Front coverAccounting andChargeback withTivoli Decision Support for OS/390Quickly establish host and workstationaccounting...
International Technical Support OrganizationAccounting and Chargeback with Tivoli DecisionSupport for OS/390March 2002    ...
Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in “Special ...
Contents                  Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
3.2 TDS/390 log collection process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41                    3.2.1 S...
7.3 Importing data into the workstation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146   7.3.1 Starting the impor...
9.2.3 Extraction errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219                 ...
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           ......      .......      ......     .   291IBM ...
viii   Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
Figures                  1-1        Chargeback methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
4-10    InstallShield Wizard Complete panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69                 4-11 ...
6-20   Apply allocation ended successfully . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096-21   Active ledger tab...
6-63   Create budget table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136              ...
8-5    Create AFW user on SQL Server - Server Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1858-6    Create AFW user on SQL Serve...
9-22    Error iKernel.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227           ...
Tables                  1-1        Relationship between chargeback and business processes . . . . . . . . . . 6           ...
xvi   Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
Preface                  This redbook will help you install, configure and use the Tivoli Decision Support                ...
Mike Foster is an IT Specialist at the ITSO, Austin Center, and holds a                 Bachelor of Science degree in Elec...
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:         International Technical Support Organizati...
IBM Trademarks                 The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines                 C...
1    Chapter 1.    Overview of accounting and                  chargeback                  This chapter briefly describes ...
1.1 Why accounting is important                 Technology and technical developments have continued to bring increased   ...
1.2 Accounting system overview        With data processing, each department and every project produces costs. The        g...
1.3 What chargeback is                 The main purpose of an accounting system is chargeback. Chargeback is when         ...
The most common way to chargeback to the consumers of IT services is to                            create a resource accou...
Figure 1-2 Chargeback links to business processes                 The relationships between the chargeback system and the ...
Business process                         Relationship to chargeback            Corporate Profit                           ...
The result of the definition is the cost element layout. Now all costs are located                      and it is possible...
Row          Cost element types/year            Indirect              Direct cost center Number                           ...
Row               Cost element types/year             Indirect                Direct cost center     Number               ...
CPU capacity                    Seconds/          Contributing cost            Cost                                 month ...
Note: The cost rate for DASD is: Cost per month ($) / DASD GBs.                 Print rate                 The example giv...
Most remote workstation printers are charged directly to the using department            and are not normally included in ...
An accounting/chargeback system will only be as accurate as the input data                     you receive from all source...
NormalizationSome of the resources may need to be normalized, for example, CPU usage.A faster CPU may accomplish a job qui...
16   Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
2    Chapter 2.    Resource accounting                  feature                  This chapter briefly describes the Tivoli...
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044
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Accounting and chargeback with tivoli decision support for os 390 sg246044

  1. 1. Front coverAccounting andChargeback withTivoli Decision Support for OS/390Quickly establish host and workstationaccounting environmentsUse financial databases formultiple analysesPlanning for accountingin the enterprise Mike Foster Budi Darmawan Joachim Fischer Ralf Krohn Wolfgang von Brandibm.com/redbooks
  2. 2. International Technical Support OrganizationAccounting and Chargeback with Tivoli DecisionSupport for OS/390March 2002 SG24-6044-00
  3. 3. Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in “Special notices” on page 293.First Edition (March 2002)This edition applies to Version 1, Release Number 5 of Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390,Program Number 5698-TD9, for use with the OS/390 Operating System and Tivoli DecisionSupport for OS/390 Accounting Feature for the Host and Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 forthe Workstation, Program Number 5698-TDW.Comments may be addressed to:IBM Corporation, International Technical Support OrganizationDept. OSJB Building 003 Internal Zip 283411400 Burnet RoadAustin, Texas 78758-3493When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute theinformation in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2002. All rights reserved.Note to U.S Government Users – Documentation related to restricted rights – Use, duplication or disclosure is subject torestrictions set forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
  4. 4. Contents Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii The team that wrote this redbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Special notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix IBM Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx Comments welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Why accounting is important . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Accounting system overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 What chargeback is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.4 Chargeback influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.5 Steps to create a chargeback model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.5.1 Step 1: Define the measurements for charging services . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.5.2 Step 2: Cost center accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.5.3 Step 3: Calculate direct service rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.6 Planning consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.7 Important concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chapter 2. Resource accounting feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.1 Resource Accounting Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.1.1 RAF data flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.1.2 RAF subcomponents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.1.3 RAF lookup and control tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.1.4 RAF security setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.2 Understanding RAF update flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.2.1 RAF subcomponent for batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.2.2 RAF subcomponent for time sharing option (TSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.2.3 RAF subcomponent for STC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.2.4 RAF subcomponent for DB2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.2.5 RAF subcomponent for CICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.2.6 RAF subcomponent for IMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.2.7 RAF subcomponent for DASD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Chapter 3. RAF host considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.1 SMF parameter setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 iii
