Govt. College of Engg. & Textile Tech. Berhampore
• Any operation (other than preparation and
coloring) that improves the appearance and/or
usefulness of fabric after it leaves the loom or
Finishing is the final series of operations that
produces finished textile fabric from grey
The word "finish" means all the different
treatments applied to a fabric to change such things
Feel or hand,
Wear ability or care requirements.
Classification of Finishes
• Textile Finishes are classified in several ways:
According to function
• Aesthetic Finishes modify the appearance and /or
hand or drape of the fabrics.
• Napping And Sueding
• Functional Finishes improve the performance
properties of the fabric ; like durability, strength etc.
• Crease resistant
• Flame Resistant
• Shrinkage Control
• Soil Release
• Water Proof/Repellant
• According to the quality
• A finish which is not stable and goes off after the
first wash is known as temporary finish and these
finishes disappears during subsequent washing and
Semi permanent Finishes
• A Finishing on the fabric is said to be semi
permanent finish if it is stable to more than 5 to 10
washes and not afterwards.
• Schreiner Calendering.
• If the finishing effect in the fabric does not
disappear and remains unaffected through all the
conditions of wear and washing treatments, then
the finish is said to be permanent finish.
• Resin Finish
• Water Proof
• Flame Proof
• According to type of machinery
• Chemical finishes are usually applied to fabric by
padding followed by curing and drying. These are
also called as wet Finishes.
• Stiff and transparent
• Flame Retardant
• Soil Release
• Water Proof
• Crease Resistance
• Mechanical Finishes usually involved specific
physical treatment to a fabric surface to cause a
change in fabric appearance. This is also known as
Finishes enhancing appearance
Treatments enhancing appearance include
such processes as
napping and shearing,
calendering or pressing,
Napping and shearing
• Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens,
cottons, spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven
and knitted types, to raise a velvety, soft surface.
• The process involves passing the fabric over revolving
cylinders covered with fine wires that lift the short, loose
fibres, usually from the weft yarns, to the surface, forming a
nap. The process, which increases warmth, is frequently
applied to woollens and worsteds and also to blankets.
• Shearing cuts the raised nap to a uniform height and is
used for the same purpose on pile fabrics.
The amount of shearing depends upon the desired height of
the nap or pile, with such fabrics as gabardine receiving very
• Shearing may also be applied to create stripes and other
patterns by varying surface height
• Also called gassing, singeing is a process applied
to both yarns and fabrics to produce an even
surface by burning off projecting fibres, yarn
ends, and fuzz.
• This is accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn
over a gas flame or heated copper plates at a
speed sufficient to burn away the protruding
material without scorching or burning the yarn or
• These are final processes applied to set the warp and weft of
woven fabrics at right angles to each other, and to stretch
and set the fabric to its final dimensions.
• Tentering stretches width under tension by the use of a
tenter frame, consisting of chains fitted with pins or clips to
hold the selvages of the fabric, and travelling on tracks.
• As the fabric passes through the heated chamber, creases
and wrinkles are removed, the weave is straightened, and
the fabric is dried to its final size.
• When the process is applied to wet wools it is called
A crepe effect may be achieved by finishing. In one method,
which is not permanent, the cloth is passed, in the presence
of steam, between hot rollers filled with indentations
producing waved and puckered areas.
In the more permanent caustic soda method, a caustic soda
paste is rolled onto the fabric in a patterned form; or a resist
paste may be applied to areas to remain unpuckered and the
entire fabric then immersed in caustic soda.
The treated areas shrink, and the untreated areas pucker. If
the pattern is applied in the form of stripes, the effect is
called plissé; an allover design produces blister crepe.
• 1. Napping
Using wire-covered rolls to "dig out" individual fiber ends
to the surface
• 2. Sueding
Using abrasive-covered rolls (sandpaper, emery cloth, etc.)
to produce shorter pile surface - does cause an apparent shade
Special type of raised surface fabric is corduroy
Sueding, sanding- creates softer hand of fabric.
Fire Resistant finishes:
With synthetic fiber which melt on igniting by a flame, the
molten moss is itself quite dangerous and a fire resistant
treatment is desirable for certain end uses.
Polyester fabrics can be made flame resistant by treatment
with an aqueous emulsion of xylene soluble 2,3-
dibromopropyl phosphate in a pad-cure sequence.
A semi-permanent effect can be produced by treating with a
mixture of ammonium bromide and brominated phosphoric
• Stain and Soil Resistant Finishes –
• prevent soil and stains from being attracted to fabrics.
• Such finishes may be resistant to oil-bourne or water-bourne
soil and stains or both.
• Stain and soil resistant finishes can be applied to fabrics
used in clothing and furniture.
• Soil Release Finishes –
• These finishes attract water to the surface of fibres during
cleaning and help remove soil.
• Anti-microbial finishes:
• With the increasing use synthetic fibers for carpets and
other materials in public places, anti-microbial finishes have
• Anti microbial finish Eco-friendly anti microbial finishing
agent for cotton fabrics & Garments.Useful for eliminating
bacterial growth due to sweat.
• Products which are commonly applied are brominated
phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, organo-silver
and tin compounds which can be applied as solutions or
• Mothproofing Finishes protect protein-containing
fibres, such as wool, from being attacked by moths, carpet
beetles and other insects.
• Waterproof Finishes -Aallows no water to penetrate,
but tend to be uncomfortable because they trap moisture
next to the body. Recently, fabrics have been developed that
are waterproof, yet are also breathable .
• Water-Repellent Finishes - Water-repellent finishes
resist wetting. If the fabric becomes very wet, water will
eventually pass through. Applied to fabrics found in
raincoats, all-weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and
shower curtains .
• Peach Finish:
Subjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends)
to emery wheels, makes the surface velvet like. This is a
special finish mostly used in garments.
Finishes for Synthetic fibers
• Heat Setting: Heat setting of synthetic fabrics eliminates the
internal tensions within the fiber generated during manufacture
and the new state can be fixed by rapid cooling.
• This heat setting fixes the fabrics in the relaxed state and thus
avoids subsequent shrinkage or creasing of fabric. Presetting of
goods make it possible to use higher temperature for setting
without considering the sublimation properties of dyes and also
has a favorable effect on dyeing behavior and running properties
• On the other hand, post setting can be combined with some other
operations such as thermosol dyeing or optical brightening of
polyester, post setting as a final finish is useful to get a high
dimensional stability along with desired handle.