Mass tourism in historic cities, the role of civil organizations in the case of Malaga, Spain
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Mass tourism in historic cities, the role of civil organizations in the case of Malaga, Spain



Malaga is the administrative capital of the Costa del Sol, however, it has remained out of the mass tourism ...

Malaga is the administrative capital of the Costa del Sol, however, it has remained out of the mass tourism
until the last decade. Coinciding with the obsolescence of the port facilities, the city has found an
opportunity in cruise tourism, becoming the second largest Spanish destination in this sector. The main
attractive of Malaga is being the birthplace of one of the most revolutionary painters, Pablo Picasso;
developing a large program for museums and hotels openings, cultural events and urban projects over the
last few years in order to create an atmosphere suitable for all visitors’ tastes. On the other hand, this
process is also creating monofunctional sectors, gentrification and theming of the principal Historic Site
areas. This implies to focus on restoration plans and on projecting an image according to the one that
tourists expect to see. In this context, several civil organizations have been formed to denounce heritage
losses, social marginality and identity simplification through collaborative works that join web 2.0,
participative cartography and academic research. We present a selection of these works.



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    Mass tourism in historic cities, the role of civil organizations in the case of Malaga, Spain Mass tourism in historic cities, the role of civil organizations in the case of Malaga, Spain Document Transcript

    • MASS TOURISM IN HISTORIC CITIES. THE ROLE OF THE CIVIL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE CASE OFMALAGA, SPAINDaniel BARRERA FERNANDEZHigh Technical School of Architecture, University of Seville, SpainE-mail: barrera@arquired.esABSTRACTMalaga is the administrative capital of the Costa del Sol, however, it has remained out of the mass tourismuntil the last decade. Coinciding with the obsolescence of the port facilities, the city has found anopportunity in cruise tourism, becoming the second largest Spanish destination in this sector. The mainattractive of Malaga is being the birthplace of one of the most revolutionary painters, Pablo Picasso;developing a large program for museums and hotels openings, cultural events and urban projects over thelast few years in order to create an atmosphere suitable for all visitors’ tastes. On the other hand, thisprocess is also creating monofunctional sectors, gentrification and theming of the principal Historic Siteareas. This implies to focus on restoration plans and on projecting an image according to the one thattourists expect to see. In this context, several civil organizations have been formed to denounce heritagelosses, social marginality and identity simplification through collaborative works that join web 2.0,participative cartography and academic research. We present a selection of these works.KEYWORDSTourism, heritage, participation.INTRODUCTION. TOURIST ADEQUACY OF THE HISTORIC CITY, THE CASE OF MALAGAMalaga is the administrative capital of the Costa del Sol, however, it have remained out of the masstourism until the last decade, when several actions have been taken to adapt its Historic Site Areas to anurban tourism destination. This process considers interventions like numerous museums openings,associate uses implantation, urban renewal for pedestrian visit, the port remodelling, interventions in builtheritage or the cultural policies that have focused on trying to achieve the title of The European Capital ofthe Culture, among others. The present work studies the context that takes place, the reasons, the agents,the different instruments that are applied, the functioning of the process and the consequences thatappear concerning the different aspects that affect the city, in this paper we focus on the socialimplications and on the civil movements that are studying the process and proposing alternatives.Malaga has consolidated as tthe main arrival gate in the Costa del Sol, specially thanks to the airport thatis immersed in an important extension. The city has turned into distribution center of the tourists towardsAndalusia thanks to the improvement of other means of transport, specially highways and trains, withspecial attention to high speed trains. This fact supposes an opportunity for the city to catch the visitorsimportant flow that comes and goes but till now the city could scarcely retain.On the other hand, the presence of Sun and Sand tourism is very little in this city, due principally to thecomplete urbanization of the shore. Coinciding with the obsolescence of the port facilities, the city hasfound an opportunity in cruise tourism, becoming the second largest Spanish destination in this sector justbehind Barcelona. Cruise passengers are experiencing an important increase and have a different profilethan other visitors, their principal feature is to dedicate only a few hours to visiting their destination, so itbecomes necessary to concentrate the attractions and the auxiliary activities in a very limited tour.Because of that, resources presented to the tourists are a few group of monuments and spacesconcerning Picassos figure, establishing a thematic or proximity connecion.
