specializing in performance starting in 1983. His previous publication experience includes the VM/HPO Tuning Guide published by IBM, and the VM/ESA® Tuning Guide published by Velocity Software. He is the author and developer of ESAMAP and ESATCP. Tom Russell is a zSeries Specialist with IBM Canada. He spent several years on a special assignment with Oracle in Redwood Shores, California. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Neil Rasmussen IBM Tivoli Development San Jose Masayuki Kamitohno zSeries ATS, IBM Japan Roy Costa Mike Ebbers Julie Czubik International Technical Support Organization, Poughkeepsie Center Mark Polivka Betsie Spann Mike Morgan Oracle Corporation There were many others from the IBM labs in Boeblingen, Germany; Poughkeepsie, New York; and Endicott, New York; as well as well as the those from Oracle Corporation, Redwood Shores, California, who contributed to thexvi Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  18. 18. technical information provided in this book and the technical reviews of the material. We appreciate all the support we received.Become a published author Join us for a two- to six-week residency program! Help write an IBM Redbook dealing with specific products or solutions, while getting hands-on experience with leading-edge technologies. Youll team with IBM technical professionals, Business Partners and/or customers. Your efforts will help increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction. As a bonus, youll develop a network of contacts in IBM development labs, and increase your productivity and marketability. Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at: ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.htmlComments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our Redbooks™ to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review redbook form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an email to: redbook@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. HYJ Mail Station P099 2455 South Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601-5400 Preface xvii
  19. 19. xviii Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  20. 20. 1 Chapter 1. Overview of Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries Oracle released Oracle9i Database Server for Linux on zSeries in August 2002. Since that time, many customers have consolidated database instances on to Linux guests on zSeries. In October 2004, Oracle released Oracle Database 10g (10.1.0.3). Several IBM sites have installed and tested the code. This document shares some of the experiences from these installations and from the development environment used at Oracle in Redwood Shores. This chapter is an overview of Linux on zSeries and Oracle solutions.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005 1
  21. 21. 1.1 What is Linux Linux is a UNIX®-like operating system initially created by Linus Torvalds when he was a graduate student in 1991. The objective for developing Linux was to deliver a non-proprietary operating system and application development environment, completely independent of underlying hardware architectures, that would offer maximum freedom to move applications from one hardware platform to another by simply recompiling code, without expensive, labor-intensive porting efforts. Linux is a fully networked 32-bit/64-bit architecture, that supports multiple users, multitasking, and multiprocessors, with a user-friendly Xwindows Graphical User Interface. Continued development and testing of Linux is governed by the Open Source community, which uses the Internet as the primary vehicle for technical exchange. Linux source code can be downloaded free of charge from the Internet, and programmers are free to modify the code. However, the integrity of the official kernel source code is managed and maintained by a strict submission and review process controlled by the Linux Review Board, an international standards body for Linux. Linux, like other Open Source software, is distributed under the terms of the GNU Public License (GPL), and is packaged and distributed by approved distributors, such as Caldera, Red Hat, SuSE, and Turbo Linux. Distributor packages include the Linux operating system code that has been precompiled for specific hardware environments, along with other Open Source applications and middleware, such as Apache Web Server, SAMBA (file/print serving), Jabber (instant messaging), and IMAP/POP (mail servers). Distributors also offer Linux services and support packages, as does IBM Global Services.1.2 Linux on zSeries In 1998 IBM announced a commitment to support Linux on all its hardware platforms, including zSeries. The 31-bit version of the Linux operating is available from Linux distributors for S/390® G5 and G6 processors, and on 64-bit zSeries models. The Linux 64-bit support on the zSeries is available on Open Source and became available from SuSE in April 2001. The Linux operating system has been running in a zSeries test environment since early 1999. As of December of 1999, the IBM Web site (http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/solutions/s390da/linuxisv.html) is continually updated to show all the Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) applications or infrastructure available for the zSeries platform.2 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  22. 