A smart way to extract tidal energyDocument Transcript
A SMART WAY TO EXTRACT TIDAL ENERGYK. Hari Kishore. V.Chaitanya Prasad, (M-tech).08MP1A0229 Assoc.Prof. EEE Dept.Abstract—Man in his lifetime, uses energy in INTRODUCTIONone form or the other. In fact whatever happens This paper attempts to show how energy can bein nature, results, out of the conversion of tapped from tides in ocean or sea by using simpleenergy in one form or the other? The blowing of equipment where almost everybody can handle.the wind, the formation of the clouds and the More the tides more will be the electrical energyflow of water are a few examples that stand generated.testimony to this fact. The extensive usage of A large amount of kinetic energy is wasted inenergy has resulted in an energy crisis, and there sea or ocean every time a tide passes on it. Thereis a need to develop methods of optimal is great possibility of tapping this energy andutilization, which will not only ease the crisis but generating power by making a simple turbinealso preserve the environment. subjected to air which is caused by the motion of This paper attempts to show how energy can tides.be tapped from tides in ocean or sea by using The generated power can be used for the lampssimple equipment where almost everyone can near the coastal areas and this will be a great boonhandle it. More the tides more will be the energy for the villages and even towns near sea or angenerated. There is possibility of tapping the ocean.energy and generating power by making a simpleturbine subjected to air which is caused by the SCOPE OF THE PAPERmotion of tides. The generated power can be The utilization of energy is an indication of theused for the lamps near the coastal areas and growth of a nation. For example, the per capitalthis will be a great boon for the rural villages energy consumption in USA is 9000 KWh (Kilonearer to sea or ocean too. Watt hour) per year, whereas the consumption in My paper explains clearly, the working India is 1200 KWh (Kilo Watt hour). One mightprinciple of the designed system and its conclude that to be materially rich and prosperous,advantages. Design of each component has been a human being needs to consume more and morecarried out using standard procedures, and the energy.components have been fabricated and assembled. A recent survey on the energy consumption inThe utilization of energy is an indication of the India had published a pathetic report that 85,000growth of a nation. One might conclude that to villages in India do not still have electricity.be materially rich and prosperous, a human Supply of power in most part of the country isbeing needs to consume more and more energy. poor. Hence more research and development and commercialization of technologies are needed in
this field. First, the OTEC systems are not very energy India, unlike the top developed countries has efficient. Pumping water is a giant engineeringvery poor maintenance of electricity. Taking the challenge. Electricity must also be transported toneed of a particular industry, it needs a predictable land. It will probably be 10 to 20 years before theenergy source to maintain accuracy in production technology is available to produce and transmitbut here power being supplied to that industry electricity economically from OTEC systems.from respected sector is highly unpredictable. Byjust placing a simple plant in a right place will be WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION USINGvery much advantage also for the industries near BUOYseas or oceans. The wave energy converter (WEC) consists of a buoy coupled directly to the rotor of a linear BASIC PRINCIPLES generator by a rope. The tension of the rope is Simple energy conversion from mechanical to maintained with a spring pulling the rotor electrical. downwards. The rotor will move up and down at We can develop electricity from ocean tides. approximately the same speed as the wave. To generate electricity using the wind caused The linear generator has a uniquely low pole by ocean tides energy as input. height and generates electricity at low wave Three mechanisms can be used: amplitudes and slow wave speeds. I. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion FLOATING WAVE ENERGY EXTRACTER II. Wave Energy Converter & Floating Wave Energy Extractor The system is consists of a rectangular shaped huge mass floating body supported by a large III. Capturing air through turbines from the movement of tides number of floating air columns. The air column’s extensions are connected to pistons. The pistons OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY are placed its own cylinders and it can move up CONVERSION (OTEC) and down through the cylinders when the floating The energy from the sun heats the surface air columns moves with the up-down movementswater of the ocean. In tropical regions, the surface of the waves. The upper side of the cylinders haswater can be 40 or more degrees warmer than the two valves. One to a high-pressure fluid pipe anddeep water. This temperature difference can be it will open when the floating air column on crest.used to produce electricity. The OTEC system One valve is to the low-pressure fluid pipe and itmust have a temperature difference of at least 25 will open when the floating air column on thedegrees Celsius to operate, limiting use to tropical trough.regions. The whole system is anchored to the sea bottom.
CAPTURING AIR THROUGH TURBINES process is continues till the end of the universe. FROM THE MOVEMENT OF TIDES The movement of tides contains kinetic energy. Kinetic energy (movement) exists in the When a long barrel is inserted on the surface ofmoving waves of the ocean. That energy can be sea, the to-fro motion of waves produces pressureused to power a turbine. If a long barrel is inserted on air inside the barrel and gets exhaled andinto the sea, the wave rises into the barrel. The inhaled from it continuously.rising water forces the air out of the barrel. The A turbine is placed on the other end of themoving air spins a turbine which can turn a barrel where inlet and outlet of air takes place;generator. this rotates the turbine and electricity is generated. When the wave goes down, air flowsthrough the turbine and back into the barrel CONSTRUCTION DETAILSthrough doors that are normally closed. The basic and important elements used in This is only one type of wave-energy construction are:system. Others actually use the up and down LONG BARRELmotion of the wave to power a piston that moves TURBINEup and down inside a cylinder. That piston can ELECTRIC DYNAMOalso turn a generator. PLACEMENT Most wave-energy systems are very small.But, they can be used to power a warning buoy or LONG BARREL:a small light house. Barrel used is usually made of strong synthetic which can be of anticorrosive long lasting material ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM like PVC etc. WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION BY CAPTURING AIR TURBINE: As we have seen the process of capturing air Generally turbines rotate in a directionthrough turbines from the movement of tides, this corresponding to the direction of air but here inprocess seems simpler and cost efficient to satisfy order to use wind completely from both thebasic needs of a small village near a sea or an ocean. directions we are using a special turbine called All the equipment we need is nothing but a large Wells Turbine which can rotate in a singleand long synthetic barrel, a turbine, a generator and direction irrespective to the direction of wind asenergy storing devices. shown in figure 1. Wells Turbine is unidirectional turbine which WORKING PROCEDURE lets great advantage by reducing the cost of The tides on seas and oceans are caused due to equipment used to convert to and fro motion ofthe gravitational pull of Sun and Moon, this turbine to rotating motion.
CONCLUSION As day by day power consumption increases but electric crisis occur. So the minor needs of electricity such as street lights and traffic signals in urban areas beside seas or oceans and basic needs of villages beside oceans or seas can be satisfied by Tidal Energy. Instead of wasting kinetic energy of Tides in oceans or seas, the minor needs can be met by converting kinetic energy to electrical energy. Figure1: Wells Turbine REFERENCES 1. www.wikipedia.comELECTRIC DYNAMO: 2. Renewable energy ’THE FUTURE’ by grseg It is a device which converts mechanical clofer (volume 3)energy into electrical energy. 3. ‘New Ways of power’ by Alka Datta 4. Site: www.patentstorm.comPLACEMENT: 5. Powerpedia.com Placement of the equipment shall be focused 6. Planet Mechanics ‘Nationalproperly to see that the variation of tides shall be Geography’converting kinetic energy tomore and to place the barrel vertically, the spot electrical energy.should be chosen in such a way that the length ofthe barrel should be properly accommodated. ADVANTAGES Low budget electricity production Less surface area No disturbance to marine lives Easy maintenance Suitable to satisfy basic needs Uses: Charging batteries and using them to light up the streets, etc.