  5. 5. 3.2 TDS/390 log collection process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.2.1 SMF and IMS log collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.2.2 IDCAMS DCOLLECT collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.2.3 Log collection automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.3 Interval recording and long running started tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.3.1 Before installing RAF STC component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.3.2 After installing RAF STC component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.4 Considerations for processes that span downloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Chapter 4. Installing the accounting console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 4.1 Accounting console configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4.2 Minimum requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4.3 Installing the accounting console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.4 Setting date format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.5 Setting currency format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4.6 Starting the accounting console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Chapter 5. Accounting console components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5.1 Accounting console functional overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.2 Accounting console database structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.3 Directory structure of the demo database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5.3.1 The Demo database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 5.3.2 The Data folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 5.3.3 The System directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5.4 Exploring the demo database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5.4.1 Getting started with accounting console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5.4.2 Elements of the data explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Chapter 6. Accounting console billing processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 6.1 Accounting console resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 6.1.1 Custom fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6.1.2 Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 6.1.3 Service Category table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 6.1.4 Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 6.1.5 Direct charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 6.1.6 Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 6.1.7 Lookups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 6.1.8 Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 6.1.9 Budget table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 6.2 Sample monthly billing cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Chapter 7. Moving data from host to workstation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 7.1 Exporting data from DB2 database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 7.2 Transferring billing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144iv Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  6. 6. 7.3 Importing data into the workstation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 7.3.1 Starting the import wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 7.3.2 Using the import wizard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 7.3.3 Import results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7.3.4 Posting imported data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617.4 An in-depth look at importing files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 7.4.1 Import definition [Data] part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 7.4.2 Import definition [Import Opts] part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 7.4.3 Import definition [Schema Text] part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 7.4.4 Import definition [Post Opts] part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 7.4.5 Import definition [Ledger Updates] part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 7.4.6 Import definition [Field Mapping] part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1767.5 BILLED_DATA mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177Chapter 8. Sample chargeback implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1798.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1808.2 Setting up the Microsoft SQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 8.2.1 Creating master SQL database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 8.2.2 Creating AWO user IDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1848.3 Preparing accounting console workstations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 8.3.1 First time SQL master database creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 8.3.2 Connecting to an existing SQL Master database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1918.4 Preparing AWO database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 8.4.1 Creating custom fields and active ledger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 8.4.2 Create service category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 8.4.3 Create rate table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 8.4.4 Import the OS/390 data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988.5 Working with active ledger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 8.5.1 Lookup tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 8.5.2 Factor tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 8.5.3 Allocation tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 8.5.4 Direct charge table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 8.5.5 Rates table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2078.6 Working with budget and expense ledger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 8.6.1 Budget table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 8.6.2 Expense table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2098.7 Data reporting and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210Chapter 9. Hints and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2139.1 Fixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2149.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 9.2.1 Installing the AFW software using an unzip tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 9.2.2 Wrong language welcome panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Contents v
  7. 7. 9.2.3 Extraction errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 9.3 Customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 9.3.1 Defining the required period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 9.4 Version of the operating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 9.5 AFO iKernel error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 9.6 Date format setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 9.7 No error message when import fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 9.8 Duplicate data in the ledger table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 9.8.1 Unique indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 9.8.2 Post options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 9.9 Limited factor table usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 9.10 Limited allocation table creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 9.10.1 Apply allocation function SQL error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 9.11 Uninstalling the accounting console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Appendix A. RAF subcomponent for UNIX System Services data . . . . . 245 RAF sub-component for OMVS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Initialization member DRLIOMVS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Define tablespace member DRLSOMVS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Define Tables member DRLTOMVS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Define updates DRLUOMVS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Define purge conditions DRLPOMVS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Appendix B. Host based only accounting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Appendix C. Importing information from RACF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 USRIUSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 USRLUSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 USRRUSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 USRUDSN1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 USRUDSN2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 USRUUSR1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 USRUUSR2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 USRUUSR3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 USRUUSR4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 USRUUSR5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Appendix D. Additional material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Locating the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Using the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 System requirements for downloading the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 How to use the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290vi Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  8. 8. Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 291IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 291 Other resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 291Referenced Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 292How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 292 IBM Redbooks collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 292Special notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Contents vii
