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  • 1. From your description and photos, the “problem” is lichens growing on the bark of your trees. Lichens are a fungus living in a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship with blue- green bacteria. The fungus surrounds the bacteria. They often grow on tree trunks, unfinished wooden fences, and even rocks. Q. A number of trees in our backyard and the oak tree in our front yard have pale green splotches all over their trunks. Can you tell me what this is? Is it dangerous to the tree, and what can be done about it? A. From your description and photos, the “problem” is lichens growing on the bark of your trees. Lichens are a fungus living in a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship with blue-green bacteria. The fungus surrounds the bacteria. They often grow on tree trunks, unfinished wooden fences, and even rocks. Lichens growing on a tree trunk Lichens pose no threat to your trees' health, or to you and your family. Their presence is actually a sign that the air in your neighborhood is relatively clean - they do not grow in areas where the air polluted. There is no reason to remove them, and you could damage the trees' bark in the process. Enteromorpha flexuosa is a native green alga that exhibits invasive characteristics in areas of fresh water intrusion and high nutrient input. Description Long, filamentous green alga up to 15 cm tall, mostly tubular, hollow, with tube walls 1 cell thick, axes 1-7 mm wide. Branches cylindrical throughout or with the terminal portion expanded and bladelike, or centrally compressed with only the margins hollow. Larger tubular portions may or may not branch; if branched, with narrow filamentous branchlets. Attached to rocky substrate by rhizoids that grow from basal cells of the tube. Grass green. It often grows in tufts of 6 cm long, but in areas of high nutrients and fresh water, can form long, hairlike strands up to 20 cm long. Structural Features
  • 2. Thallus hollow tube, walls 1 cell thick. Cells in surface view arranged in short longitudinal rows. Cells rounded rectangular, 10-28 µm wide, 8-30 µm long, in somewhat longitudinal and often transverse rows; basal cells up to 50 µm long. Habitat Forms clusters or tufts attached to rocks in sandy areas, high intertidal to mid-intertidal. Will often be exposed at low tide, and often found near freshwater intrusion. Epiphytic in ponds. Distribution Hawai‘i: Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island. Mechanism of Introduction: Indigenous to Hawai‘i. Worldwide: Worldwide distribution in both temperate and tropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, Indonesia, Philippines, southern Japan, Viet Nam, and Thailand. Ecology/Impact Enteromorpha flexuosa is a very common high intertidal green alga found wherever there is freshwater intrusion, such as freshwater stream or underwater spring input to the ocean. It is often associated with coastal areas of high nutrients, including areas with residential and industrial development. E. flexuosa is considered an invasive and fouling species in much of the world. This is an opportunistic species that has a very successful reproductive stage. Under the right conditions it will release propagules daily. The motile reproductive cells actually have the ability to photosynthesis, thus increasing their potential viability and dispersion. Because of this high reproductive ability, E. flexuosa is markedly fecund and, therefore, an excellent pioneer species, settling available substrates quickly. But it does not compete well with other successional species. In studies of disturbance and settlement, E. flexuosa was found to maintain a low percent cover in undisturbed areas but, following a disturbance, density increased dramatically.
  • 3. E. flexuosa is often found in communities with or near Ulva fasciata, another pioneer green alga species. Both are fouling organisms associated with industrial pollution. Anti-fouling studies investigating control and/or eradication of fouling species identify these two species as serious pests in shipping and industrial areas. What is a Mushroom? Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies produced by some fungi. Not all fruit bodies are true mushrooms. Puffballs and morels are edible fruit bodies that are sometimes called "mushrooms". The function of this visible part of some fungi is to produce and disperse the largest possible number of spores in the shortest possible time. Spores create new individuals after being carried away on the wind and landing in a good place for growth. True mushrooms typically look like umbrellas. They consist of a stalk topped by a flat or cup-shaped cap. Their spores are produced on special cells called basidia, located on the underside of the cap. The class of fungi whose spores are produced by basidia are called Basidiomycetes. People often ask about the difference between toadstools and mushrooms. Any mushroom can be called a toadstool, but this word usually refers to a poisonous mushroom. What do they look like? Click the link to see some photographs of mushrooms with gills and mushrooms without gills.