22. Linux on zSeries is an ASCII environment that takes advantage of IBM zSeries hardware, especially for system availability and I/O performance. Of particular interest is the ability to run many Linux images under z/VM. This provides an excellent environment for server consolidation. It will more fully utilize system resources and facilitate system management. Linux is not a replacement for other IBM operating systems on zSeries or S/390, and will coexist with z/OS, OS/390®, and VM/ESA. It supports such UNIX tools as sed, awk and grep, compilers like C, C++, Fortran, Smalltalk, and Ada. Network tools like Telnet, ftp, ping, and traceroute are supported as well.1.3 Why Oracle9i and Oracle 10g for Linux on zSeries The ability to combine the hardware characteristics of the IBM zSeries with the openness of Linux provides significant benefits to users. IBMs zSeries has, over the years, demonstrated its unique ability to run multiple diverse work loads. This key strength also applies to Linux workloads. zSeries is particularly well suited to the hosting of multiple lightly to moderately loaded servers. (Examples of this type of server would be firewall servers, print and file serving, Domain Name Servers, Internet news servers, or Web serving that is not processor intensive.) Most IT installations use multiple outboard servers to perform these functions. Consolidation of these functions onto a single zSeries can provide the following benefits: zSeries qualities of service: No other platform offers the qualities of service available in zSeries and z/VM. Reduced hardware costs: Processors, storage, memory, etc. are now shared on a single zSeries. Reduced software costs: Software licenses spread over several machines and operating systems in most cases are reduced when consolidated onto zSeries processors. Reduced networking costs: Physical networking gear like routers and cabling are no longer necessary on a single zSeries. Servers communicate through inter-system facilities on zSeries (hardware or software). More efficient inter-server communication: Inter-server communication is faster than physical networking. Reduced systems management/support costs: Supporting multiple servers on a single platform requires less effort and fewer people. Reduced deployment time for new servers: Since new servers are added virtually instead of physically, the time required to create a new server is minutes, not weeks. Chapter 1. Overview of Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries 3
  23. 23. Linux on zSeries offers many advantages to customers who rely upon z/OS systems to run their businesses. While z/OS has key strengths in the areas of data acquisition through high-volume transaction processing and data management, its value is enhanced by the addition of Linux on zSeries in different ways. Linux on zSeries brings the zSeries user the ability to access host data efficiently by using high speed, low latency, inter-partition communication. Benefit is derived from the elimination of outboard servers, routers, and other networking gear, reduced floor space, and reduced maintenance cost. Linux also has the well-earned reputation for rapid deployment of applications—giving zSeries users a key choice in how they choose to deploy an application. Linux on zSeries takes advantage of the qualities of service in the zSeries hardware—making it a robust industrial strength Linux, while zSeries native services are available for applications that require the qualities of service inherent in z/OS as well as those of the zSeries hardware. There are several other advantages to running Linux on zSeries. They are described in the following sections.1.3.1 Expanded application portfolio The non-proprietary environment of Linux opens the door for zSeries to perform as an application development and deployment server. The Linux application portfolio will greatly increase the number of applications available to zSeries customers who want to continue to leverage the critical advantages of the platform to run business applications on a highly available and reliable architecture. Customers will now have the flexibility to develop new applications directly for Linux on zSeries and run them on any Linux-supported platform; or to develop and test Linux on other platforms, such as the desktop, and then run the applications for Linux on zSeries, with a simple recompile. As applications from ISVs become generally available, customers will be able to deploy them quickly on zSeries without any special porting effort. Note: The MP 3000 and 9672 machines are 31-bit only and support the s390 Linux distributions. Oracle 9i is a 31-bit application and is the only Oracle that these machines can run. zSeries machines are 64-bit processors and can run the 31-bit (s390) and the 64-bit (s390x) distributions of Linux. The s390x Linux distribution can run Oracle 10g, which is a 64-bit application, or Oracle 9i, a 31-bit Oracle database.4 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  24. 