    • Diverse agents, resources and policies are involved in developing the new urban tourism destination.Among the agents we can find public administrations and private entities from different levels: municipal,regional, state and European. The agents are in charge of the different plans, programs, projects, actionsand instruments that are globally included in policies. These include culture and heritage, tourism,urbanism and regional planning. We are going to mention only the European policies directly related to thetransformations that have been carried out in the city.In cultural matter stands out the European Capital of Cuture action. It has its origin in Mélina Mercourisinitiative to the Council of the European Union in June 1985. The current phase is born of the1419/1999/CE Decision of the European Parliament, modified by the 1622/2006/CE Decision of theEuropean Parliament and of the Council of the European Union. A great number of cities aim to be namedEuropean Capital of Culture due to its media repercussion, the development of culture and tourism andthe recognition on part of the inhabitants of the importance of the designation of their city. Malaga tried tobe designated in 2016, but finally it was rejected last September.In urban development subject, the European Territorial Strategy refers to the cities attractive for tourismdevelopment but it also warns of the danger that supposes mass tourism, cultural commercialization anduniformity that destroy the individuality and the identity of cities, land speculation or oversizedinfrastructures projects in relation to the environment.From the analysis of the different policies we distinguish three common aspects, such as patrimonialselection, the relation between urban local marketing and urban tourism and the widespread presence ofthe Beaubourg effect, we are going to explain them briefly.Regarding the patrimonial selection, the attention is focused in some objects and others are dismissed.Thus, in the last five years period it has increased considerably the number of those elements that havebeen given the maximum protection and the investments center principally in those who have beendeclared Monument and that suppose a tourist attraction. On the other hand, substitution, degradation ordemolition are common in the rest of cultural heritage, even in the case of juridically protected ones: i.e.interior emptying, plot addition, extension of the façadism phenomenon, complete historic streets andblocks occupation, demolitions of protected buildings, construction of car parks in zones with greatpresence of archaeological remains and insertion of volumes that break with the historic configuration ofthe city.Related to the urban local marketing, the presence of monumental heritage, to be an attractive toursitdestination and the cultural character are taken as an advantage and are promoted by the strategies ofurban marketing since they help to create a more competitive city in attracting investments. By thesemeans we explain the sense of a series of projects of great media impact that are not clearly tourist andmuch less suppose a cultural improvement for the residents, though they are related to both. The symbolicspaces of the historic city are used as advertising support of these expositions and shelter thearchitectures, settings and events that can transmit this message in a clearer way.And finally, the Beaubourg effect, called this way in reference to the impact that had the opening of theCentre Pompidou in Paris Beaubourgs neighbourhood. In Spain it is known as Guggenheim effect due tothe similar scope that had the inauguration of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. It is common to callinternationally known architects for developing these projects and the result is usually an aestheticallyinteresting intervention, often hiding the destroy of the patrimonial values that they involve. These projectsare justified in a supposed renewing capacity of degraded zones. The Beaboug effect has impregnatedthe orientation of public policies and is visible in all areas like museums, hotels, public spaces, housing,infrastructures and others.Public policies and creation of tourist resources are leading to a series of consequences in the historic citythat we have included in theming, this could be related to heritage, residents, land-uses and culturalintegrity.