  9. 9. viii Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  10. 10. Figures 1-1 Chargeback methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1-2 Chargeback links to business processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2-1 Resource Accounting Feature - Data Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2-2 Components list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2-3 Resource accounting feature component parts list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2-4 Installation Options panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2-5 Data Flow - BATCH Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2-6 Data Flow - TSO Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2-7 Data Flow - STC Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2-8 Data Flow - DB2 Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2-9 Data Flow - CICS Resource. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2-10 Data Flow - IMS Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2-11 Data Flow - DASD Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3-1 SMF / IMS Pro Image storage method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3-2 DCOLLECT storage method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3-3 TDS daily collection process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3-4 TDS Administrator Log Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3-5 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3-6 Administration panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3-7 List of tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3-8 Update Definitions panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3-9 RAFADDR_SMF30 Update Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3-10 Show Field panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3-11 Show Field panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3-12 ID_TIME expression area of update definition panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3-13 Abbreviations panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3-14 Modified abbreviations confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3-15 Update definition modification confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3-16 Long running task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4-1 AWO.exe self extracting file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4-2 InstallShield Wizard Extracting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 4-3 InstallShield Wizard welcome panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 4-4 Choose Destination Location panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4-5 InstallShield Wizard Select Type panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4-6 InstallShield Wizard Select Components panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4-7 InstallShield Start Copying Files panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4-8 InstallShield Wizard Setup Status panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4-9 Choose Setup Language panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 ix
  11. 11. 4-10 InstallShield Wizard Complete panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4-11 Windows 2000 Control Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 4-12 Windows 2000 Regional Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4-13 Windows 9x Regional Settings Properties panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4-14 Currency settings for Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4-15 How to start Accounting Workstation Option 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4-16 Start panel of Accounting Feature for the Workstation 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . 75 5-1 Overview of the AWO program files and demo directory structure . . . . 79 5-2 Directory structure of the AWO demo database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 5-3 Sample data files shipped by the AWO demo database . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5-4 Sample batch script file shipped with AWO demo database . . . . . . . . . 83 5-5 Sample export definition shipped with AWO demo database . . . . . . . . 84 5-6 Sample import definitions shipped by AWO demo database . . . . . . . . . 85 5-7 Sample SQL code files shipped with AWO demo database . . . . . . . . . 86 5-8 Start panel of Accounting Feature for the Workstation 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . 87 5-9 AWO Open Local Database panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5-10 AWO browse directory panel for local database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5-11 Accounting workstation option main panel with active icons . . . . . . . . . 89 5-12 AWO explorer opened with demo master database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5-13 AWO panel with data from ledger_active table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5-14 AWO tree menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5-15 AWO Definitions tree menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5-16 AWO local database tree menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 5-17 AWO master database tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 6-1 Accounting Feature for the Workstation Maintain menu . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 6-2 Select custom fields in the AWO main panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6-3 Custom Field definition panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 6-4 Move field GLACCT down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 6-5 Move field GLACCT up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 6-6 Custom Field panel with add function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 6-7 Editing custom field definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 6-8 Define the characteristic of a field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 6-9 Define custom field as index field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 6-10 Custom field definitions for index and ledger tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 6-11 alloc_abc table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 6-12 Select Allocation Table panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 6-13 Verify error message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 6-14 AWO info message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 6-15 Application table alloc_AC1_GLAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 6-16 Apply Allocation panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 6-17 Select Field panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 6-18 Create interims. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 6-19 Interims table created . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109x Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  12. 12. 6-20 Apply allocation ended successfully . