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  • 1. 상 황 인 식 시 스 템 기말 고사 Review Architecture for a New Breed of Applications상황인식 2010 가을 1
  • 2. Context-Aware ArtiFacts 윤 용운 2010.10.14상황인식 2010 가을 2
  • 3. Context-Aware Artifacts : Smart thingsReview examples of context-aware artifacts • everyday objects, appliances, and handheld devices • how they can be made context aware • Sentient and smart, describing objects.self-supported context awareness Vs infrastructure-supported context awarenessexplore in detail of a software system for context-aware mobile phones상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 3
  • 4. Aware ObjectsRobot : perform human-level tasksSoft toy : responding and reacting to its user’s handling context or hearing warm greetingsIntelligent shelves : self introducing and self marketingCell phones : automatically behaving in the right way under the right circumstances Context-aware behavior in devices, appliances, and everyday objects are an emerging new experience.Context-aware artifact, Smart artifacts • Able to perceive the situation of a user and Reacts sensibly to it • Promise to enhance the relationships among participants in distributed working groups, maintaining personal mobility while offering opportunities for the collaboration, informal communication, and social awareness that contribute to the synergy and cohesiveness inherent in collocated teams.Galatea: Personalized Interaction with Augmented Objects, 2005 , Gatenby Master thesis, MIT상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 4
  • 5. infrastructure-supported context-aware artifactsSensor added context-aware artifacts • Limitations in the number and type of sensors that can be attached • Limited computational and networking capabilities  limit the reasoning and prevent them to acquiring information from internet such as weather report or traffic conditioninfrastructure-supported context-aware artifacts • Utilizes a hardware and software infrastructure external to the artifact • The idea shifts from the artifact perceiving situations to an external party perceiving situations related to the artifact • Complex reasoning with an infrastructure + Sensors in the artifact itself EX) CUP situations collection of sensors attached to the CUP infrastructure observe the CUP & its situations from outside the CUP상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 5
  • 6. 2 approaches to Context-Aware Artifacts Context-aware Artifacts : 2 development approaches, 2006. Loke Self-supported context awareness • H/W, S/W with ability to perceive context and utilize context in its behaviors Infrastructure-supported context awareness • acquires context-aware capabilities by utilizing H/W and S/W infrastructure external to the artifact • Infrastructure - the environment of the artifact and shared by other artifacts and applicationsThe relationship between context-aware artifacts andthe context-awareness infrastructure.The infrastructure first receives the contextualinformation and, if appropriate, reasons with itThe infrastructure uses a feedback mechanism todetermine the commands it issues and the contextinformation it shares with various artifacts. 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 6
  • 7. A Smart Wheelchair , 2006, Cascado, SpainSelf- The Diet-Aware Dining Table: 2006, Chang, TaiwanSupported Smart couch, 2002, trinity colleage, DublinContext Intelligent Environments Using Smart Daily Objects, 2005, Nakajima, JapanAware Chameleon tables, 2002, Selker et al, MITCase A History tablecloth, 2006, William Gaver, UKstudies The smart table, 2003, Steurer, UCLA The sense table , 2001, Patten, MiT Shelf with pressure sensors, 2005, Metzger Smart furniture, 2003, Ito, Japan Aware Mirror, 2005, Fujinami, japan Mediacups, 2001, Beigl, Germany chameleon mug, 2006, MiT Context-Aware Pill Bottle with RFID, 2005, Agarawala Intelligent spoon at MIT Smart sink, 2005, Mit Context-aware doll, , 2001, Yonezawa, Japan context-aware camera, 2003, Hakansson et al., 2003 Smart wear - the SensVest, 2004, Knight 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 7
  • 8. Self-Supported CA Case studies Building Intelligent Environments Using Smart Daily Objects and Personal Devices , 2005, Tatsuo Nakajima, 와세다대학Sentient ChairSitting on it, then the activity at thechair is narrowedsensors to detect a person, sitting ornot, and his or her orientationAware mirror – detection a persondisplays information relevant to himsuggests an ideal interaction betweena person and a computer embeddedinto our daily livesSentient Personal devices (PDA)different types of sensors for a user’scontextcontrol some applications 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 8
  • 9. Self-Supported CA Case studiesSmart Furniture: Improvising Ubiquitous Hot-spot Environment, 2003, Masaki Ito, KeioSF2: Smart Furniture for Creating Ubiquitous Applications, 2004, Hideyuki TokudaSmart Furniture :Convert legacy non-smart space into a Smart Hot-Spot which can provide the accessibility to the Internet, location-based context-aware services, service roaming, and personalization services.Equipped with networked computers, sensors and various I/O devicesPersonalized Message Board : displays commercial messages on a Smart FurnitureEnvironmental Monitor : keeps track of number of users inside the sensing area, and changes the color of lamp type Smart Furniture accordinglymobile TV-phone : Display and Camera on Smart Furniture is enabled Smart Spaces are characterized by following features; (1) Identification and detection of activity of users (2) Sensing users’ and devices’ location (3) control and coordination of devices. 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 9
  • 10. Self-Supported CA Case studiesAware Mirror: A Personalized Display Using a Mirror, 2005, Kaori FujinamiA Mirror and Its AugmentationA toothbrush : an identification tool by the owner of the toothbrushproximity sensors have been utilized to detect a person’s position (in front of the mirror) three types of information that can affect a user’s decision •transportation information by his/her schedule •Weather forecasting at the destination •Time to leave and schedule상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 10