    • Patrimonial theming supposes fixing the attention in the objects that more enriche the tourist visit, normallythat of more eye-catching character like painted façades or archaeological remains. It has also anomnipresent immaterial connotation, such as the association of Malaga with Picasso. Patrimonial themingcarries in some cases historic simplification because only a few periods are selected, it is common toabuse of restorations or even recreations and other types of heritage tend to be excluded such asindustrial or port heritage. Moreover, an aesthetic standarized criterion is assumed in urban renovations,known as beautification, that provokes urban spaces to be designed in order to please touristpreconceptions instead of their adequacy to the city’s patrimonial values.By residential theming we mean to the population emptying and its substitution for persons with majorrevenue, known as gentrification. The economic capacity selection has joined one that focuses on the wayof life or profession. In this way, projects of public initiative destined to craftsmen and young culturalworkers are in course of approval.Land-uses theming refers to activities substitution and to the creation of wide zones of touristmonofunctionality, where intervenes the proliferation of primary resources, fundamentally museums andassociate activities. Outstanding is the implantation of great capacity hotels often without taking intoconsideration the surroundings where they are located and restaurants and souvenirs shops that tend tooccupy all the commercial areas and even the public streetsRegarding museums, there are about to be 29of them in the Historic Site. Two in special: the Picasso Museum and the Thyssen Museum, have createdauthentic neighborhoods-museums on having included several buildings, blocks and streets.Cultural integrity theming is related to the exaltation of some cultural manifestations in the historic city andthe creation of a great amount of new ones. Among them stands the Spanish Cinema Festival due to itsmedia impact. This process also implies actors creation as an extra attraction, some of them are based ontraditional professions such as biznagueros and almonds sellers.MAPPING THE PROCESS. CARTACThe Cartac (Tactical Cartographies) group has been analyzing different situations and consequencesduring several years thanks to participative cartographies. The group has been working in the world ofmaps and in the field of social investigation. We pursue to take advantage from the possibility that mapshave to transmit social denounce and the oportunity that they offer to reveal situations of social injustice.Thus, makers are shown and Internet users are turned into cartographers. We want to explore in a non-hierarchical way the possibilities that cartographies offer as a transfroming tool of the territory where welive.We understand cartography as the science that studies the procedures in obtaining information on thetracing of the territory, for its later technical and artistic representation, and maps, as one of thepredominant systems of communication of territory. Cartac considers territory not only as a geographicalspace but also as a habitat composed by multiple lyers (social, cultural, economic, artistic, ecological,political...)Thanks to the rapid extension of the means and tools that are destined to the communication, the relationbetween the spoken and written language and the images has become closer. It is taking place arevolution of great interest for our own cartographic practices. Information management becomesaccessible to a great number of persons and phenomena that before were non-existent or of small scaletake place thanks to web 2.0.Cartography is understood not only as a representation technology, but also in a way that anyone could bea cartographer and so take part actively in the construction of their territory. We propose an instrument tothe service of the citizenship to visualize conflicts and to generate changes which improve all thedenounced situations.