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096-21 Active ledger table after apply allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106-22 direct_adjust table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106-23 Select Direct Charge Table panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1116-24 Create New Direct Charge Table panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126-25 Enter table name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126-26 Info message about created table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126-27 Edit the direct charge table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1136-28 Apply Direct Charge panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146-29 Info message about Create interim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146-30 Info message about created interim table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146-31 Info message about successful function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156-32 Result of apply direct charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156-33 factor_cpu table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1166-34 Create New Factor Table panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1176-35 Enter factor table name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1176-36 Info message about successful creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186-37 Insert values into factor table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186-38 Apply Factor panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1196-39 Info message about Create interim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206-40 Info message about created interim table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206-41 Info message about successful function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206-42 lookup_glacct table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216-43 Select lookup table definition function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1226-44 Select Lookup Table panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236-45 Create New Lookup Table panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236-46 Select input table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246-47 Select input field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246-48 Select output field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256-49 Mark selected output field as required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256-50 Save SQL code of lookup table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266-51 Info message about saved SQL code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266-52 Define name for lookup table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1276-53 Info message table created . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1276-54 Edit selected table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1276-55 View the lookup table definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1286-56 Enter lookup values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1296-57 rates_active table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1306-58 Rates_active table with OS/390 mapping data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1316-59 Field definitions of drlsblda.imd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1326-60 Relationship import, rate, and service category table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1336-61 Apply rates from AWO explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1346-62 Apply rates - Accounting Feature for the Workstation drop-down . . . . 135 Figures xi
  13. 13. 6-63 Create budget table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 6-64 Select Budget Table panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 6-65 Create New Budget Table panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 6-66 Enter new budget table name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 6-67 Info message about created budget table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 6-68 New created budget table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6-69 Edit custom field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6-70 monthly.mbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 7-1 The import process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 7-2 Import wizard icon in tool bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 7-3 Function import drop-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 7-4 Import Wizard panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 7-5 drlsblda.imd definition selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 7-6 Import Wizard with field definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 7-7 Import Wizard panel with target table match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 7-8 Import options panel with general tab active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 7-9 Criteria selection panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 7-10 Result of criteria selection usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7-11 Error and trace function in import options panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7-12 Browse for Folder panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 7-13 Advanced tab of import options panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 7-14 Import results for first import test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 7-15 Imported data from first import test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 7-16 Import results for second import test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 7-17 Imported data from second import test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 7-18 Ledger_active table without data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 7-19 Post option in import wizard panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 7-20 Post option panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 7-21 Ledger tab in post options panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 7-22 Post options and posting the data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 7-23 Info message about number of posted records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 7-24 Active_ledger table with posted data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 7-25 Functions drop-down menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 7-26 Post data panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 7-27 Enter new master table name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 7-28 Overview relationship import definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 7-29 Schema.ini file with definition [drlsblda.txt] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 7-30 Import definition file with field mapping definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 7-31 PR Billed Data mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 8-1 Sample setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 8-2 Master AFW database property on SQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 8-3 AWO Error: Cannot run SELECT INTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 8-4 Change AFW master database properties on SQL Server . . . . . . . . . 184xii Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  14. 14. 8-5 Create AFW user on SQL Server - Server Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1858-6 Create AFW user on SQL Server - Database Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1868-7 Create user with read access only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1878-8 Create AFW User - insert permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1888-9 Create new Local Accounting Feature for the Workstation Database . 1898-10 Create SQL Master Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1908-11 Create SQL Master Database - Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1908-12 Successful creation of new SQL Master database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1918-13 Create new Local Accounting Feature for the Workstation Database . 1928-14 Open existing SQL Master Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1928-15 Connect to existing SQL Master Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1938-16 Define PR service category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1968-17 Rates definition for service category PR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978-18 Lookup_CUSTOMER_AC1 data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2028-19 Lookup_AC2_APPLICAT data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2038-20 lookup_Service_SV_GL data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2048-21 Factor_MVS_SYS data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2058-22 Allocation table alloc_OverheadIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2068-23 Direct charge table direct_PC_rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2078-24 Rates table values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2088-25 Budget table data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2098-26 Expense table data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2109-1 AWO zip file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2149-2 Unzipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2159-3 Unzip extract drop-down list. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2169-4 Extract to folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2169-5 Windows explorer with AWO directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2179-6 Choose setup language panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2179-7 Preparing InstallShield wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2179-8 Extract panel from WinZip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2189-9 Tivoli AWO icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2189-10 Confirm file overwrite panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2199-11 View subdirectory in WinZip panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2199-12 Error during extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2209-13 Current billing period just after the first AWO start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2219-14 Misleading period field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2229-15 Enlarged period field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2239-16 Finalize active ledger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2249-17 Finalize ledger panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2249-18 Create historical ledger (lg200012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2259-19 Finalize info message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2259-20 New current billing period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2269-21 Operating system version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Figures xiii
