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Socialization
Socialization
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Socialization

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social science study in management

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  • 1. Chapter 4 Socialization Presented by: Bunyamin Najmi Email: bunyaminnajmi@gmail.com Blog: www.bandungraya.blogspot.com MSM Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • 2. Schools can be stressful. Schoolchildren in Japan can call a hotline and receive advice concerning stress, bullying by classmates, and corporal punishment from their teacher.
  • 3. Socialization Definition: Is the process through which people learn attitudes, values, and actions appropriate for members of a particular culture
  • 4. Socialization In this chapter will focus on the socialization experience of group child care for young children
  • 5. What makes us who we are?
  • 6. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION Traditionally Nature, Nurture, Heredity Environment
  • 7. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION Nature Our character is innate—genetically determined Nurture Our character is developed through social interaction
  • 8. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION Today: How heredity and environmental factors interact and influence the socialization process
  • 9. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION Social Environment: The Impact of Isolation In 1994 based on true story movie Nell, Jodie Foster played a young woman hidden from birth by mother in a backwoods cabin.
  • 10. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION Social Environment: The Impact of Isolation Raised without normal human contact, Nell crouches like an animal, screams wildly, and speaks or sings in a language of her own.
  • 11. The case of Isabelle The painful of Isabelle is too real. For the six years of her life she lived in the darkened room.
  • 12. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabelle 6 years of Isabelle’s live: • Lived in darkened room •Little contact with other people
  • 13. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabelle When discovered at age six Isabelle: • Could not speak •Make a various croaking sounds •Communication with simple gesture
  • 14. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabelle •Strong fear of stranger •Reacted almost like wild animal •Became accustomed, extreme apathy •Test maturity: level of an infant
  • 15. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabella Specialist developed a systematic training program for Isabelle adapt to human relationships and socialization
  • 16. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabella Training program for Isabelle: • After a few days: she made her first attempt to verbalize • Quickly passed through six years of development • Over two months she was speaking in complete sentences
  • 17. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabella Training program for Isabelle (cont’d): • 9 months later she could identify both words and sentences • Before reached the age of nine, she ready to go to school with other children • By her 14 year she was in sixth grade, doing well in school, and emotionally well-adjusted
  • 18. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabella Without opportunity to experience socialization in her first six years: • Hardly human in the social sense • Inability to communicate
  • 19. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabella Isabelle’s experience is important for researchers because it is one of only few cases of children reared in total isolation
  • 20. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabelle Recently attention focused on infants and young children in orphanages in the formerly communist countries of Eastern Europe
  • 21. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabella For Example: In Romanian, orphanages babies lies on their cribs for 18-20 hours a day receiving little adult care
  • 22. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabelle • Many of them fearful of human contact • Prone to unpredictable antisocial behavior
  • 23. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabelle The researchers emphasizing the important of early socialization experiences for children who grow up in more normal environment
  • 24. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The case of Isabelle It is not enough to care for an infant’s physical needs; parents must also concern themselves with children’s social development.
  • 25. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION Primate Studies Harry Harlow(1971) Studies of animals raised in isolation: Infants monkeys developed greater social attachments from their need for warmth, comport, and intimacy than from their need for milk
  • 26. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION Primate Studies • Heredity can be dismissed as a factor in the social development of humans and animals • Studies of twins provide insight into fascinating interplay between hereditary and environmental factors
  • 27. THE INFLUENCE OF HEREDITY Identical twins Oskar Stohr and Jack Yufe: • Oscar raised as a member of Hitler Youth movement Nazi Germany • Jack reared by Jewish father
  • 28. THE INFLUENCE OF HEREDITY Minnesota twin family: • Pair of identical twins • Reared apart • To determine what similarities if any: in personality traits, behavior & Intelligence
  • 29. THE INFLUENCE OF HEREDITY Minnesota twin family, result: 1. Both genetic factor & socialization experience are influential in human development 2. Similarities: temperaments, voice pattern, nervous habits, leadership, dominance (heredity) 3. Differences: attitudes, values, chosen mates & drinking habits, need for intimacy, comfort, assitance (environment)
  • 30. THE INFLUENCE OF HEREDITY Notes: This research based on small sample and preliminary analysis The researchers had to retract their conclusions after they increase the sample and reclassified two of the original cases
  • 31. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION The self: a distinct identity that sets up apart from others
  • 32. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION Sociological Approach to the self Cooley: Looking-Glass Self Charles Horton Cooley (1990s): We learn who we are by interacting with others (looking-glass self)
  • 33. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION Sociological Approach to the self Cooley: Looking-Glass Self 3 phases of self concept: • We imagine how we present ourselves to others • We imagine how other evaluate us • We develop some sort of feeling about ourselves
  • 34. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION Sociological Approach to the self Cooley: Looking-Glass Self The result of individual imagination produce incorrect perceptions: • The teacher criticized her/him • The teacher must think he/she’s stupid • He/ She is stupid
  • 35. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Stage of the self SYMBOL: Raising One’s eyebrow
  • 36. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Stage of the self In North America means: astonishment, doubt In Peru means: money, pay me In Pacific Island, Tonga means: yes, or I agree
  • 37. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Stage of the self 3 distinct stages: 1. The preparatory stage 2. The play stage 3. The game stage
  • 38. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Stage of the self The preparatory stage: • Children merely imitate the people around them • Grow older adept using symbols (gesture, objects and word from the basic human communication
  • 39. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Stage of the self The play stage: • To pretend to be other people • Role taking: the process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint
  • 40. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Stage of the self The game stage: • Not just plays roles but begins to consider several actual task and relationship • Grasp not only their own socials but also those of other around them
  • 41. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Theory of the Self The self begins at privileged, central position in a person’s world
  • 42. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Theory of the Self Generalized others: attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child take into account in his or her behavior
  • 43. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Mead : Theory of the Self Significant others: those individuals who are most important in development of the self
  • 44. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Goffman: Presentation of the Self It uses the imagery of the theatre in order to portray the importance of human – namely, social – action.
  • 45. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Goffman: Presentation of the Self According to Goffman, the social actor has the ability to choose his stage and props, as well as the costume he would put on in front of a specific audience.
  • 46. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Goffman: Presentation of the Self Impression Management: altering of the presentation of the self
  • 47. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Goffman: Presentation of the Self Dramaturgical approach: • People resemble performers in action • Argued that human actions are dependent upon time, place, and audience http://en.wikipedia.org
  • 48. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Sociological Approach to the self Goffman: Presentation of the Self Face-work: drawn attention to another aspect of the self
  • 49. Sociology on Campus ` 4.1 IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT BY STUDENT • All received high grades (ace-ace) • Received high & low grades (ace –bomber) • All received low grades (bomber-bomber)
  • 50. Sociology on Campus ` 4.1 IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT BY STUDENT • All received low grades (bomber-bomber): • Tend to be closed • Share disappointment and engage in mutual self-pity (pity party) • Excuses for their poor performance
  • 51. Sociology on Campus ` 4.1 IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT BY STUDENT • Received high & low grades (ace-bomber) • Sensitive • Attempt to avoid such exchanges • When forced with aces bombers gracious and congratulatory
  • 52. Sociology on Campus ` 4.1 IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT BY STUDENT • Received high & low grades (ace-bomber) • Sensitive • Attempt to avoid such exchanges • When forced with aces bombers gracious and congratulatory
  • 53. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Sigmund Freud (1856-1939 : the self is social product and that aspects of one’s personality are influenced by other people (especially: parents). The self has components that work in opposition to each other.
  • 54. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Jean Piaget: emphasized the stages through which human progress as the self develops
  • 55. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Research on newborn baby by Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
  • 56. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Newborns have not yet separated themselves from the universe which they are apart
  • 57. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self As they are mature, children are gradually socialized into social relationships
  • 58. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Cognitive theory of development Piaget (1954) identified 4 stages:
  • 59. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self 1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational 3. Concrete operational 4. Formal operational
  • 60. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Sensorimotor (0-2) • Exploration through the body • Object permanence • Emotional attachment to a significant few
  • 61. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Preoperational (2-7) • Use of language • Imagination • Egocentric
  • 62. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Concrete Operational (7-11) • Logical reasoning • Concrete thinking • Traits of objects are conserved even when their shape changes
  • 63. THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION ` Psychological Approaches to the self Formal Operational (12 to adult) • Abstract thinking develops • Problem solving and consideration of consequences begins
  • 64. SOCIALIZATION & THE LIFE COURSE The Life Course ` A life course approach: look closely to the social factors that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death.
  • 65. SOCIALIZATION & THE LIFE COURSE The Life Course ` Several life events mark the passage to adulthood. These turning points vary from one society and even generation to the next
  • 66. ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION & RESOCIALIZATION ` Anticipatory socialization: processes of socialization in which person “rehearses” for future positions, occupations and social relationships
  • 67. ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION & RESOCIALIZATION ` Resocialization: processes to discarding former behavior pattern and accepting new ones as part of transition in part life
  • 68. ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION & RESOCIALIZATION ` Erving Goffman (1961) coined the term of total institution to refer to an institution such as a prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a convent under a single authority
  • 69. AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION ` Agents of Socialization: 1. Family 2. Education/Schools 3. Peer Group 4. Mass Media & Technology 5. Workplace 6. The State
  • 70. AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION ` Family 1. Cultural influences 2. The impact of race and gender
  • 71. AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION ` Education/School 1. Fulfill of teaching children become capable of increasing their intelectual physical and social ability 2. Teaching the Values and customs of the larger society
  • 72. AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION ` Peer Group • Enjoy similar social status • Can assert himself/herself • Can be the source of harassment
  • 73. Tabel 4-3 High School Popularity What makes high school girls popular According to college According to college men women Physical attractiveness Grades/intelligence Grades/intelligence Participation in sport Participation in sport General sociability General sociability Physical attractiveness Popularity with boys Clothes
  • 74. Tabel 4-3 High School Popularity (cont’d) What makes high school boys popular According to college According to college men women Participation in sport Participation in sport Grades/intelligence Grades/intelligence Popularity with girls General sociability General sociability Physical attractiveness Car School clubs/government
  • 75. AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION ` Mass Media & Technology • Radio, motion picture, recorded music, TV, Internet etc • Not always negative influence
  • 76. AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION ` The State • Government growing impact on the life course • By reinstituting rite of passage that had disappear • Become provider of child care etc
  • 77. AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION ` Workplace • More and more young people work today • Teenage employment in US is the highest among industrial country
  • 78. Summary • Socialization affect overall cultural practices • Heredity and environmental factors influencing socialization • As a primary agents of socialization parents play critical role • Schools have an explicit mandate to socialize people • More and more mothers of young children have entered the labor market, the demand for child care has increased dramatically

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