From your description and photos, the “problem” is lichens growing on the bark of your
trees. Lichens are a fungus living in a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship with blue-
green bacteria. The fungus surrounds the bacteria. They often grow on tree trunks,
unfinished wooden fences, and even rocks.
Q. A number of trees in our backyard and the oak tree in our front yard
have pale green splotches all over their trunks. Can you tell me what this
is? Is it dangerous to the tree, and what can be done about it?
A. From your description and photos, the “problem” is lichens growing on the bark
of your trees. Lichens are a fungus living in a symbiotic (mutually beneficial)
relationship with blue-green bacteria. The fungus surrounds the bacteria. They
often grow on tree trunks, unfinished wooden fences, and even rocks.
Lichens growing on a tree trunk
Lichens pose no threat to your trees' health, or to you and your family. Their
presence is actually a sign that the air in your neighborhood is relatively clean -
they do not grow in areas where the air polluted. There is no reason to remove
them, and you could damage the trees' bark in the process.
Enteromorpha flexuosa is a native green
alga that exhibits invasive characteristics in areas of fresh water intrusion and high nutrient input.
Long, filamentous green alga up to 15 cm tall, mostly tubular, hollow, with tube walls 1 cell
thick, axes 1-7 mm wide. Branches cylindrical throughout or with the terminal portion expanded
and bladelike, or centrally compressed with only the margins hollow. Larger tubular portions
may or may not branch; if branched, with narrow filamentous branchlets. Attached to rocky
substrate by rhizoids that grow from basal cells of the tube. Grass green.
It often grows in tufts of 6 cm long, but in areas of high nutrients and fresh water, can form long,
hairlike strands up to 20 cm long.
Thallus hollow tube, walls 1 cell thick. Cells in surface view arranged in short longitudinal rows.
Cells rounded rectangular, 10-28 µm wide, 8-30 µm long, in somewhat longitudinal and often
transverse rows; basal cells up to 50 µm long.
Forms clusters or tufts attached to rocks in sandy areas, high intertidal to mid-intertidal. Will
often be exposed at low tide, and often found near freshwater intrusion. Epiphytic in ponds.
Hawai‘i: Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island.
Mechanism of Introduction: Indigenous to Hawai‘i.
Worldwide: Worldwide distribution in both temperate and tropical waters of the Pacific and
Atlantic Ocean, Indonesia, Philippines, southern Japan, Viet Nam, and Thailand.
Enteromorpha flexuosa is a very common high intertidal green alga found wherever there is
freshwater intrusion, such as freshwater stream or underwater spring input to the ocean. It is
often associated with coastal areas of high nutrients, including areas with residential and
E. flexuosa is considered an invasive and fouling species in much of the world. This is an
opportunistic species that has a very successful reproductive stage. Under the right conditions it
will release propagules daily. The motile reproductive cells actually have the ability to
photosynthesis, thus increasing their potential viability and dispersion.
Because of this high reproductive ability, E. flexuosa is markedly fecund and, therefore, an
excellent pioneer species, settling available substrates quickly. But it does not compete well with
other successional species. In studies of disturbance and settlement, E. flexuosa was found to
maintain a low percent cover in undisturbed areas but, following a disturbance, density increased
E. flexuosa is often found in communities with or near Ulva fasciata, another pioneer green alga
species. Both are fouling organisms associated with industrial pollution. Anti-fouling studies
investigating control and/or eradication of fouling species identify these two species as serious
pests in shipping and industrial areas.
What is a Mushroom?
Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies produced by some fungi. Not all fruit bodies are true
mushrooms. Puffballs and morels are edible fruit bodies that are sometimes called
"mushrooms". The function of this visible part of some fungi is to produce and disperse
the largest possible number of spores in the shortest possible time. Spores create new
individuals after being carried away on the wind and landing in a good place for growth.
True mushrooms typically look like umbrellas. They consist of a stalk topped by a flat or
cup-shaped cap. Their spores are produced on special cells called basidia, located on the
underside of the cap. The class of fungi whose spores are produced by basidia are called
People often ask about the difference between toadstools and mushrooms. Any mushroom
can be called a toadstool, but this word usually refers to a poisonous mushroom.
What do they look like?
Click the link to see some photographs of mushrooms with gills and mushrooms without
Life History of Mushrooms
While mushrooms may seem to sprout overnight, it actually
takes days or weeks for one to develop. Most of the growth
of a fungus goes unnoticed because it occurs underground.