  15. 15. 9-22 Error iKernel.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 9-23 Date format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 9-24 Import with failed function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 9-25 Create Index panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 9-26 Selecting index fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 9-27 Post options to prevent duplicate data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 9-28 Error during table creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 9-29 Selecting the Control Panel on Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 9-30 Windows 2000 Control Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 9-31 Windows 9x Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 9-32 Windows 2000 Add/Remove Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 9-33 Windows 9x Add/Remove Programs Properties panel . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 9-34 Choose Setup Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 9-35 Preparing the InstallShield Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 9-36 InstallShield Wizard Welcome panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 9-37 Confirm File Deletion panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 9-38 ReadOnly File Detected panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 9-39 InstallShield Wizard complete on Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 9-40 InstallShield Wizard complete on Windows 9x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 9-41 Add/Remove Programs Properties panel on Windows 9x . . . . . . . . . . 242 9-42 Add/Remove Programs panel on Windows 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 9-43 AWO folder with installed data files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 9-44 Confirm File Delete panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 A-1 Data Flow - OMVS resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 B-1 Lookup Tables RAF feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 B-2 Lookup Tables RAF feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 B-3 ACCOUNT Lookup table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 B-4 RAF Feature Collect with ACCOUNT and CUSTOMER lookup . . . . . 265 B-5 Prorate recalculate process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 B-6 ACCT_PRORATE table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 B-7 Job DRLJPROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 B-8 Customer Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 B-9 BILLED_DATA table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 B-10 Update definition USE_SUMMARY_D to BILLED_DATA . . . . . . . . . . 270 B-11 Update definition USE_SUMMARY_D to BILLED_DATA . . . . . . . . . . 271 B-12 PRICE_LIST lookup table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 B-13 CREDIT_DEBIT table definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 B-14 CREDIT/DEBIT Recalculate Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 B-15 Setting the billing period in credit/debit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 B-16 Setting date in credit/debit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275xiv Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  16. 16. Tables 1-1 Relationship between chargeback and business processes . . . . . . . . . . 6 1-2 Cost element types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1-3 Calculate CPU seconds rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1-4 Calculate DASD rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1-5 Calculate print rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2-1 Account Information for JES resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2-2 Account information for TSO resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2-3 Account information for STC resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2-4 Account information for DB2 resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2-5 Account information for CICS resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2-6 Account information for IMS resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2-7 Account Information From DASD Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6-1 Static fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 8-1 BILLED_DATA import structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 8-2 Custom fields definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 A-1 Account Information From OMVS Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 xv
  17. 17. xvi Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  18. 18. Preface This redbook will help you install, configure and use the Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 Accounting Feature for the Workstation. This redbook provides you with much needed information on accounting and chargeback in the OS/390 environment, starting with an overview of accounting and chargeback. The Resource Accounting Feature for Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 is presented along with considerations for setting up the Resource Accounting Feature on the host to provide accounting information to the Accounting Feature for the Workstation. The installation and setup of the Accounting Feature for the Workstation is covered in this redbook. Additionally, the components of the accounting console of the Accounting Feature for the Workstation are discussed, including topics on the resources available to you as a user of the accounting console. In preparation for performing accounting and chargeback, information is presented on the moving of accounting and billing data from the host to the workstation. To provide an overview of how the accounting and chargeback functions are performed using the Accounting Feature for the Workstation, a sample chargeback implementation is presented. You can follow the steps discussed in various parts of this redbook as they are used in an implementation of loading data an active ledger for procession on the workstation. Tivoli Performance Reporter for OS/390 was renamed Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 following the original shipment of Version 1.4. The product functions remain unchanged. For this reason, you may see the names used interchangeably.The team that wrote this redbook This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization (ITSO), Austin Center.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 xvii