  • 11. Context-aware mobile PhonesContext aware hand-held devices, 2000, Tuulari, VTT FinlandTuulari‘s Sensor box (2000)Personal technology devices for mobile users :  Wristwatch, Heart monitor, Mobile Phone, GPS-Navigator, MP3, Camera…  Key problem is user interface (small size keyboard, display)Research questions • What is the role of context-awareness in personal technology devices ? • Why is context awareness of personal technology important ? • What are the contexts that are associated with hand-held devices ? • How can hand-held devices, with limited resources, identify these context ?Prototype system : self-supported context-awareness mobile phone • Sensor box with sensors for acceleration, temperature, humidity, light, conductance • Exploit context-awareness in reducing the interaction in the user interface, modifying interaction to more suitable for mobile use. • Implement rule-based behaviors such as “if the phone rings and it is picked up, it should stop ringing.”. 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 11
  • 12. Context-aware mobile PhonesContextPhone: A Prototyping Platform for Context-Aware Mobile Applications, 2005, Raento, Helsinki Univ.ContextPhone (2005, Raento) for Nokia Series 60 Smartphone platform & Symbian OSSoftware platform with following design goals: • Provide context as a resource for social interaction. • incorporate existing applications. • fast interaction and unobtrusiveness. • Ensure robustness - automatically recover • Emphasize timeliness for fast response • Enable rapid development for adding new context data, building new application 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 12
  • 13. ContextPhone -2The ContextPhone platform. Four interconnected Modules1. modules for sensing • Location information (by GSM cell IDs, GPS via a bluetooth GPS receiver ), • Phone information (charger status and alarm profile) • Communication behavior(calls, call attempts & recording, SMS content) • Optical marker recognition using a built-in phone camera2. communications : • Wide area network : Generalized Packet Radio Service (GPRS), • Local : Bluetooth and infrared networking, • SMS or MMS messaging3. Customizable applications • ContextLogger : Studying mobility patterns logs details of the communication’s nature, timing, participants • ContextContacts : Automatic context sharing • ContextMedia : Sharing mobile media : situated annotating services • The automatic annotation includes features such as location and nearby Bluetooth devices4. background services, error logging and recovery, and the Status display상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 13
  • 14. ContextPhone-3 The ContextPhone platform. 4 interconnected Modules상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 14
  • 15. Context-Aware mobile Phones: An illustrationSelf-supported context-aware mobile phones – previously describedSituation-Aware phone (Wang, 2004) • Ontology-based approach to recognize & reason the context • Using supporting infrastructureContext-Aware Phone (Connelly, 2000) • Using infrastructure representing the space in which the phone is situated in • the space and phone would negotiate in determining suitable actions on the phoneSpace control over the phone • for compliance reasons : abide by some policy concerning phone usage and behavior • for convenience reasons : the actions can be carried out on the phone automatically, reducing user intervention) 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 15
  • 16. Situation-Aware phoneSemantic Space: An Infrastructure for Smart Spaces, 2004, WangSemantic Space : a context infrastructure for the following issues • Explicit representation , Context querying, Context reasoning. : Ex) Who is in the room with Yoon? • Context-aware applications must adapt to changing situations, they need a detailed model of users’ activities and surroundings that lets them share users’ perceptions of the real world • Ontology : Smart spaces cover a range of environment types such as homes, offices, workplaces, classrooms, and vehiclesThe context infrastructure consists of several context wrappers, an context aggregator, a knowledge base, a query engine, and a reasoner.Rachel wishes to contact her friend Joey, so she instructs her mobile phone to arrange a call.Upon request, Joey’s mobile phone checks the calendar and realizes he’s currently attending aseminar. The phone determines on his behalf that he shouldn’t be interrupted and schedules acall back when the seminar ends. Soon after the seminar, Professor Geller asks Joey to have adiscussion in his office. Before the phone reminds Joey of the missed call as scheduled earlier, itwants to know whether his current situation is suitable for receiving the call. Based on contextualinformation (Where are you? Who are you with? What is the noise level? Is the door open orclosed?) gathered in the smart space, the Phone infers that Joey is in a conversation with hissupervisor and decides to postpone the call until he’s available. A few minutes later, when theconversation ends and Joey leaves the office, the phone finally reminds him of the missed call.상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 16
  • 17. An upper-level context ontology , The Semantic Space extended context ontologies. context infrastructure.Building a prototype: Networked sensors and devices the RFID indoor location system the GUI for configuring the response mode in each situation. 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 17
  • 18. Context-Aware PhoneOn Negotiating Automatic Device Configuration in Smart Environments, 2004, Kay Connelly and Ashraf Khalil • Architecture for automatic device configuration in smart environments • negotiating between the user’s wishes and owner of the smart environment • User Intervention • Agent-based negotiation : to decide the best negotiation strategy given the limitation (computing, battery, and memory) of mobile devices. Another challenge is finding the correct metrics that quantify both the space and device preferences • Where to reside resolution logic ?Device modes on Cell phoneQuiet Mode: ringer should be disabledNoisy Mode: user is in a loud environmentDisable Mode: all incoming and outgoing calls should be disabledDefault Mode: normal conditions 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 18
  • 19. Overview of a Framework of The CAMP-UP SystemCAMP-UP (Context-Aware Mobile Phone with User Preferences) • the level of access (from external parties) to phone functionality can be adjusted, based on the context and user preferencesThe architecture of the system :  A server side & A client side  two classes of users : device (mobile phone) user space administratortwo types of interactions • The user and his mobile phone - Set his preferences for the device - Set the type of functionalities , exposed and controlled by external parties • The space administrator and the Space Manager component of the system - Defines a space policy, which is a set of rules that determines certain device functionalities to be set to certain modes based on current context 상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 19
  • 20. CAMP-UP System Interaction상황인식 2010 가을 7 주차 20