The underground body of a fungus, called the mycelium, is
made of moist thread-like filaments called hyphae. When
growing conditions are good, little knots of hyphae called
primordia are formed. As individual primordia grow
larger, the hyphae within them organize into two parts.
One part will become a mushroom’s cap, and the other, its
When the primordium gets large enough, the stem
elongates and pushes the cap up above the ground. As the
stem elongates, the cap expands, a little like an umbrella
unfolding. In some mushrooms, the expanding cap breaks a
veil-like membrane extending from the cap to the stem,
leaving a ring. Some growing mushrooms may also break a
second membrane that covers it completely, and dried bits
of this broken veil form scales on the cap.
On the underside of the cap, the spore-producing basidia are found in
several different structures. Basidia may cover the surface of tissue-
thin hanging plates called gills, or line the inside of tubes, or cover
Basidia produce four spores at the end of microscopic spines called
sterigma. When the spores are ready, they are discharged a short
distance into the space between the gills or teeth, or into the center of
the tube. The spores then fall out of the cap and are carried away in
the wind. Most spores land within three feet (1 m) of the mushroom
that produced them, but they can be carried much further. If the
spore lands in a good spot, it germinates, producing the mycelium of
a new fungus individual.
The puffballs are relatives of mushrooms whose basidia and spores
are enclosed in a sac instead of covering gills, or in tubes. Coral fungi
are also mushroom relatives. They produce branched fruiting bodies
that resemble coral or broccoli.
Despite producing large mushroom-like fruiting bodies, morels and
false morels are not closely related to mushrooms. These fungi are
related to the cup fungi, in the class Ascomycetes. Their spores are
produced inside a special cell called the ascus, instead of on the
outside of basidia. The spores of morels and false morels are
explosively discharged into the air as a fine white cloud.
Where do Mushrooms Grow?
Mushrooms and other fungi grow almost everywhere, on every
natural material imaginable. Where you look depends on the
mushroom you are trying to find. Some fungi grow only in
association with certain trees. Others grow on large logs. Mushrooms
are also found in soil, on decomposing leaves, and in dung, mulch and
Knowing when to look is also important. Mushrooms are not formed
until temperature and moisture conditions are right for them. Some
mushrooms are produced during only one season of the year. During
mild or warm weather, they often appear 7 to 10 days after a good
Mushrooms are not plants, and require different conditions for optimal growth. Plants develop
through photosynthesis, a process that converts atmospheric carbon dioxide into carbohydrates,
especially cellulose. While sunlight provides an energy source for plants, mushrooms derive all
of their energy and growth materials from their growth medium, through biochemical
decomposition processes. This does not mean that light is an unnecessary requirement, since
some fungi use light as a signal for fruiting.
However, all the materials for growth must
already be present in the growth medium. Mushrooms grow well at relative humidity levels of
around 95-100%, and substrate moisture levels of 50 to 75%.
Instead of seeds, mushrooms reproduce asexually through spores. Spores can be contaminated
with airborne microorganisms, which will interfere with mushroom growth and prevent a healthy
Mycelium, or actively growing mushroom culture, is placed on a substrate--usually sterilized
grains such as rye or millet--and induced to grow into those grains. This is called inoculation.
Inoculated grains are referred to as spawn.Spores are another inoculation option, but are less
developed than established mycelium. Since they are also contaminated easily, they are only
manipulated in laboratory conditions with a laminar flow cabinet.
All mushroom growing techniques require the correct combination of humidity, temperature,
substrate (growth medium) and inoculum (spawn or starter culture). Wild harvests, outdoor log
inoculation and indoor trays all provide these elements.
A fungus (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/; plural: fungi
) is a member of a large group of eukaryotic
organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as
well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi,
which is separate from plants, animals, protists and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal
cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants and some protists, which
contain cellulose, and unlike the cell walls of bacteria. These and other differences show that the
fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes),
that share a common ancestor (is a monophyletic group). This fungal group is distinct from the
structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). The discipline of
biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology (from the Greek μύκης, mukēs,
meaning "fungus"). Mycology has often been regarded as a branch of botany, even though it is a
separate kingdom in biological taxonomy. Genetic studies have shown that fungi are more
closely related to animals than to plants.
Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures,
and their cryptic lifestyles in soil, on dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other
fungi. They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. Fungi perform
an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient
cycling and exchange. They have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms
and truffles, as a leavening agent for bread, and in fermentation of various food products, such as
wine, beer, and soy sauce. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of
antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in
detergents. Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and
insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids
and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans. The fruiting structures of a few
species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional
spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become
significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g.
rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local
The fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle
strategies, and morphologies ranging from single-celled aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms.
However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at
1.5 million to 5 million species, with about 5% of these having been formally classified. Ever
since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian
Hendrik Persoon, and Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their
morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology.
Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into
taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and
other traits. Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the
classification of Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten
A group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota
(plural noun, no singular), e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland".
The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus (mushroom), used in the writings of
Horace and Pliny.
This in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos/σφογγος ("sponge"), which
refers to the macroscopic structures and morphology of mushrooms and molds;
the root is also used
in other languages, such as the German Schwamm ("sponge") and Schimmel ("mold").
The use of the
word mycology, which is derived from the Greek mykes/μύκης (mushroom) and logos/λόγος
to denote the scientific study of fungi is thought to have originated in 1836 with English
naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5.
Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including extreme
environments such as deserts or areas with high salt concentrations
or ionizing radiation,
well as in deep sea sediments.
Some can survive the intense UV and cosmic radiation
encountered during space travel.
Most grow in terrestrial environments, though several
species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium
dendrobatidis, a parasite that has been responsible for a worldwide decline in amphibian
populations. This organism spends part of its life cycle as a motile zoospore, enabling it to propel
itself through water and enter its amphibian host.
Other examples of aquatic fungi include
those living in hydrothermal areas of the ocean.
Around 100,000 species of fungi have been formally described by taxonomists,
but the global
biodiversity of the fungus kingdom is not fully understood.
On the basis of observations of the
ratio of the number of fungal species to the number of plant species in selected environments, the
fungal kingdom has been estimated to contain about 1.5 million species;
a recent (2011)
estimate suggests there may be over 5 million species.
In mycology, species have historically
been distinguished by a variety of methods and concepts. Classification based on morphological
characteristics, such as the size and shape of spores or fruiting structures, has traditionally
dominated fungal taxonomy.
Species may also be distinguished by their biochemical and
physiological characteristics, such as their ability to metabolize certain biochemicals, or their
reaction to chemical tests. The biological species concept discriminates species based on their
ability to mate. The application of molecular tools, such as DNA sequencing and phylogenetic
analysis, to study diversity has greatly enhanced the resolution and added robustness to estimates
of genetic diversity within various taxonomic groups.
Mycology is a relatively new science that became systematic after the development of the microscope in
the 16th century. Although fungal spores were first observed by Giambattista della Porta in 1588, the
seminal work in the development of mycology is considered to be the publication of Pier Antonio
Micheli's 1729 work Nova plantarum genera.
Micheli not only observed spores, but showed that
under the proper conditions, they could be induced into growing into the same species of fungi from
which they originated.
Extending the use of the binomial system of nomenclature introduced by Carl
Linnaeus in his Species plantarum (1753), the Dutch Christian Hendrik Persoon (1761–1836) established
the first classification of mushrooms with such skill so as to be considered a founder of modern
mycology. Later, Elias Magnus Fries (1794–1878) further elaborated the classification of fungi, using
spore color and various microscopic characteristics, methods still used by taxonomists today. Other
notable early contributors to mycology in the 17th–19th and early 20th centuries include Miles Joseph
Berkeley, August Carl Joseph Corda, Anton de Bary, the brothers Louis René and Charles Tulasne, Arthur
H. R. Buller, Curtis G. Lloyd, and Pier Andrea Saccardo. The 20th century has seen a modernization of
mycology that has come from advances in biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology.
The use of DNA sequencing technologies and phylogenetic analysis has provided new insights into fungal
relationships and biodiversity, and has challenged traditional morphology-based groupings in fungal
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the systematic study of fungi, including their
genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source of
medicine, food, and psychotropic substances consumed for religious purposes, as well as their
dangers, such as poisoning or infection. The field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases,
is closely related because many plant pathogens are fungi.
In 1729, Pier A. Micheli first published descriptions of fungi.
The use of fungi by humans dates back to prehistory; Ötzi the Iceman, a well-preserved mummy
of a 5,300-year-old Neolithic man found frozen in the Austrian Alps, carried two species of
polypore mushrooms that may have been used as tinder (Fomes fomentarius), or for medicinal
purposes (Piptoporus betulinus).