  19. 19. Mike Foster is an IT Specialist at the ITSO, Austin Center, and holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Kansas. He writes extensively and teaches classes worldwide on a variety of topics, including Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390. Before joining the ITSO in 1995, he held both management and technical positions in IBM marketing and development divisions worldwide for over 25 years. Budi Darmawan is a Tivoli Specialist at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. He writes extensively and teaches IBM classes worldwide on Tivoli, DB2 databases, and OS/390. Before joining the ITSO in February 1999, he worked in IBM Global Services, Indonesia as the lead solution architect for Tivoli system management and business intelligence services. Budi is also a Tivoli Certified Instructor and a Tivoli Certified Enterprise Consultant. Joachim Fischer is a team leader at IBM Global Services Germany. He holds a electronic engineering degree from the Gerhard-Mercator University Duisburg and an economic engineering degree from the University Bochum. He joined IBM Global Services in 1994, where he has worked on accounting, chargeback, service level management, and performance management using several IBM and Tivoli Products. His area of expertise include project management and consultant activity. Ralf Krohn is an IT Specialist with IBM Global Services in Hamburg, Germany. He has worked for IBM for 28 years, with 23 years of experience in the area of performance, accounting, and chargeback. His areas of expertise include OS/390 System and subsystems, Service Level Reporter, Performance Reporter for OS/390 (renamed to Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390), accounting, and performance and capacity management. During his career, he has installed and customized reporting and accounting systems, performed migrations from Service Level Reporter to Performance Reporter for OS/390 and release to release installations. Additionally, he has developed several user defined components for use with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390. Wolfgang von Brand is a Consultant for accounting and performance measurement projects. He joined IBM in 1963 and his career has included hardware CE, SW CE for VSE, VM, CICS, and VTAM/NCP. In 1980, he became a systems engineer focusing on migrations from VSE to MVS. In 1987/88, he installed one of the first accounting systems based on SLR, tested the dpAM accounting system, and did some implementations of EPDM (later named Performance Reporter for OS/30 and now known as Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390). He teaches and implements dpAM and Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 in several countries in Europe.xviii Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  20. 20. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center Wade Wallace International Technical Support Organization, Poughkeepsie Center Robert Haimowitz Tivoli Systems Fausto Nigioni IBM System Management Project Office Performance Team Sharon Brower Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 Software Conversion Page HiteSpecial notice This publication is intended to help enterprise performance administrators and IT financial analysts install, configure, and use Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 Accounting Feature for the Workstation. The information in this publication is not intended as the specification of any programming interfaces that are provided by Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390. See the PUBLICATIONS section of the IBM Programming Announcement for Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 for more information about what publications are considered to be product documentation. Preface xix
  21. 21. IBM Trademarks The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States and/or other countries: AFS® AIX® CICS® DB2® DFS™ DRDA® e (logo)® FAA® IBM ® IBM.COM™ IMS™ Lotus® MORE™ MVS™ MVS/ESA™ MVS/XA™ Notes® OS/390® PC 300® Perform™ RACF® Redbooks™ Redbooks Logo RMF™ S/390® Sequent® System/370™ SP™ VTAM®Comments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our Redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Please send us your comments about this or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review redbook form found at ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an Internet note to redbook@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to address on Page iixx Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  22. 22. 1 Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback This chapter briefly describes accounting and chargeback as it applies to the Information Technology (IT) department in the enterprise organization. Topics included in this chapter are: Why accounting is important. Accounting system overview. What chargeback is. Chargeback influence. Steps to create a chargeback model. Planning considerations.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 1
  23. 23. 1.1 Why accounting is important Technology and technical developments have continued to bring increased capability, functionality, and complexity to the Information Technology (IT) industry. These new technologies allow for increasing involvement of IT in the day-to-day operations of the enterprise. This involvement had lead the business processes to strongly depend on IT processes. One of the key elements of the business processes is the time to market for goods and services. One of the key influences on the IT process is the decreasing technology cycle. These factors, along with the interdependency of the business and IT processes, results in an increased total cost of ownership to secure, operate, and replace IT environments. The increasing costs and interdependency of IT and business processes has resulted in increased focus by the enterprise on controlling and managing the operational costs of IT. Additionally, the enterprise has demanded the IT total cost of ownership be accurately proportioned to the business processes they support. Because of these factors, it is important that today’s IT accounting process measure and assign resource and service utilization accurately. An effective way to have IT measure, report, and charge for the IT operational costs and services is to integrate the IT accounting process with the IT measurement system. As a result, the role of IT accounting has expanded from capacity planning, resource utilization, and performance monitoring to one of measuring and charging operational costs for technical resources and end user services provided by the IT data center. Some of the main tasks of the IT accounting process are: Gathering accounting information from different sources Assigning of IT services to organizational units, such as divisions and/or departments Converting technical accounting information into understandable end user information Determining the value of provided IT services Additionally, the IT accounting process needs to be closely linked with both the Service Level Agreements (SLA) and the IT reporting process to successfully manage and charge IT related costs. The SLA, IT reporting, and accounting processes need to exchange and correlate related information to completely and correctly calculate the total IT costs of operation.2 Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  24. 24. 1.2 Accounting system overview With data processing, each department and every project produces costs. The goal of the accounting and chargeback system is to identify: Total costs for each cost categories What caused the costs Who caused the costs Distribute the cost Who to bill An essential requirement of the accounting and chargeback system is to accurately identify all costs, measure the usage and correctly distribute the costs. All resources and services must be analyzed to determine who is consuming the resource or service and what costs are associated with the resource or service so the cost can be charged. This process is not simple, and requires detailed knowledge of the systems to recognize the correct data and correctly associate the data in the accounting and chargeback system. This is the job of the IT Financial Analyst. Additionally, the goal of the IT Financial Analyst is to create an accounting and chargeback system where the user of the services can understand how the costs are related to services received and that the charges are repeatable for identical resources usage or services. An example of accounting and chargeback would be for batch processing. The cost is calculated based on direct consumption of CPU time and the SIO count, which represents the number of I/O operation. Because a batch job can be associated with a department or group, the costs can then be charged directly to them. Computer center costs occur for reasons other than direct system resource consumption, for example, personnel, building, and energy costs. These costs also require correct distribution by the accounting and chargeback system. The Accounting Feature for the Workstation, together with the Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390, aid the IT Financial Analyst in identifying resource usage and associating the costs for these resources to the receiver or user of the resource or services. Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback 3