24. 1.3.2 Cost savings A new feature designed specifically for the Linux operating environment, the Integrated Facility for Linux (IFL), is now available on G5, G6, and all zSeries server models including the Multiprise® 3000. The IFL gives you the ability to dedicate processors to the Linux operating system on a logically partitioned machine, transparently to the z/OS operating system. Processors dedicated to the Linux LPAR under IFL are priced at a lower rate than those for the z/OS environment. The added capacity, because it is dedicated to Linux workloads, does not increase the software licensing fees of the zSeries environment. Software pricing is confined to the capacity of only those processors enabled to the zSeries LPARs on the system. (This reflects pricing as of the publishing of this book and may have changed since the publication date. Consult your IBM server sales representative to obtain the most current pricing structure information.)1.3.3 Server consolidation and faster time to market All of the great flexibility and openness of Linux combined with the outstanding qualities of service of zSeries results in an industrial-strength Linux environment. zSeries has several options for partitioning server resources into multiple logical servers. The PR/SM™ hardware feature provides the ability to partition the physical machine into many logical servers (15 on a 9672 and 30 on a zSeries), or LPARs, with dedicated, or shared, CPU and memory. The z/VM operating system allows you to partition an LPAR horizontally into multiple logical operating system images. These unique partitioning features provide the capability to quickly and easily consolidate a large number of Linux servers onto a single zSeries server. This industry-leading zSeries technology for dynamically sharing processing resources across multiple logical systems delivers value to the Linux environment not provided by any other architecture on the market today. Figure 1-1 on page 6 illustrates the typical Linux or UNIX application deployment strategy used by most installations deploying applications on non-zSeries servers today. Chapter 1. Overview of Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries 5
  25. 25. O r a c le 1 0 g O r a c le 9 i O r a c le 1 0 g f o r L in u x f o r L in u x f o r L in u x L IN U X L IN U X L IN U X Figure 1-1 Linux application deployment on server farms Without the robust operating environment provided by the z/OS operating system and the industry-leading reliability of the zSeries hardware, most installations choose to deploy each new application in its own isolated operating system environment, on its own server, with a dedicated database or database partition. This leads to large server farms, with applications that cannot be easily integrated, and require complex systems management. Contrast the configuration in Figure 1-1 to the flexibility available on the zSeries-S/390 architecture illustrated in Figure 1-2. O racle10g O racle10g LIN U X O racle9 i LIN U X z /O S L IN U X zS eries Figure 1-2 Linux application deployment on zSeries6 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  26. 26. The unique capabilities of zSeries for running multiple operating images simultaneously and sharing processing resources dynamically, supports many diverse workloads and multiple applications on a single server, with outstanding interpretability and integration between applications. Database sharing with integrity and ease of systems management are additional unique benefits that zSeries brings to the Linux operating environment. In fact, many customers are blending the data richness of the zSeries environments with the Web capability of Linux applications to deliver highly integrated, cost-effective e-business solutions today.1.4 Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries Oracle has four main families of products: Oracle Database Server (9i and 10g) Oracle9i Application Server and Oracle Application Server 10g Oracle 11i eBusiness Suite Oracle Collaboration Suite See the following Web site for the latest information: http://www.metalink.oracle.com1.4.1 Oracle9i Database Server and Oracle Database 10g Oracle delivered their production level Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Database Server on September 1, 2002. This release included the Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) Enterprise Edition Server. The i in 9i stands for Internet and the g in 10g stands for grid. This release includes most of the components of the Enterprise Edition including: Real application clusters OLAP Spatial Label security Partitioning Data mining Advanced security Pro*COBOL The client package is also included, including Oracle Net Services, OCI, and the Pro*C/C++ precompiler. Chapter 1. Overview of Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries 7