  • 4. Life History of Mushrooms While mushrooms may seem to sprout overnight, it actually takes days or weeks for one to develop. Most of the growth of a fungus goes unnoticed because it occurs underground. The underground body of a fungus, called the mycelium, is made of moist thread-like filaments called hyphae. When growing conditions are good, little knots of hyphae called primordia are formed. As individual primordia grow larger, the hyphae within them organize into two parts. One part will become a mushroom’s cap, and the other, its stem. When the primordium gets large enough, the stem elongates and pushes the cap up above the ground. As the stem elongates, the cap expands, a little like an umbrella unfolding. In some mushrooms, the expanding cap breaks a veil-like membrane extending from the cap to the stem, leaving a ring. Some growing mushrooms may also break a second membrane that covers it completely, and dried bits of this broken veil form scales on the cap. On the underside of the cap, the spore-producing basidia are found in several different structures. Basidia may cover the surface of tissue- thin hanging plates called gills, or line the inside of tubes, or cover "teeth". Basidia produce four spores at the end of microscopic spines called sterigma. When the spores are ready, they are discharged a short distance into the space between the gills or teeth, or into the center of the tube. The spores then fall out of the cap and are carried away in the wind. Most spores land within three feet (1 m) of the mushroom that produced them, but they can be carried much further. If the spore lands in a good spot, it germinates, producing the mycelium of a new fungus individual. The puffballs are relatives of mushrooms whose basidia and spores are enclosed in a sac instead of covering gills, or in tubes. Coral fungi are also mushroom relatives. They produce branched fruiting bodies that resemble coral or broccoli.
  • 5. Despite producing large mushroom-like fruiting bodies, morels and false morels are not closely related to mushrooms. These fungi are related to the cup fungi, in the class Ascomycetes. Their spores are produced inside a special cell called the ascus, instead of on the outside of basidia. The spores of morels and false morels are explosively discharged into the air as a fine white cloud. Where do Mushrooms Grow? Mushrooms and other fungi grow almost everywhere, on every natural material imaginable. Where you look depends on the mushroom you are trying to find. Some fungi grow only in association with certain trees. Others grow on large logs. Mushrooms are also found in soil, on decomposing leaves, and in dung, mulch and compost. Knowing when to look is also important. Mushrooms are not formed until temperature and moisture conditions are right for them. Some mushrooms are produced during only one season of the year. During mild or warm weather, they often appear 7 to 10 days after a good rain. Mushrooms are not plants, and require different conditions for optimal growth. Plants develop through photosynthesis, a process that converts atmospheric carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, especially cellulose. While sunlight provides an energy source for plants, mushrooms derive all of their energy and growth materials from their growth medium, through biochemical decomposition processes. This does not mean that light is an unnecessary requirement, since some fungi use light as a signal for fruiting.[1][2] However, all the materials for growth must already be present in the growth medium. Mushrooms grow well at relative humidity levels of around 95-100%, and substrate moisture levels of 50 to 75%.[1] Instead of seeds, mushrooms reproduce asexually through spores. Spores can be contaminated with airborne microorganisms, which will interfere with mushroom growth and prevent a healthy crop. Mycelium, or actively growing mushroom culture, is placed on a substrate--usually sterilized grains such as rye or millet--and induced to grow into those grains. This is called inoculation. Inoculated grains are referred to as spawn.Spores are another inoculation option, but are less developed than established mycelium. Since they are also contaminated easily, they are only manipulated in laboratory conditions with a laminar flow cabinet. Techniques
  • 6. All mushroom growing techniques require the correct combination of humidity, temperature, substrate (growth medium) and inoculum (spawn or starter culture). Wild harvests, outdoor log inoculation and indoor trays all provide these elements. Wild harvesting A fungus (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/; plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4] ) is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, protists and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants and some protists, which contain cellulose, and unlike the cell walls of bacteria. These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor (is a monophyletic group). This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology (from the Greek μύκης, mukēs, meaning "fungus"). Mycology has often been regarded as a branch of botany, even though it is a separate kingdom in biological taxonomy. Genetic studies have shown that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants. Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil, on dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange. They have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles, as a leavening agent for bread, and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans. The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g. rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. The fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, and morphologies ranging from single-celled aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at 1.5 million to 5 million species, with about 5% of these having been formally classified. Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, and Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into