    • WORKING PHASESSocial cartography is a new and alternative methodology that allows communities to know and to developan integral knowledge of their territory in order to choose a better way of living it. Among the diversity ofmaps that can be produced, conflict maps represent (through images, icons, texts, etcetera) problematicsituations that are normally hidden on purpose. The steps that we follow to design a conflict map are: - Diagnosis phase: information extraction (through drifts, workshops, interviews, discussion groups, observations, documents analysis). - Cartographic production phase: transmission of information to a map in digital format, paper, video, etcetera (throuh icons, colors, legends...). - Return phase: acknowledgement of conflicts studying their iterconnections (through debates and workshops).In the capture of information phase we use drifts, it is a concept principally proposed by the situationists,which means to have a walk without specific aim, usually in a city, which follows casual inspiration. Driftsare like exploration walks that can be done individually or in groups and that are opposite to the tourists’way of proceeding. Tourists travel to a destination without caring on how they come to place, they aremostly interested in velocity and comfort, they must cover a fixed tour according to a strict temporaryplanning. On the other hand, for drifters the essential part is precisely the tour, the point of destination hasno importance, just living, enjoying and taking advantage of the walk. For this goal it is necessary to rejectcertain habits and get carried away by the circumstances, deciding what direction or what activity is betterevery moment.Before making a drift it is interesting to think on the subjects to explore, the mean of transport and thezones to visit, since the most interesting places are those not prepared as tourists’ scenes. An interestingoption is to drift in small groups (no more than five persons) distributing tasks, using the same group todiscuss the different situations. Besides, it is useful to take photo or video cameras, tape recorders, maps,and notebooks to write down and do some sketches and a bag to keep some objects in, etcetera. Oneperson can act as a journalist, an anthropologist, a town planner, an archeologist, a geographer or asociologist too.EXAMPLE 1. WORKSHOP: WHAT MAPS DON’T TELLFollowing the mentioned methodology, we organised the workshop "what maps don’t tell. Construction ofparticipative cartographies with wikimaps", in collaboration with the International University of Andalusia.For this purpose, participants walked along the streets of the Historic Site of Malaga with a descriptiveand analytical view, to document through photography, video and texts the different situations latelyreflected in the wikimap created during the workshop.In the transfer of information phase we had the help of an open code IT tool called Meipi. We can define ameipi as a participative space where users can put information on a map, this can refer to a place or to atopic. The maps so created can be useful for collaborative dynamics, workshops, associations,companies, groups of friends and artistic actions since users can directly link multimedia files(photography, video or sound with an exact place of the city, share the personal impressions, the storiesand the landscapes perceived by the different users.All meipis possess a title and an own Internet address and begin with a description. The meipi is orderedby categories and inside them different entries are created. Each one refers to a place in the space, has atextual description and photographs or other multimedia files. A great advantage of meipi is that allauthorized persons can edit the entries and any user can leave a comment. The running is similar to ablog. Entries are provided with tags, that allow a faster search when the complexity increases and theestablishment of horizontal groups between entries of different categories.
    • The results of the investigation can be given to the participants back in a graphical way. Meipi uses thebase of Google Maps, but there is a current effort to start using Open Street Maps. All the informationcontained in a meipi can be visualized in four different views: map, list, categories, mosaic.- Map: the uploaded entries are shown with a geographical reference.- List: the entries are ordered by the date when they were created. They can also be ordered by votes.- Categories: the last entries from each category are shown by columns.- Mosaic: the uploaded images are organized by the user, creating mosaics that can be saved.In the meipi that was developed in the workshop we took into account aspects like tourism, commerce,housing, mobility, economy, land revenue and real-estate operations, building conservation, urbanspaces, infrastructures and senses, among others. The map created was used to show the great contrastbetween the lack of public spaces in Malaga city center and the great quantity of houses in ruins andvoids.EXAMPLE 2. MÁLAGATURISMOAnother relevant work done by us in collaboration with the University of Seville is gping to be explained.The purpose was to identify those elements that show the functional transformations of the historic city toadapt it to a urban tourism destination.The working process was divided in preparatory phase, capture of information, transfer of information,presentation and extraction of conclusions. In the phase of capture of information we made a tour acrossthe streets and public spaces and we wrote down every element’s location, name, references and wetook some photographs. We distinguished activities carried out in protected patrimonial buildings andspaces.In this case, we created four categories, and each of the elements was registered as an entry. Capture ofinformation and transfer of information process have been systematized and entries have always thesame structure, tags are used as a descriptor of entries from different categories. 