  27. 27. The following functions are not yet provided: OracleText does not have the INSO filters. The Oracle Management Server (OMS) function of OEM does not run in Linux. No generic connectivity (ODBC and OLE). Authentication with Verisign, CyberTrust, and Entrust. This provides a complete Oracle9i database or 10g Database for development, testing, and production in Linux on zSeries.1.4.2 Oracle9i Application Server and AS 10g In many ways, Oracle9i Application Server is well suited to Linux on zSeries. Linux, at its current state of development, is better suited for horizontally scaled workloads, such as print serving, Web serving, and simple application serving, or smaller scale database workloads. In building Oracle9i Application Server, Oracle uses many advanced elements for supporting Internet computing requirements like portals, security, commerce, etc. Some of these elements are not yet available outside the Intel® and more established UNIX environments. Oracle and IBM are working to ensure that these partner products can be delivered. The Oracle 10g Application Server Also on metalink, support for AS10g for Linux on zSeries is shown as projected. These are works in progress at the time of writing of this book.1.4.3 Oracle application solutions for Linux on zSeries In this section we discuss Oracle application solutions for Linux on zSeries. The Oracle E-Business Suite Oracle has delivered is full suite of products, Oracle Database 10g, Application Server 10g, and the Oracle E-Business Suite on Linux, on Intel hardware. Oracle EBS requires a 10.1.0.4 level of the database. On metalink, support for the split tier mode where the database will run on Linux on zSeries is shown as projected. The Oracle Collaboration Suite The newest suite of products is the Oracle Collaboration Suite. The product is a complete collaboration suite, including calendar, e-mail, files, voicemail, and workflow. It enables the consolidation of messaging and collaboration8 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  28. 28. infrastructure to achieve cost efficiency. Oracle Collaboration Suite is supported in a split tier mode where the database server can be run on Linux on zSeries.1.5 What distributions of Linux Oracle supports Oracle9i is a 31-bit product. Oracle9i for Linux on zSeries runs on SLES8 31 bit and SLES8 64 bit. There are plans to certify Oracle9i on SLES9. Oracle 10g is a 64-bit product. Oracle 10g runs on SLES8 and SLES9 64 bit. There are plans to certify Oracle 10g on RedHat 4 U1. The latest information on supported platforms is found at: http://www.otn.oracle.com/support/metalink/content.html1.6 Obtaining a copy of Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries The Oracle Database 10g Server can be purchased through the Oracle Store (https://store.oracle.com/), or CD images can be downloaded from the Oracle Technical Network (http://otn.oracle.com/).1.7 Sizing workloads for Oracle10g for Linux on zSeries The selection of an application to start testing the Oracle10OK, Database Server, or any application for that matter, is critical to the success of the test. It makes sense to select an application that has the characteristics of most of the applications that would be considered for server consolidation. It is very important to get a sizing of the workload to be moved to Linux on zSeries. It is also sensible to start with an application that is small or not complicated and use that as a vehicle for skill building in this area. It is important to understand that a sizing is an estimate of capacity needs. The performance team in Poughkeepsie developed a sizing methodology for equating a workload on a UNIX or Intel platform to its equivalent MIPS on zSeries. While this process has been generally accurate for several years, it is not a capacity plan. Capacity plans are based on the past performance of a system. The changing capacity needs over time provide an accurate way to predict future needs. If this is a new application that has never run before, the sizing becomes a bit more difficult. Predictions can generally be made from testing done during Chapter 1. Overview of Oracle Database 10g for Linux on zSeries 9
  29. 29. development. If this is a vendor’s application, they may be able to provide sizing assistance for their application in a Linux environment. There are two significant reasons to start with a sizing. First, it is important to understand the resources needed to run the application. This includes peak utilization on this server as well as when others peak. The sum of all peaks becomes important as more servers are moved to Linux on zSeries. In fact, this step helps start the process of understanding what the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) results will be. The second important reason for performing a sizing is to set expectations for testing of the workload that is moved. This will provide a starting point that can be used for tuning in either Oracle10g, Linux, or z/VM, if necessary. There is a service called SIZE390 that is available to provide pre-sale processor sizing estimates to IBM sales representatives and Business Partners for IBM zSeries and S/390 systems running z/OS or OS/390 and Linux. It is now available world wide. SIZE390 provides a questionnaire that requests all the information needed to size workloads. The questionnaire can be obtained by IBM sales representatives or Business Partners through TechXpress. You should be prepared to supply the following: Machine model and characteristics such as: – CPU MHz – Number of CPUs – Memory Type of application – DSS – OLTP – DNS – etc. Approximate number of users Utilization profile – VMSTATS should be provided for a peak period. This sizing deliverable provides some information about sizing estimates for Linux. Keep in mind that to get exact sizing estimates you will need to test in each customers environment, but this data is useful for measuring other possible consolidation efforts in the customer location.10 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  30. 