  • 7. taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification of Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla. A group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota (plural noun, no singular), e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland".[5] The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus (mushroom), used in the writings of Horace and Pliny.[6] This in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos/σφογγος ("sponge"), which refers to the macroscopic structures and morphology of mushrooms and molds;[7] the root is also used in other languages, such as the German Schwamm ("sponge") and Schimmel ("mold").[8] The use of the word mycology, which is derived from the Greek mykes/μύκης (mushroom) and logos/λόγος (discourse),[9] to denote the scientific study of fungi is thought to have originated in 1836 with English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5.[7] Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including extreme environments such as deserts or areas with high salt concentrations[31] or ionizing radiation,[32] as well as in deep sea sediments.[33] Some can survive the intense UV and cosmic radiation encountered during space travel.[34] Most grow in terrestrial environments, though several species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a parasite that has been responsible for a worldwide decline in amphibian populations. This organism spends part of its life cycle as a motile zoospore, enabling it to propel itself through water and enter its amphibian host.[35] Other examples of aquatic fungi include those living in hydrothermal areas of the ocean.[36] Around 100,000 species of fungi have been formally described by taxonomists,[37] but the global biodiversity of the fungus kingdom is not fully understood.[38] On the basis of observations of the ratio of the number of fungal species to the number of plant species in selected environments, the fungal kingdom has been estimated to contain about 1.5 million species;[39] a recent (2011) estimate suggests there may be over 5 million species.[40] In mycology, species have historically been distinguished by a variety of methods and concepts. Classification based on morphological characteristics, such as the size and shape of spores or fruiting structures, has traditionally dominated fungal taxonomy.[41] Species may also be distinguished by their biochemical and physiological characteristics, such as their ability to metabolize certain biochemicals, or their reaction to chemical tests. The biological species concept discriminates species based on their ability to mate. The application of molecular tools, such as DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, to study diversity has greatly enhanced the resolution and added robustness to estimates of genetic diversity within various taxonomic groups.[42] Mycology is a relatively new science that became systematic after the development of the microscope in the 16th century. Although fungal spores were first observed by Giambattista della Porta in 1588, the seminal work in the development of mycology is considered to be the publication of Pier Antonio Micheli's 1729 work Nova plantarum genera.[235] Micheli not only observed spores, but showed that under the proper conditions, they could be induced into growing into the same species of fungi from
  • 8. which they originated.[236] Extending the use of the binomial system of nomenclature introduced by Carl Linnaeus in his Species plantarum (1753), the Dutch Christian Hendrik Persoon (1761–1836) established the first classification of mushrooms with such skill so as to be considered a founder of modern mycology. Later, Elias Magnus Fries (1794–1878) further elaborated the classification of fungi, using spore color and various microscopic characteristics, methods still used by taxonomists today. Other notable early contributors to mycology in the 17th–19th and early 20th centuries include Miles Joseph Berkeley, August Carl Joseph Corda, Anton de Bary, the brothers Louis René and Charles Tulasne, Arthur H. R. Buller, Curtis G. Lloyd, and Pier Andrea Saccardo. The 20th century has seen a modernization of mycology that has come from advances in biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. The use of DNA sequencing technologies and phylogenetic analysis has provided new insights into fungal relationships and biodiversity, and has challenged traditional morphology-based groupings in fungal taxonomy.[237] Mycology Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the systematic study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source of medicine, food, and psychotropic substances consumed for religious purposes, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. The field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, is closely related because many plant pathogens are fungi.[232] In 1729, Pier A. Micheli first published descriptions of fungi. The use of fungi by humans dates back to prehistory; Ötzi the Iceman, a well-preserved mummy of a 5,300-year-old Neolithic man found frozen in the Austrian Alps, carried two species of polypore mushrooms that may have been used as tinder (Fomes fomentarius), or for medicinal purposes (Piptoporus betulinus).[233] Ancient peoples have used fungi as food sources–often unknowingly–for millennia, in the preparation of leavened bread and fermented juices. Some of