Ancient peoples have used fungi as food sources–often
unknowingly–for millennia, in the preparation of leavened bread and fermented juices. Some of
the oldest written records contain references to the destruction of crops that were probably
caused by pathogenic fungi.
Ergotamine, a major mycotoxin produced by Claviceps species, which if ingested can cause
gangrene, convulsions, and hallucinations
Many fungi produce biologically active compounds, several of which are toxic to animals or
plants and are therefore called mycotoxins. Of particular relevance to humans are mycotoxins
produced by molds causing food spoilage, and poisonous mushrooms (see above). Particularly
infamous are the lethal amatoxins in some Amanita mushrooms, and ergot alkaloids, which have
a long history of causing serious epidemics of ergotism (St Anthony's Fire) in people consuming
rye or related cereals contaminated with sclerotia of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea.
Other notable mycotoxins include the aflatoxins, which are insidious liver toxins and highly
carcinogenic metabolites produced by certain Aspergillus species often growing in or on grains
and nuts consumed by humans, ochratoxins, patulin, and trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 mycotoxin)
and fumonisins, which have significant impact on human food supplies or animal livestock.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites (or natural products), and research has established the
existence of biochemical pathways solely for the purpose of producing mycotoxins and other
natural products in fungi.
Mycotoxins may provide fitness benefits in terms of physiological
adaptation, competition with other microbes and fungi, and protection from consumption
Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric, gluconic, lactic, and malic
and industrial enzymes, such as lipases used in biological detergents,
used in making cellulosic ethanol
and stonewashed jeans,
proteases and xylanases.
Several species, most notably Psilocybin mushrooms (colloquially
known as magic mushrooms), are ingested for their psychedelic properties, both recreationally
With algae and cyanobacteria
The lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, a symbiosis of fungal, algal, and cyanobacterial species
Lichens are formed by a symbiotic relationship between algae or cyanobacteria (referred to in
lichen terminology as "photobionts") and fungi (mostly various species of ascomycetes and a
few basidiomycetes), in which individual photobiont cells are embedded in a tissue formed by
Lichens occur in every ecosystem on all continents, play a key role in soil
formation and the initiation of biological succession,
and are the dominating life forms in
extreme environments, including polar, alpine, and semiarid desert regions.
They are able to
grow on inhospitable surfaces, including bare soil, rocks, tree bark, wood, shells, barnacles and
As in mycorrhizas, the photobiont provides sugars and other carbohydrates via
photosynthesis, while the fungus provides minerals and water. The functions of both symbiotic
organisms are so closely intertwined that they function almost as a single organism; in most
cases the resulting organism differs greatly from the individual components. Lichenization is a
common mode of nutrition; around 20% of fungi—between 17,500 and 20,000 described
Characteristics common to most lichens include obtaining organic
carbon by photosynthesis, slow growth, small size, long life, long-lasting (seasonal) vegetative
reproductive structures, mineral nutrition obtained largely from airborne sources, and greater
tolerance of desiccation than most other photosynthetic organisms in the same habitat.
See also: List of fungal orders
The major phyla (sometimes called divisions) of fungi have been classified mainly on the basis
of characteristics of their sexual reproductive structures. Currently, seven phyla are proposed:
Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota,
Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.
Arbuscular mycorrhiza seen under microscope. Flax root cortical cells containing paired arbuscules.
Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that the Microsporidia, unicellular parasites of animals
and protists, are fairly recent and highly derived endobiotic fungi (living within the tissue of
One 2006 study concludes that the Microsporidia are a sister group to the
true fungi; that is, they are each other's closest evolutionary relative.
Hibbett and colleagues
suggest that this analysis does not clash with their classification of the Fungi, and although the
Microsporidia are elevated to phylum status, it is acknowledged that further analysis is required
to clarify evolutionary relationships within this group.
The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi are distributed worldwide.
Chytrids produce zoospores that are capable of active movement through aqueous phases with a
single flagellum, leading early taxonomists to classify them as protists. Molecular phylogenies,
inferred from rRNA sequences in ribosomes, suggest that the Chytrids are a basal group
divergent from the other fungal phyla, consisting of four major clades with suggestive evidence
for paraphyly or possibly polyphyly.
The Blastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the
Chytridiomycota. Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the
Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya
(Ascomycota and Basidiomycota). The blastocladiomycetes are saprotrophs, feeding on
decomposing organic matter, and they are parasites of all eukaryotic groups. Unlike their close
relatives, the chytrids, most of which exhibit zygotic meiosis, the blastocladiomycetes undergo
The Neocallimastigomycota were earlier placed in the phylum Chytridomycota. Members of this
small phylum are anaerobic organisms, living in the digestive system of larger herbivorous
mammals and possibly in other terrestrial and aquatic environments. They lack mitochondria but
contain hydrogenosomes of mitochondrial origin. As the related chrytrids,
neocallimastigomycetes form zoospores that are posteriorly uniflagellate or polyflagellate.
Members of the Glomeromycota form arbuscular mycorrhizae, a form of symbiosis wherein
fungal hyphae invade plant root cells and both species benefit from the resulting increased
supply of nutrients. All known Glomeromycota species reproduce asexually.
association between the Glomeromycota and plants is ancient, with evidence dating to 400
million years ago.
Formerly part of the Zygomycota (commonly known as 'sugar' and 'pin'
molds), the Glomeromycota were elevated to phylum status in 2001 and now replace the older
Fungi that were placed in the Zygomycota are now being reassigned to
the Glomeromycota, or the subphyla incertae sedis Mucoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, the
Zoopagomycotina and the Entomophthoromycotina.
Some well-known examples of fungi
formerly in the Zygomycota include black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer), and Pilobolus
species, capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air.
Medically relevant genera
include Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus.
Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile
tissues as well as developing and mature asci.
The Ascomycota, commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, constitute the largest
taxonomic group within the Eumycota.
These fungi form meiotic spores called ascospores,
which are enclosed in a special sac-like structure called an ascus. This phylum includes morels, a
few mushrooms and truffles, single-celled yeasts (e.g., of the genera Saccharomyces,
Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Candida), and many filamentous fungi living as saprotrophs,
parasites, and mutualistic symbionts. Prominent and important genera of filamentous
ascomycetes include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. Many ascomycete
species have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction (called anamorphic species),
but analysis of molecular data has often been able to identify their closest teleomorphs in the
Because the products of meiosis are retained within the sac-like ascus,
ascomycetes have been used for elucidating principles of genetics and heredity (e.g., Neurospora
Members of the Basidiomycota, commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce
meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks called basidia. Most common mushrooms
belong to this group, as well as rust and smut fungi, which are major pathogens of grains. Other
important basidiomycetes include the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis,
species of the genus Malassezia,
and the opportunistic human pathogen, Cryptococcus
binabaybay ding halamang singaw,
(Ingles: fungus [isahan], fungi [maramihan]
isang uri ng organismong nabubuhay na hindi halaman o hayop; hindi rin ito protista, hindi eubakterya,
at hindi rin arkebakterya. Dating iniisip ng mga tao na halaman ang mga ito kaya't pinangalanan itong
halamang singaw. Tinutunaw ng mga halamang singaw ang mga patay na materya sa paligid nito para
magsilbing pagkain nila. Hindi lunti ang kulay ng mga ito. Hindi sila namumulaklak at wala ring mga
dahon. Kabilang dito ang mga kabuti.
Sa larangan ng panggagamot, isa itong malaking pangkat ng mga
"halaman" na walang materya o bagay na pangkulay ng lunti na kinabibilangan ng mga kabuti,
tagulamin, at amag.
Sa isang karamdamang dulot ng halamang-singaw, kinakailangang gamitan ng
mikroskopyo ang pagsusuri ng halamang-singaw sapagkat napakaliit ng mga ito upang makita ng mga
Ang lahat ng bagay na may buhay (mga hayop, mga halaman, mga halamang-singaw, at mga protista) ay
may mga eukaryote (IPA: /juˈˈkærɪɒt/ o IPA: /-oʊt/). Ito ang mga selula na organisado at naka-
pagsamang may estruktura na nasa loob ng mga membrano nila. Ang membrana ay isang uri ng
estruktura na bumabalot sa mga selula at mga organelle nito. Ang katangiang ito ang naghihiwalay sa
eukaryote mula sa mga prokaryote. Ang nukleus ng mga eukaryote ang nagbibigay ng pangalan nila.
ng Eukaryote ay mula sa salitang Griyego na εσ, na ibig sabihin ay "totoo o mabuti" at κάρσον,
na ibig sabihin ay "pili". Karamihan sa mga selulang ito ay mayroong iba't ibang mga organelles
tulad ng mitokondriya, mga kloroplast at mga katawang Golgi. Mayroon din silang flagella na
yari sa mga mikrotubulo. Ang mga mikrotubulong ito ay may 9+2 na pagkaayos.