30. 2 Chapter 2. Best practices for installing an Oracle Database 10g on Linux on zSeries To obtain optimum performance from Oracle RDBMS when running in Linux on zSeries, the proper configuration of both Linux and z/VM are extremely important. Our experiences have demonstrated that the vast majority of performance concerns were solved by making changes to z/VM, Linux, or the I/O subsystem. This chapter discusses the major areas of concern. Sizing and tuning memory CPU allocation Paging, swap, and I/O considerations Monitoring performance Summary For more information on VM tuning recommendations, see: http://www.vm.ibm.com/perf/tips/© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved. 11
  31. 31. 2.1 Memory sizing and configuration The sizing and allocation of memory is one of the most critical areas of the implementing Oracle in Linux under z/VM. This was especially so with 31-bit Oracle9i and 31-bit Linux distributions. Even though Oracle Database 10g 64-bit runs in 64-bit Linux, memory sizing still affect performance. When running under z/VM, there is a need for expanded storage. Even though z/VM is essentially 64-bit and supports 64-bit virtual machines, expanded storage must be configured when running Oracle. The need for a expanded storage still exists even with z/VM. When running under the current versions of z/VM, we found that you need expanded storage in the configuration. z/VM, even in a 64-bit environment, requires EStore to use as a paging device. Performance will not be acceptable unless you configure from 25 percent to 33 percent of the storage in the z/VM system as EStore. This hierachy is needed because CP and the control blocks in z/VM must reside below 2 GB, or what is referred to as host memory, including a guest page being referenced for CP processing (I/O, IUCV, etc.). With high amounts of I/O (disk and network as well), this can create contention for storage below the 2 GB level. In z/VM 4.2.0 and earlier z/VM releases, when we steal a page below the 2 GB bar due to contention, we do not move it to central storage above the 2 GB; we page it out. If there is no expanded storage, it gets paged out to DASD. This can create a thrashing scenario. If you see paging to DASD, but lots of storage available above 2 GB, then there is probably contention for storage below 2 GB. As a starting point, at least 25 percent of the amount of memory assigned to the LPAR that is running z/VM must be allocated to expanded storage. As the system performance characteristics become known, this number can be adjusted. Once configured, it is unlikely that the amount of expanded storage configured would be decreased. When sizing the Linux virtual machine for Oracle, the virtual machine should be configured with the minimum amount of memory needed. Linux will set up cache buffers with all memory allocated to it. It is better to let z/VM handle paging and manage memory where possible. System performance can be adversely affected by the amount of memory allocated. This could be caused by the 2 GB line issued as outlined above. The method to size a guest for Oracle is to add the Systems Global Area, the Program Global Area (if needed), and about 128 MB for Linux. The Systems Global Area is the memory requirement for Oracle. This is shared memory within Oracle to functions such as caching table data, parsing SQl, sorting, etc.12 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  32. 32. The Program Global Area is memory outside the Oracle instance. This generally used by users who create connections to the database. Depending on the application, this can be either a small amount of memory per user or very large amounts (in excess of 10 MB per user) for applications like the Oracle E-Business Suite. This tends to be the complete opposite of assigning memory to Linux in an Intel environment or even in UNIX. But it must be remembered that in this case, Linux is running under and being managed by another operating system.2.2 CPU allocation CPU (or CP) allocation can be viewed in a few perspectives: A MIPS requirement for the databases and applications to be run in Linux on zSeries Allocation of virtual CPs Setting shares or running multiple LPARS with CPUs either as shared or dedicated2.2.1 Sizing As part of the consolidation process, workloads should be sized not only to insure the correct amount of MIPS are determined, but also to aid in determining if this is a good candidate to move to Linux on zSeries. It can also help determine if this database should possibly be run in a Linux guest in an LPAR and not under z/VM with the