  • 9. the oldest written records contain references to the destruction of crops that were probably caused by pathogenic fungi.[234] Mycotoxins Ergotamine, a major mycotoxin produced by Claviceps species, which if ingested can cause gangrene, convulsions, and hallucinations Many fungi produce biologically active compounds, several of which are toxic to animals or plants and are therefore called mycotoxins. Of particular relevance to humans are mycotoxins produced by molds causing food spoilage, and poisonous mushrooms (see above). Particularly infamous are the lethal amatoxins in some Amanita mushrooms, and ergot alkaloids, which have a long history of causing serious epidemics of ergotism (St Anthony's Fire) in people consuming rye or related cereals contaminated with sclerotia of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea.[228] Other notable mycotoxins include the aflatoxins, which are insidious liver toxins and highly carcinogenic metabolites produced by certain Aspergillus species often growing in or on grains and nuts consumed by humans, ochratoxins, patulin, and trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 mycotoxin) and fumonisins, which have significant impact on human food supplies or animal livestock.[229] Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites (or natural products), and research has established the existence of biochemical pathways solely for the purpose of producing mycotoxins and other natural products in fungi.[28] Mycotoxins may provide fitness benefits in terms of physiological adaptation, competition with other microbes and fungi, and protection from consumption (fungivory).[230][231] Others Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric, gluconic, lactic, and malic acids,[222] and industrial enzymes, such as lipases used in biological detergents,[223] cellulases used in making cellulosic ethanol[224] and stonewashed jeans,[225] and amylases,[226] invertases, proteases and xylanases.[227] Several species, most notably Psilocybin mushrooms (colloquially
  • 10. known as magic mushrooms), are ingested for their psychedelic properties, both recreationally and religiously. With algae and cyanobacteria The lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, a symbiosis of fungal, algal, and cyanobacterial species Lichens are formed by a symbiotic relationship between algae or cyanobacteria (referred to in lichen terminology as "photobionts") and fungi (mostly various species of ascomycetes and a few basidiomycetes), in which individual photobiont cells are embedded in a tissue formed by the fungus.[147] Lichens occur in every ecosystem on all continents, play a key role in soil formation and the initiation of biological succession,[148] and are the dominating life forms in extreme environments, including polar, alpine, and semiarid desert regions.[149] They are able to grow on inhospitable surfaces, including bare soil, rocks, tree bark, wood, shells, barnacles and leaves.[150] As in mycorrhizas, the photobiont provides sugars and other carbohydrates via photosynthesis, while the fungus provides minerals and water. The functions of both symbiotic organisms are so closely intertwined that they function almost as a single organism; in most cases the resulting organism differs greatly from the individual components. Lichenization is a common mode of nutrition; around 20% of fungi—between 17,500 and 20,000 described species—are lichenized.[151] Characteristics common to most lichens include obtaining organic carbon by photosynthesis, slow growth, small size, long life, long-lasting (seasonal) vegetative reproductive structures, mineral nutrition obtained largely from airborne sources, and greater tolerance of desiccation than most other photosynthetic organisms in the same habitat.[152] Taxonomic groups See also: List of fungal orders The major phyla (sometimes called divisions) of fungi have been classified mainly on the basis of characteristics of their sexual reproductive structures. Currently, seven phyla are proposed: Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.[42]
  • 11. Arbuscular mycorrhiza seen under microscope. Flax root cortical cells containing paired arbuscules. Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that the Microsporidia, unicellular parasites of animals and protists, are fairly recent and highly derived endobiotic fungi (living within the tissue of another species).[96][119] One 2006 study concludes that the Microsporidia are a sister group to the true fungi; that is, they are each other's closest evolutionary relative.[120] Hibbett and colleagues suggest that this analysis does not clash with their classification of the Fungi, and although the Microsporidia are elevated to phylum status, it is acknowledged that further analysis is required to clarify evolutionary relationships within this group.[42] The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi are distributed worldwide. Chytrids produce zoospores that are capable of active movement through aqueous phases with a single flagellum, leading early taxonomists to classify them as protists. Molecular phylogenies, inferred from rRNA sequences in ribosomes, suggest that the Chytrids are a basal group divergent from the other fungal phyla, consisting of four major clades with suggestive evidence for paraphyly or possibly polyphyly.