  25. 25. 1.3 What chargeback is The main purpose of an accounting system is chargeback. Chargeback is when the cost of services provided are identified and charged to the users and recipients of the services. Without charging for the services, the process of accounting for services is of little value. The accounting system is used to discover resource usage and assign the various resource usages to different causes. By assigning a value to each resource usage, a chargeback system is developed. In addition to resource usage, the business goals for the enterprise should be taken into account in the structure of a chargeback system. The business goals to be considered for inclusion in the IT chargeback system include: Direct correlation between charges and services provided Understanding and agreements of the costs and service levels Cost reductions Target oriented services Elements of a correctly established and successfully running accounting and chargeback process include: All associated costs are identified and all costs are charged out. Charges are based on resource usage. Charges are explained in terms understandable to the charged user. Costs partly assigned to many areas are included and prorated, for example, personnel expenditures for executives and system programmers, as well as floor space and utility costs. In some cases, these prorated costs will need to be estimated if no physical measurement is available to base the prorated usage upon. As far as possible, every customer pays only for the resources they have actually used. The charged price and the calculation used to establish it must be clear, understandable, and comprehensible to the charged user. The invoice needs to show what costs and services are being charged. There are five different approaches or methods for performing chargeback, as shown in Figure 1-1 on page 5. These different levels build upon each other, starting with the simplest to implement, which is the IT department cost method, which only charges back to the enterprise.4 Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  26. 26. The most common way to chargeback to the consumers of IT services is to create a resource accounting structure and calculate the prices for each service, as shown in level 2 of the pyramid in Figure 1-1. The examples shown in this redbook are based on this level of chargeback. In refinements to your chargeback model, you might want to utilize the higher levels of chargeback accounting: Application Accounting, Functional Accounting, and Business Transaction. s ost Charging via business activity, for example, per invoice or s n Business Transaction ult per order dc (IT-Products) res an eve s es Associate transactions and user activities to chi ces n Functional Accounting functional areas within the enterprise oa pro dt ess ire n Track application usage sin equ n Track transaction volumes bu rt r Application Accounting Shared resourse usage een n ffo CPU seconds etw Lines or pages printed ge DASD allocation pb sin n Consultants and Analysis Resource Accounting n Dedicated resouce usages shi rea Networks ion Inc PCs and printers at rel n IT costs charged directly er IT Department Cost to the enterprise with no s distinction as to useage Clo Cost calculations are performed at this levelFigure 1-1 Chargeback methods1.4 Chargeback influence The IT chargeback process links to many other IT discipline and business processes. So it is important to create a structure for the chargeback concept, because the information from it has an influence on the other enterprise processes, as shown in the relationship to the business processes shown in Figure 1-2 on page 6. Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback 5
  27. 27. Figure 1-2 Chargeback links to business processes The relationships between the chargeback system and the business processes shown in Figure 1-2 are listed in Table 1-1. Table 1-1 Relationship between chargeback and business processes Business process Relationship to chargeback Business Planning Departmental understanding of IT component of business costs IT knowledge of cost-production Help for making or buying decisions Ability to evaluate IT alternatives, such as outsourcing or outtasking Management Information Cost recovery information Tracking and understanding cost increases Department budget and variance information Improved understanding of IT overhead6 Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  28. 28. Business process Relationship to chargeback Corporate Profit Low cost provider of IT services Improved analysis of market opportunities Running IT as a business Service Level Management Provide different service quality with different prices Provides negotiating leverage to IT Promotes realistic user selection of adequate service levels Capacity Planning Provides indicative or actual workload forecast Performance Management Efficient and effective use of IT resources Influences user behavior with different processes for day and night CPU second usage1.5 Steps to create a chargeback model This section gives an introduction to creating a chargeback model for IT services. The example in this section is based on the OS/390 environment as an illustration of how to realize a chargeback system. The OS/390 environment is only a part of the whole IT budget.1.5.1 Step 1: Define the measurements for charging services The IT organization is made up of services and overhead. You will need to define all of the services and overhead in your IT organization. Direct cost centers are those services that can be measured and indirect cost centers are overhead. It is important to locate those resources which can be directly measured. Examples of indirect cost centers are IT management and administration. Examples of direct cost centers and their possible measurements are: OS/390 system usage CPU seconds per user Space usage Allocated space per user Output usage Print pages per user Help Desk Number of calls Education Number of days Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback 7
  29. 29. The result of the definition is the cost element layout. Now all costs are located and it is possible to assign to a primary cost center and service cost center.1.5.2 Step 2: Cost center accounting Once you have defined your services and overhead, you need to determine their costs. Table 1-2 is an example of cost assignments for the IT organization. In the table, costs are broken down into categories and subcategories. For example, the cost of materials is divided into five areas: hardware, software, network, external, and other. The hardware is further divided into CPU, I/O & Storage, and Print with the I/O & Storage subdivided into Direct Access Storage Device (DASD), tape, and robotics. In the indirect or direct cost center columns, a $ (dollar sign) shows where a cost element (or portion) has been assigned. The dollar sign in parentheses indicates a potential cost assignment. At the end of this process, you should have identified all costs for your offered services. This table is only an example for cost center accounting and it is possible to expand the cost center or the cost element types.Table 1-2 Cost element types Row Cost element types/year Indirect Direct cost center Number cost centers 1.. n CPU DASD PARINT CPU DASD PRINT 1 1. Cost of materials 2 1.2 OS/390 hardware costs 3 1.2.1 CPU ($) $ 4 1.2.2 I/O and storage ($) $ $ $ 5 1.2.2.1 DASD ($) $ 6 1.2.2.2 Tape ($) $ 7 1.2.2.3 Tape robotic ($) $ 8 1.2.3 Printer ($) $ 9 1.3 OS/390 software costs 10 1.3.1Operating system ($) $ $ $ 11 1.3.2 Database ($) $8 Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  30. 30. Row Cost element types/year Indirect Direct cost center Number cost centers 1.. n CPU DASD PARINT12 1.3.3 Subsystem $13 1.3.4 Print software $14 1.3.5 DASD/tape software $15 1.3.6 Software development tools ($) $16 1.3.7 Standard application software $ $17 1.1 Network costs18 1.1.1 Hardware $19 1.1.2 Software $20 1.1.3 Network services $21 1.4 External cost $22 1.4.1 Desktop PCs $23 1.4.2 Phone systems $24 1.4.3 Copy services $25 1.5 Other cost26 1.5.1 Training cost $ $27 1.5.2 Other material costs28 Sum cost of materials Iines (1 to 27) $ $ $ $29 2. Personnel cost30 2.1 Management $31 2.2 System operating $ $32 2.3 Administrator $ $ $33 2.4 Programmer $34 Sum personnel cost $ $ $ $35 Sum total cost (line 29. and 34.) $ $ $ $ Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback 9