development, test, etc. databases being run under z/VM. This is a very important part of the consolidation process, if not the most important part. Doing the right work here will save problems later after the workload is moved to Linux on zSeries. There are several rules of thumb to do a sizing. While they may provide a quick number, none take into account the characteristics of the workload. These workload characteristics are extremely important in assessing MIPS requirements. IBM can provide sizing estimates, and there is no charge for this. To do an estimate, IBM will need to following information: Make and model of the system the database currently runs on The number of CPs and the MHz rating of the CPs The peak utilization of each system Chapter 2. Best practices for installing an Oracle Database 10g on Linux on zSeries 13
  33. 33. It is best if these are actual numbers from a system tool such as vmstat. Approximations can be provided, but the amount of utilization they are in error is directly proportional to the error in the MIPS estimate. There are two methods of sizing: The Quick Sizer tool and Size390 team. The Quick Sizer tool takes your estimated data as input and provides a MIPS estimate. The Size390 team uses vmstat reports from peak periods to perform a sizing estimate. The Size390 team can also take vmstat reports taken through peak periods and perform a sizing estimate from that. If a Quick Sizer is done and the numbers warrant proceeding, then working with the Size390 team is the best approach.2.2.2 CP allocation The amount of virtual CPs allocated (using the CP define cpu command) to a Linux machine is important. In general, one virtual CP is a good starting point unless the sizing points to something much larger. In a constrained CPU environment (that is, more CPU cycles are needed to complete the work), you should give the Linux virtual machine all the CPs it needs to do its work efficiently. However, there should not be more CPs allocated than the number of physical CPUs that are assigned to this LPAR when running under z/VM. If this were to happen (more virtual CPs than physical CPUs), the transaction rates would decrease and the cost to execute these transactions would increase. This is due to increased scheduling overhead in z/VM’s control program. CPU time is limited to the number of CPUs installed. Therefore it would be prudent to reduce CPU usage where possible. This would be in areas such as: Eliminate any unnecessary services that might install with the Linux guest. Eliminate any unnecessary cron tasks. Reduce unnecessary work. – Ensure timer patch is turned on and timer pops are disabled. This is the default with SLES8. – Eliminate using “r-u-there” pings to determine if the virtual machines are there and up. – Do not measure idle guests. Measuring takes cycles. Network consideration – Use Guest Lan – Use Vswitch14 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  34. 34. 2.2.3 Setting shares The workload of Linux virtual machines can be managed or controlled by setting of the SHARE value of a virtual machine. The first choice of SHARE is to use ABSOLUTE or RELATIVE. The second choice is the size of the SHARE. The simplest way to decide which to use for a specific server is to determine whether as more users log on to this system, should this service machine get more CPU or less CPU? A relative share says this server should get a relative share of the processor, relative to all virtual machines in the dispatch and eligible lists. As more users log on, the share will drop. An absolute shares remain fixed up to the point where the sum of the absolute shares is 100 percent or more, a rather confused state of configuration. Servers might have a requirement that increases as the level of work increases. These servers should have ABSOLUTE shares. All other users should use RELATIVE. Size of share is both a business decision and a performance decision. For example, if one server is assigned a very high share, which might be as much of the system as the rest combined, one would expect this server to be absolutely critical to your business. This server has the capability of taking resources whenever it needs them, but if this server starts looping, it would easily consume all the resources allocated. But in general, this is not a likely situation for production. A simple way of looking at share values is that if there is a heavy contention for the processor, what servers would you like to run? The production Oracle databases are an obvious choice. Required servers should have absolute values Chapter 2. Best practices for installing an Oracle Database 10g on Linux on zSeries 15