[121] The Blastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the Chytridiomycota. Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota). The blastocladiomycetes are saprotrophs, feeding on decomposing organic matter, and they are parasites of all eukaryotic groups. Unlike their close relatives, the chytrids, most of which exhibit zygotic meiosis, the blastocladiomycetes undergo sporic meiosis.[96] The Neocallimastigomycota were earlier placed in the phylum Chytridomycota. Members of this small phylum are anaerobic organisms, living in the digestive system of larger herbivorous mammals and possibly in other terrestrial and aquatic environments. They lack mitochondria but contain hydrogenosomes of mitochondrial origin. As the related chrytrids, neocallimastigomycetes form zoospores that are posteriorly uniflagellate or polyflagellate.[42] Members of the Glomeromycota form arbuscular mycorrhizae, a form of symbiosis wherein fungal hyphae invade plant root cells and both species benefit from the resulting increased supply of nutrients. All known Glomeromycota species reproduce asexually.[73] The symbiotic association between the Glomeromycota and plants is ancient, with evidence dating to 400
  • 12. million years ago.[122] Formerly part of the Zygomycota (commonly known as 'sugar' and 'pin' molds), the Glomeromycota were elevated to phylum status in 2001 and now replace the older phylum Zygomycota.[123] Fungi that were placed in the Zygomycota are now being reassigned to the Glomeromycota, or the subphyla incertae sedis Mucoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, the Zoopagomycotina and the Entomophthoromycotina.[42] Some well-known examples of fungi formerly in the Zygomycota include black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer), and Pilobolus species, capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air.[124] Medically relevant genera include Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus. Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci. The Ascomycota, commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, constitute the largest taxonomic group within the Eumycota.[41] These fungi form meiotic spores called ascospores, which are enclosed in a special sac-like structure called an ascus. This phylum includes morels, a few mushrooms and truffles, single-celled yeasts (e.g., of the genera Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Candida), and many filamentous fungi living as saprotrophs, parasites, and mutualistic symbionts. Prominent and important genera of filamentous ascomycetes include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. Many ascomycete species have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction (called anamorphic species), but analysis of molecular data has often been able to identify their closest teleomorphs in the Ascomycota.[125] Because the products of meiosis are retained within the sac-like ascus, ascomycetes have been used for elucidating principles of genetics and heredity (e.g., Neurospora crassa).[126] Members of the Basidiomycota, commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks called basidia. Most common mushrooms belong to this group, as well as rust and smut fungi, which are major pathogens of grains. Other important basidiomycetes include the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis,[127] human commensal species of the genus Malassezia,[128] and the opportunistic human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans.[129]
  • 13. Ang fungus,[3] binabaybay ding halamang singaw,[4] (Ingles: fungus [isahan], fungi [maramihan][5] ) ay isang uri ng organismong nabubuhay na hindi halaman o hayop; hindi rin ito protista, hindi eubakterya, at hindi rin arkebakterya. Dating iniisip ng mga tao na halaman ang mga ito kaya't pinangalanan itong halamang singaw. Tinutunaw ng mga halamang singaw ang mga patay na materya sa paligid nito para magsilbing pagkain nila. Hindi lunti ang kulay ng mga ito. Hindi sila namumulaklak at wala ring mga dahon. Kabilang dito ang mga kabuti.[3] Sa larangan ng panggagamot, isa itong malaking pangkat ng mga "halaman" na walang materya o bagay na pangkulay ng lunti na kinabibilangan ng mga kabuti, tagulamin, at amag.[5] Sa isang karamdamang dulot ng halamang-singaw, kinakailangang gamitan ng mikroskopyo ang pagsusuri ng halamang-singaw sapagkat napakaliit ng mga ito upang makita ng mga mata.[5] Ang lahat ng bagay na may buhay (mga hayop, mga halaman, mga halamang-singaw, at mga protista) ay may mga eukaryote (IPA: /juˈˈkærɪɒt/ o IPA: /-oʊt/). Ito ang mga selula na organisado at naka- pagsamang may estruktura na nasa loob ng mga membrano nila. Ang membrana ay isang uri ng estruktura na bumabalot sa mga selula at mga organelle nito. Ang katangiang ito ang naghihiwalay sa eukaryote mula sa mga prokaryote. Ang nukleus ng mga eukaryote ang nagbibigay ng pangalan nila. ng Eukaryote ay mula sa salitang Griyego na εσ, na ibig sabihin ay "totoo o mabuti" at κάρσον, na ibig sabihin ay "pili". Karamihan sa mga selulang ito ay mayroong iba't ibang mga organelles tulad ng mitokondriya, mga kloroplast at mga katawang Golgi. Mayroon din silang flagella na yari sa mga mikrotubulo. Ang mga mikrotubulong ito ay may 9+2 na pagkaayos. www.slideshare.net/nmonies/biology-9205264