  31. 31. Row Cost element types/year Indirect Direct cost center Number cost centers 1.. n CPU DASD PARINT 36 cost distribution from indirect cost 60% 30% 10% center (line 35.) corresponding to portion of the personnel cost (line 34.) 37 Sum indirect cost center multiply $* 60% $* 30% $* 10% factor 38 Overall Costs (Line 35. and 37.) $$ $$ $$1.5.3 Step 3: Calculate direct service rates After step 2, the cost information for the year is known for the offered services. To calculate the rate, you need information about the direct services usage. In this example the next step is to calculate the monthly rate for services, such as CPU seconds, print pages, and allocated DASD. CPU rate Table 1-3 gives an example of calculating the monthly rate for CPU seconds. The costs in the far right hand column come from the information identified in Table 1-2 on page 8. The calculation of the CPU seconds per month is derived from the seconds per month times the number of processors times the utilization percentage (1,971,000 times the number of processors in this example). Finally, the CPU rate is determined by dividing the CPU cost by CPU capacity (utilized seconds per month). Table 1-3 Calculate CPU seconds rate CPU capacity Seconds/ Contributing cost Cost month elements ($/ Month) Number of processor n Hardware CPU $$ Hours per day 24 Minutes 60 Operating system $$ Seconds 60 Database software $$ Days per year 365 / 12 Personal costs $$ Utilization (%) 75 Apportionment of $$ indirect costs10 Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  32. 32. CPU capacity Seconds/ Contributing cost Cost month elements ($/ Month) = CPU second per month n *1,971,000 = Cost per month $$ (n * 24 * 60 * 60 *365 / 12) Note: The cost rate for CPU seconds is: Cost per month ($) / CPU seconds per month.DASD rateThe example given in Table 1-4 calculates the monthly rate for DASD usage. Thecosts in the far right hand column come from the information identified inTable 1-2 on page 8. The calculation of the DASD capacity per month is derivedfrom the installed DASD times the utilization percentage (80 percent in thisexample). Finally the DASD rate is determined by DASD cost divided by DASDcapacity (GBs per month).Table 1-4 Calculate DASD rate DASD capacity GBs Contributing cost Cost elements ($/ Month) Installed DASD 100 GB Hardware DASD $$ Operating system $$ DASD management $$ software Personnel costs $$ Utilization (%) 80 Apportionment of $$ indirect costs = DASD capacity per 80 GBs = Cost per month $$ month (100 * 80%) Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback 11
  33. 33. Note: The cost rate for DASD is: Cost per month ($) / DASD GBs. Print rate The example given in Table 1-5 calculates the monthly rate for Print usage. The costs in the far right hand column come from the information identified in Table 1-2 on page 8. The calculation of the print capacity per month is derived from the number of installed host printers times the print capacity per hour times the number of work hours times the number of work days per month times the utilization percentage (2,112,000 print pages per month). Finally, the Print rate is determined by Print cost divided by Print capacity (pages per month). Table 1-5 Calculate print rate Print page capacity Pages per Cost element types Cost month ($/ Month) Number of system laser 2 Hardware $$ printer (PRT1, PRT2) Print capacity (page/hour) 4.400 Work days per month 20 Print software $$ Work hours per day 16 Personnel costs $$ Utilization (%) 75 Apportionment of $$ indirect costs = Print capacity 2,112,000 = Cost per month $$ (2 * 4.400 * 20 * 16 * 75%) Note: The cost rate for Print pages is: Cost per month ($) / Print capacity. Additional considerations The examples in this section may need to be expanded to reflect the requirement in your environment. Some additional areas you may want to consider include: Further differentiations can be made between workloads on your system, such as distinguishing between day or night shifts or between job classes (such as batch and hot batch). A differentiation between DASD and tape is only necessary if the customer can choose to store their data on DASD or tape. Many IT departments use storage management software to control storage usage on DASD and tape. In this case, it makes no sense to have different prices, because the customer can not choose their storage medium. If the customer works with special DASD or tape units, then these resources can be billed as recurrent charges.12 Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  34. 34. Most remote workstation printers are charged directly to the using department and are not normally included in the cost of host printing. Line printer usage or microfiche creation may be considered as an additional service. The example in this section utilizes head count has been used to determine overhead distribution. This distribution method may be simpler than what is needed in your environment, but a more detailed discussion of overhead loading techniques is beyond the scope of this redbook.1.6 Planning consideration When planning an accounting and chargeback system, there are several issues that must be considered. Issues likely to have an impact on the implementation include: Audit of departmental charges Generation of accounting data provides information about detailed IT center usage by each individual department. Understandable units of work The output of an accounting system needs to show the usage of the IT center resources in a way that is understood by non-IT professionals. This may require the showing of usage in terms related to the business unit being charged. One universal term is money, compared to IT terms, such as CPU-seconds or MB per day. Allow IT to influence user behavior The introduction of information for different, changing schemes may force users to use cheaper resources where possible and reduce overloading more expensive machines. For example, an overnight batch job may be charged less than a peak time batch, so the user may choose to run most of their batch work during off-peak periods. Easy and economical to handle The accounting and chargeback system must be implemented while taking both the IT and finance organization into consideration. It is useless to invest $1000 to do a detailed chargeback of a $1 resource. Changes to an accounting rule Any changes in the accounting system should normally take effect at the beginning of an new chargeback cycle. This can be a new month or even a new year, depending the needs of the business. Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback 13
  35. 35. An accounting/chargeback system will only be as accurate as the input data you receive from all sources.1.7 Important concepts This section provides some important concepts that must be understood in order to implement an accounting system. These are: Naming conventions To set up an accounting system, it is important to provide a unique name that can be interrelated with the user who received the service from the IT department. So it is necessary to define a naming convention for the Job name, the Account ID, TSO user ID, Terminal-Name, and data set names. Only unique names should be provided. Each usage measured must be interrelated to a unique account. Accounting IDs The account ID is the smallest part of the accounting system to locate the usage of resources. During the planning cycle, these IDs must be defined or, if it already exists, the structure must be documented. All tasks must be connected to an account ID and may be connected to a customer ID. The customer ID is an aggregate accounting ID and normally the receiver of the final bill. A customer ID may be connected to one or more account IDs. Cost center A cost center is an entity where we can charge for a collection of resource usage. A cost center is typically associated with a department or project for which a specific account ID or customer ID are allocated. Forecast In IT accounting, it is not easy to predict the consumption and usage of IT resources at the beginning of the year. However, this information is necessary for budgeting purposes. Thus, it is necessary to calculate or forecast some of the usage of these resources. There are two ways to do this: an estimate or a projection based on historic usage data. The Accounting Workstation Option of TDS/390 uses mathematical methods to create a forecast based on historic usage data. This forecast prevents seasonal fluctuations (vacation, year-end work, and so on), which can be considerable. On the other hand, such a forecast requires a series of usage data, which means that the first projections will certainly hold sway.14 Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  36. 36. NormalizationSome of the resources may need to be normalized, for example, CPU usage.A faster CPU may accomplish a job quicker, which mean less CPU time. Forexample, a job might run for 10 seconds on CPU-1, but run for five secondson CPU-2, which is quicker. Without normalization, the job will be accountedat half price for running at CPU-2, which is faster (and therefore should beaccounted as more expensive). A normalization factor should be accounted,so a job running at CPU-2 will get a normalization factor of, for example, 2.1.This means that a job running on CPU-2 for five seconds will be charged 10.2seconds for CPU time. Chapter 1. Overview of accounting and chargeback 15
  37. 37. 16 Accounting and Chargeback with Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390
  38. 38. 2 Chapter 2. Resource accounting feature This chapter briefly describes the Tivoli Decision Support for OS/390 Version 1.5 Resource Accounting Feature (RAF). It includes the following: RAF data flow RAF subcomponents RAF lookup and control tables RAF security settings RAF update flow by subcomponent© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 17

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