404 entries were madein total, constituting the second work of this type for number of elements, after the one from the studentsof the School of Architecture of the University of Granada.Entries work like files and follow the following structure: - Name of the element. - Category. Basic classification. - Tag. It is useful to create subgroups and distinguish common features of elements belonging todifferent categories. - Photography of the element. - Small description. - Urban protection (if there is any). If the plot is included in the Historic Site limits or in the area of the CityCenter’s Protection Plan. - Conservation Area. If the plot is located in a protected surrounding of a Site included in the AndalusianHeritage Inventory.- Architectural protection. It specifies the typology and the architectural degree of protection (if there isany), according to the Local Heritage Inventory or the Andalusian one. - Other comments. Particular features related to the conservation, author, etceteraIn the phase of presentation of information we have designed different plans depending on the differentelements and conclusions. The resultant information has been divided into hotels, shops and restaurants,mobility, information in pedestrian routes, urban scene, safety, waste management and Picassoreferences.A) Hotels. Classified into three groups depending on their category. A total of 42 establishments havebeen studied in the Historic Site. We have distinguished the ones that take part of buildings with legal
    • protection. Hotels’ establishment, specially for great capacity ones, is usually being carried withoutrespecting the architectural or urban values of the spaces where they are built. One of the most dramaticcase is the hotel projected for the area known as Hoyo de Esparteros, where they are trying to occupy ahistoric street, to add several plots and blocks, to demolish a protected building, to double the maximumheight of the zone and to build an underground four storey-car park in an area with a huge presence ofarchaeological remains.B) Shops and restaurants. Divided into three groups: gifts shops, tourist restaurants and traditional shopsadapted to the tourist use. The third group is the one for neighbourhood establishments that offerproducts consumed by the local population as well as products mainly for visitors. This category gives usan idea of the expansion zones which implies the tourist movement. In case of the hotels, we havedistinguished those buildings that have any type of patrimonial protection. We have analyzed 120 placesin total in the Historic Site. Tourist shops and restaurants tend to concentrate in limited areas and give usan approximate idea of the historic sector mostly used by visitors. They converge in axes and nodes andcreate whole monofunctional sectors, this is more evident in the case of gifts shops.C) Mobility. We have analyzed the different means of transports that are used by tourists, locals or both,their stops and the routes across the Historic Site.D) Information in pedestrian routes. Registration of the location of the tourist street signs that indicate theresources, street plans and tourist information points. We have identified 127 elements in total. Theirlocation give us an aproximate idea of the pedestrian routes that are currently in use and of those thatare wanted to be used by the local government. It also stands out the variety of designs and theirconcentration around a zone or a resource. These factors cause visitors’ confussion instead of helpingthem to orientate.E) Urban scene. This categoy is divided into stage and actors. In the first group we have studied thepedestrianized areas and the reurbanized ones, beautification initiatives like wall poems, contemporarysculptures, singular furniture, artistic lighting. We have also analyzed initiatives that show or even rebuildsome patrimonial elements like painted façades and the muslim wall. As actors we have studied thelocation of almond sellers and street artists. The concentration of these persons coincides with the zoneswith a major tourist activities density.F) Safety. We have analyzed the CCTV surveyed area. This coincides with the broader streets of theHistoric Site which are once more the most significant tourist route.G) Waste management. Study of the location of 38 underground waste containers. These elements havebeen chosen because their implantation was made in the period of the tourist transformation of theHistoric Site. They are fixed in a place and show which areas are wanted to be more attractive. Theirdistribution coincides with the highest density of tourist activities and the new tourist zones. There is ahuge contrast between the improvement of waste management in these areas and the one observed inthe degraded boundaries.H) Picasso references. As we were advancing in the capture of information, we have stated that the figureof the painter occupies a preferential place in tourist guides, plans, routes and policies of all kinds. Wewanted to verify if Picassos prominence in these means was reflected in the lived cityso we analyzed atotal amount of 24 indications. On the whole, these references have a reclaim function for visitors,opposite to the lack of signs that we can find in the spaces mainly frequented by the local population.