  35. 35. Control Priority of Linux guests SHARE settings determine access priority for Absolute Relative CPU, main storage, and paging capacity % Share Settings can be changed on the fly by 40 Absolute Relative 800 command or programmed automation guests guests 700 30 600 Resources are allocated to Absolute guests 500 first, remaining resources are allocated to 20 400 Relative guests 300 SHARE settings are not a guarantee for system 10 200 behavior 100 Lin1 Lin2 Lin3 Lin4 0 0 CP SET SHARE Lin1 ABSOLUTE 20% ABSOLUTE 30% LIMITSOFT Notes: SET SHARE Lin2 ABSOLUTE 10% ABSOLUTE 15% LIMITHARD = limit can be exceeded if unused SET SHARE Lin3 RELATIVE 200 RELATIVE 300 LIMITHARD capacity is available (limitsoft) SET SHARE Lin4 RELATIVE 100 RELATIVE 200 LIMITSOFT = limit will not be exceeded (limithard) Figure 2-1 Using shares to manage guest priorities2.3 Paging, swap, and I/O considerations z/VM uses paging, while Linux primarily uses swapping but performs some paging as well. The term swap is a carry over from early days of Linux when it did swap an address space to reclaim memory if needed. However, today Linux does page and uses its own paging algorithm. This means that double paging can occur and this is not a new concept in z/VM. One case may be where z/VM needs to page out and selects a page from the LRU. Hopefully the system is properly configured and the paging is to expanded storage. Now a Linux virtual machine needs to page and looks at its LRU to page. Most likely this could be the page that z/VM just paged out. If we assume this is the case, a page fault now occurs and the page must be brought back into central storage. Now Linux will complete its paging by moving the page to its swap space or paging device. In this case the system paged so that a system guest can page. It is best to keep this type of activity to a minimum. The approach to this is to keep the memory in Linux virtual machines small enough so that z/VM does not do a lot of paging and large enough so that Linux does not have to do excessive paging. And all paging at the first level should be to a memory device such as a VDISK for Linux or expanded storage for z/VM.16 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  36. 36. 2.3.1 z/VM paging One of the common mistakes with new VM customers is to not allocate paging space (along with not configuring expanded storage). The installation process configures enough paging space to complete an installation. This paging space on the sysres pack is small and can handle a small amount of tasks. However, you should remove the paging space from the sysres pack and add DASD page space to do real work. The VM Planning and Administration manual has details on determining how much space is required. Here are a few thoughts: If the system is not paging, you may not care where you put the page space. However, it has been our experience that sooner or later the system grows to a point where it pages and then you will wish you had thought about it. z/VM paging is most optimal when it has large contiguous available space on volumes that are dedicated to paging. Therefore, do not mix page space with other space (user, tdisk, spool, Linux guests, etc.). Set up VM paging to many disks. The more subchannels z/VM can use the faster the paging will take place. A rough starting point for page allocation is to add up the virtual machine sizes of virtual servers running and multiply by 2. Keep an eye on the allocation percentage and the block read set size.2.3.2 Swap space for Linux Try to avoid swapping in Linux whenever possible. It adds pathlength and significant hit to response time. However, sometimes swapping is unavoidable. If you have to swap, these are some of your best choices. Dedicated volume - If the storage load on your Linux guest is large, the guest might need a lot of room for swap. One way to accomplish this is simply to ATTACH or DEDICATE an entire volume to Linux for swapping. If you have the DASD to spare, this can be a simple and effective approach. Traditional minidisk - Using a traditional minidisk on physical DASD requires some setup and formatting the first time and whenever changes in size of swap space are required. However, the storage burden on z/VM to support minidisk I/O is small, the controllers are well-cached, and I/O performance is generally very good. If you use a traditional minidisk, you should disable z/VM Minidisk Cache (MDC) for that minidisk (use the MINIOPT NOMDC statement in the user directory). VM VDISK - A VM virtual disk in storage (VDISK) is transient like a t-disk is. However, VDISK is backed by a memory address space instead of by real DASD. While in use, VDISK blocks reside in central storage (which make them very fast). When not in use, VDISK blocks can be paged out to Chapter 2. Best practices for installing an Oracle Database 10g on Linux on zSeries 17
  37. 37. expanded storage or paging DASD. The use of VDISK for swapping is sufficiently complex that we have written a separate tips page for it. Linux assigns priorities to swap extents. So, for example, you could set up a small VDISK with higher priority (higher numeric value), and it would be selected for swap as long as there was space on the VDISK to contain the process being swapped. Swap extents of equal priority are used in round-robin fashion. Equal prioritization can be used to spread swap I/O across chpids and controllers, but if you are doing this, be careful not to put all the swap extents on minidisks on the same physical DASD volume, for if you do, you will not be accomplishing any spreading. Use swapon -p ... to set swap extent priorities. Setting up two VDISKS of different priorities or a VIDSK and a minidisk with the higher priority on the VDISK can provide a tuning toll or method for properly sizing your memory needs on the Linux virtual machine. Monitor the paging at peak times. If there is paging to the second paging disk, then you should consider adding memory to Linux.2.3.3 I/O considerations One of the biggest performance issues we ran into during some testing, both on z/OS and Linux on zSeries, was when we placed the database on a single rank in the ESS800. This will cause many performance-related issues that mostly involve cache utilization in the ESS800. The best practice for the ESS system is to distribute data across as many ranks (arrays) as possible. This made a dramatic difference in our testing, even though this was a small database. It is also important to stripe the logical volumes that are created. This enables the operating system to issue multiple I/Os against the LVM. Striping a logical volume is not the same as any striping or RAID that is done inside the disk controller. The guidelines for striping on a IBM Total Storage ESS and DS8000 are as follows; ESCON® - One stripe per channel FICON® - One stripe per physical volume FCP - One stripe per volume or LUN When the logical volume is created one of the parameters is the stripe size. The best stripe size is dependent on the workload characteristics. The IBM Web site recommends 16 K or 32 K stripe sizes. In testing typical OLTP type applications either 4 K or 8 K worked better. Applications such as Samba that may serve large files do better with a 64 K stripe. So the message here is that if you do not already know the optimal stripe size for your application, it may take some testing to determine what that size might be.18 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries
  38. 38. A final thought on this is that faster and newer is always better. Some implementations have experienced up to a 50 percent performance improvement just going from ESCON to FICON. Parallel Access Volumes can be used with z/VM and Linux. This lets the ESS800 write from parallel processes to the same device. The writes will occur in different domains within the volume. This feature is only available on the IBM ESS800.2.3.4 Monitoring the system z/VM provides extensive virtualization techniques. A virtual machine running under z/VM acts as if it has all the resources allocated to it in the user direct profile that was created for the virtual machine. This means that monitoring what a virtual machine is doing by looking at resource utilization with a tool or monitor running in that virtual machine may not always be accurate. Since monitoring a virtual machine from the virtual machine is not always accurate, it is extremely important to use a tool to monitor the z/VM system and all the virtual machines from a system perspective. There are two tools that we have experince with and both provide value: IBM Performance Toolkit for VM - Licensed through IBM ESAMON from Velocity Software (http://www.velocity-software.com) While using one of these tools is absolutely necessary for performance monitoring and tuning, do not overlook using tools like sar to vmstat monitor events and resource utilization such as swapping in a Linux virtual machine. Yet another way to monitor performance, especially during times when problems are suspected, is the use of CP commands such as cp indicate load. These are very valid to use for a current point in time but do not provide the ability to go back to review past performance, as does one of the tools mentioned above. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the configuration of Linux and z/VM. However, this is for an Oracle database, and using a tool such as Statspack (or DB Control for 10g) is still an important way to monitor and tune the Oracle database server.2.4 Summary The following is a summary of the key points needed to get the best performance from Oracle. Memory - This is likely the most critical area of tuning Linux virtual machines. The mindset here is the exact opposite of Linux on Intel. The less memory the Chapter 2. Best practices for installing an Oracle Database 10g on Linux on zSeries 19
  39. 39. better. Memory assigned to Linux should be enough to cover the needs of the Oracle database (SGA + PGA) and about 128 MBs more for Linux. Monitor resources - The more virtual machines installed under z/VM the more you will need to use a system monitor such as the z/VM Toolkit. Trying to understand performance problems and determine capacity needs without this type of monitor is impossible. Paging and swap space - Paging at the z/VM level and Linux level (swapping) is most practically unavoidable. You must allow for this. Expanded storage is an absolute must, as is swap space (paging device) on Linux. The best paging device for Linux is a VDISK. Avoid I/O bottlenecks - Use a best practice for configuring and using disk. Data must be distributed as well as possible across different ranks. The logical volumes should be striped, with the number of stripes being dependent on the technology used.20 Experiences with Oracle 10g Database for Linux on zSeries

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