    • CONCLUSIONSWorking with participative cartographies allowed us to have a simultaneous vision of the location,description and image of each one of the elements. It was possible to establish connections between thedifferent aspects and we could include changes as the work was developing and circumstances changed,since the study of the tourist activity in the city is a process always in transformation.The spatial concentration of visitors and tourist activities reflects the selection process that supposes theurban tourism phenomenon around a small area of the Historic Site and a few patrimonial elements. Thisselective process demonstrates the different application of the cultural, urban and tourist policies in thedifferent neighbourhoods, depending on their interest as a touristical resource.In addition, the selective process gives place to a series of consequences concerning different aspects ofthe the city that we have included in theming, which affect to the management of architectural and urbanheritage, the residents, land uses and cultural integrity of the city.Participative cartography allows citizens to elaborate maps related to their worries. In them they cantransfer all the material and immaterial factors that they observe without intermediaries. This methodologyallows to take decisions on the basic of a geograpical distribuiton of the different situations, that leads to amore efficient way of proposing solutions. It is specially interesting in the field of urbanism, both for Plansdevelopment and management because it allows a direct way of opinion and civil participation in thetaking of decisions and it is useful at the moment of establishing priorities and arrange a schedule. It isalso helps to create urban design far from the classic isolation of our discipline in favour of nonhierarchical and transdisciplinar methods at the moment of facing the project phase.REFERENCESARNO, P. La nueva cartografía. Barcelona: Ed. Vicens Vives, 1991.ASHWORTH, G. J.; TUNBRIDGE, J. E. The tourist-historic city. Retrospect and prospect of managing theheritage city. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd., 2000.BRITO, M. Ciudades históricas como destinos patrimoniales. Una mirada comparada: España y Brasil.Sevilla: Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Cultura, 1998.DE LA CALLE VAQUERO, M. La ciudad histórica como destino turístico. Barcelona: Ariel, 2006.GALÍ ESPELT, N. Mirades turístiques a la ciutat. Anàlisi del comportament dels visitants del barri vell deGirona. Gerona: Universitat de Girona, 2005.DONAIRE BENITO, J.A.; GALÍ ESPELT, N. Modeling tourist itineraries in heritage cities. Routes aroundthe Old District of Girona. San Cristóbal de La Laguna: Pasos. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural,2008. Vol. 6, nº 3, págs. 435-449.EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Cohesion Policy 2007–2013.EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Estrategia Territorial Europea. Acordada en la reunión informal de Ministrosresponsables de Ordenación del Territorio en Postdam, 1999.EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Guía dirigida a las ciudades candidatas al título de Capital Europea de laCultura.EXCMO. AYUNTAMIENTO DE MÁLAGA. Observatorio Turístico 2009. Málaga: Área de Turismo delAyuntamiento de Málaga, 2010.
    • EXCMO. AYUNTAMIENTO DE MÁLAGA. Plan Especial de Protección y Reforma Interior del Centro deMálaga. Málaga: Gerencia Municipal de Urbanismo, Obras e Infraestructuras, 1992.HABEGGER, S.; MANCILA, I. La cartografia social como estrategia para diagnosticar nuestro territorio. InPublicación del Seminario Freire. Málaga: Universidad de Málaga, 2005.HARLEY, J.B. Text and contexts in the interpretation of early maps. In BUISSERET, D. (Ed.) From SeaCharts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History Through Maps. Chicago: University ofChicago Press, 1990.INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT. Good practices in participatorymapping. Rome, 2009.SERRANO MUÑOZ, E. Derivas para conocer la ciudad. In Otra Málaga. Málaga: Editorial Cedma, 2004.TROITIÑO VINUESA, M.A. Ciudades patrimonio de la humanidad: patrimonio, turismo y recuperaciónurbana. Sevilla: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2009.WEB REFERENCESEspacio Red de Práctica y Culturas Digitales (UNIA): (Cartografías Tácticas): [laboratorio de comunicación]: 1: Lo que Málaga no cuenta. 2: Málagaturismo.ídeo resumen del taller “Lo que los mapas no cuentan”:ídeo tutorial de uso de meipi: