Bulk Agro India Pvt Ltd

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We are the exporter of jatropha/Tuba-tuba seeds our seeds are very suitable for high germination/plantation and have a high contaent of oil....

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Bulk Agro India Pvt Ltd

  1. 1. JATROPHA CURCAS
  2. 2. <ul><li>Jatropha Curcas is an excellent biofuel crop. </li></ul><ul><li>Jatropha is perennial which can grow in arid conditions (even deserts), on any kind of ground, and does not require irrigation or suffer in droughts. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a shrub native of Central America, traditionally grown as a hedging, fencing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>English- physic nut, purging nut. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindi - Ratanjyot Jangli erandi. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>It’s a woody crop easy to set up, requires only 600 mm of rainfall annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds production starts in the second year of life, it reaches maturity after 5 years old and it remains in constant production for 20 - 25 years long. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal yields are obtained from the sixth year, and spaced at 2 meter intervals; around 2500 plants can be cultivated per hectare. </li></ul><ul><li>In good conditions it produces 6 Ton seed per hactare. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds contains approximately 35 - 40% of non-edible oil, high quality as biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>About 3 Kgs of seeds give 1 Kg of oil. </li></ul><ul><li>1.05 Kg of oil is required to produce 1 Kg of Biodeisel. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fresh Fruits Matured Fruits Dried Fruits
  5. 5. <ul><li>The by-products are press cake a good organic fertilizer, oil contains also insecticide. </li></ul><ul><li>Medically it is used for diseases like cancer, piles, snakebite, paralysis, dropsy etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Roots: Used as ethno medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>Bark: Yields tannins (37%). </li></ul><ul><li>Whole Plant :- Planted to prevent water erosion and for conservation, Promising live fence, useful as green manure, useful in controlling sand drift, possess Allelopathic properties. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Jatropha Curcas Fruits (Fertilizers) Leaves (Medical Uses / Anti inflammatory Substance / Fertilizers) Latex (Wound Healing Protease (curcain) medical Use) Fruit Coat (medical uses, fertilizers) Seed (insecticide/ food/fodder) Seed oil (Soap, biofuel, Insecticide, Medical Use) Seed Cake (organic fertilizer, Biogas, fodder) Seed Shell (Combustibles, Organic Fertilizer)
  7. 7. DRY (MT/HA) Low Normal High Year 1 0.10 0.25 0.40 Year 2 0.50 1.00 1.50 Year 3 0.75 1.25 1.75 Year 4 0.90 1.75 2.25 Year 5 1.10 2.00 2.75
  8. 8. Irrigation (MT/HA) Low Normal High Year 1 0.75 1.25 2.50 Year 2 1.00 1.50 3.00 Year 3 4.25 5.00 5.00 Year 4 5.25 6.25 8.00 Year 5 5.75 8.00 12.25
  9. 9. <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Use of fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Crop density </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Picking </li></ul><ul><li>Processing and Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and Viability </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Petroleum availability finite - Bio-diesel from renewable sources ensures energy security of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in import of petroleum and thus trade deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Generates employment opportunities for rural masses thereby providing them livelihood support </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation of oil yielding plants such as Jatropha Curcas for bio-diesel will result in greening of waste & fallow lands. It thus helps in Eco-restoration, drought proofing and environmental security. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in achieving Bharat Stage II emission norms from April 1’2005 and Euro III equivalent norms from April 1’2010 in the entire country as targeted in Auto Fuel Policy Report. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Easy to establish, grows quickly, hardy and requires minimum care </li></ul><ul><li>It grows in flood-free wasteland. In fertile land it gives higher yields </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation of Jatropha in rural areas helps in: Employment generation Sources of alternate energy Increased earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Plantations are long term and the plants have multiple uses </li></ul><ul><li>Reclamation of wasteland and degraded land </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for preventing soil erosion including jhum fallows </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a competitor to any crop; rather, it increases yield </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>The micorrhizal value in Jatropha roots helps in getting phosphates from soil – a boon for acidic soil </li></ul><ul><li>Improves soil fertility by fallen leaves throughout their life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses medicinal as well as other multiple uses </li></ul><ul><li>Generates net income for 30-35 years @ Indian Rs.10,000/acre/year approx. from 4th year onwards </li></ul><ul><li>Female: male ratio of flower, which is indicative of productivity, is 1:12 compared to 1:16 to 1:20 in other states of India. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity & Profitability can be increased by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pruning main stem upon 1.5m growth for profuse branching and higher seed yield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foliar spraying with promoters for higher yield of seeds and oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring maximum exposure to sunlight for enhancing seed yield </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel and hence does not require separate infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of bio-diesel in conventional diesel engines results in substantial reduction of un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matters (but NOX about 2 % higher) </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel has almost no sulphur (0.05%) , no aromatics and has about 10 % built-in oxygen which helps in better combustion. </li></ul><ul><li>Its higher Cetane number (> 51 as against 48 in diesel) improves the ignition quality even when blended in the petroleum diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>Require very little or no engine modifications because bio diesel has properties similar to petroleum diesel fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Its higher flash point (>100 as against 35 in diesel) is good from safety point of view </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><ul><li>INDIA HAS TROPICAL ADVANTAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENORMOUS WASTE LANDS & CHEAP FARM LABOUR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIODIESEL IN INDIA CAN BE SUCCESS STORY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual growth rate ~6% compared to world average of 2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil pool deficit & Subsidies Rs 16,000 crores , Rs 18,440 crores (1996-97) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current per capita usage of petroleum is abysmally low (0.1 ton/year) against 4.0 in Germany or 1.5 tons in Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even Malaysia’s figure would be beyond our paying capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our domestic production would meet only 33% of demand at the end of 10th plan and only 27% by 2010-11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INVESTMENT IN BIOFUELS MAKE STRONG ECONOMIC SENSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India with just 2.4% of global area supports more than 16% of the human population and 17% of the cattle population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India is one of the largest importers of edible oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do we find the oil for biodiesel? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sustainable source of vegetable oil is to be found before we can think of biodiesel </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. (Source: Planning Commission, Government of India) Year Diesel Demand (Million Tonne) Biodeisel Requirement (Million Tonne) 2001 – 2002 39.8 1.99 2002- 2003 42.15 2.16 2003- 2004 44.51 2.28 2004- 2005 46.97 2.35 2005- 2006 49.56 2.48 2006- 2007 52.33 2.62
  16. 19. <ul><li>Development of high quality Jatropha through tissue culture / nuclear route – Aditya-Sheel Bio-tech, BARC (Trombay) </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation ongoing by NOVOD, NAEB, NGOs and Pvt. Companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Plants – IITs, IIP (Dehradun), IOC (Faridabad), PAU (Ludhiana), IIS (Bangalore). </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-esterification Plants set up – 1 T/day at Gurgaon, 30 ton/day in Andhra Pradesh, 5T/day in Sivakasi (Tamilnadu). </li></ul><ul><li>D1 Oils India planning for plants of 24T/day in various states. </li></ul><ul><li>Trial Runs by Railways, Mahindra & Mahindra (tractors), Haryana Roadways (IOCL), BEST Buses (HPCL), Daimler Chrysler (Mercedez cars), Tata motors (Trucks & Buses). </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies of Bio-diesel being made to oil companies by Lubrizol India Pvt. Ltd. and Gujarat Oleo Chem. </li></ul><ul><li>Draft Policies/guidelines on Bio-diesel promotion framed by State Governments and Central Government. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Reliance would take up Jatropha plantation in an area of few thousand hectares in Andhra Pradesh/Rajasthan/ Maharashtra/Gujarat </li></ul><ul><li>The Government of Tamil Nadu along with the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University is to implement a developmental scheme on Jatropha curcas, and has a programme to cultivate in 40 000 hectares. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian Railway is to raise jatropha along the railway track, and plans to plant jatropha along 25000-kilometre route on two sides of the track. They plan to replace 10% of their total petro-diesel consumption by jatropha. The project has been started on a large scale. </li></ul><ul><li>The Planning Board of Haryana government is planning to grow jatropha on 50000 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Rajasthan would bring 2.2 lakh hectares under jatropha </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministry of Environment and Forests is working on 20000 hectares of jatropha plantation as part of a CDM (clean development mechanism) project. </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>IOC (Indian Oil Corporation) has planted one lakh saplings on 70 hectares of railway land in Gujarat. </li></ul><ul><li>The UBB (Uttaranchal Biofuels Board) has been constituted to bring two lakh hectares under jatropha plantation by 2012. Here, plantation in 29 van panchayats covering an area of 350 hectares has been done. </li></ul><ul><li>In Haryana, 19 districts have gone for jatropha plantation. In 12 districts, 820 acres of land has been brought under jatropha cultivation with the involvement of 146 gram panchayats. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chhattisgarh government is planning to bring at least one million hectares of land under jatropha cultivation by 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>DBT (Department of Biotechnology) has planted five lakh plants, and has brought 200 hectares of area under plantation. </li></ul><ul><li>SRIPHL (Society for Rural Initiatives for Promotion of Herbals) has put more than 33000 acres under jatropha cover with a target of 100000 ha. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Daimler Chrysler and Hohenheim University are conducting a research project in two different climatic zones of India. Each plantation will consist of 20 hectares of Jatropha trees planted on wastelands. </li></ul><ul><li>Other organization engaged in the field are RCAC (Rural Community Assistance Corporation), women self-help groups, CDRC (Child Development and Rehabilitation Centre), CSMCRI (Central Salts and Marine Chemicals Research Institute), KAWAD (Karnataka Watershed Development Agency), SUTRA, and CRIDA (Central Research Institute for Dry land Agriculture). </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>Non-Forest Areas proposed for Jatropha Plantation </li></ul><ul><li>200 districts in 19 potential states have been identified on the basis of availability of wasteland, rural poverty ratio, below poverty line (BPL) census and agro-climatic conditions suitable for jatropha cultivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Each district will be treated as a block and under each block 15000 ha jatropha plantation will be undertaken through farmers (BPL). </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed to provide green coverage to about 3 Million ha of wasteland through plantation of jatropha in 200 identified districts over a period of 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>In Rajasthan: Ajmer, Alwar, Barmar, Bilwara, Bikaner, Churu, Chittorgarh, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Kota, Sikar, Sawai Madhopur, Udaipur. </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>In these years Biodiesel has steadily emerged from a trial production in back-yard type pilot plants to full industrial type production and marketing with wide and increasing acceptance by the Diesel vehicle industry, the fuel trade, and the end-user in a wide variety of market segments. </li></ul><ul><li>In 21 out of the researched 28 countries Biodiesel was produced and tested within the period of the last 6 years. </li></ul><ul><li>These activities have led or most probably will lead to commercial projects in countries with different structure e.g.: UK, Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Nicaragua, Sweden, USA, Brazil, Canada, Japan, EU, China, Thailand, South Korea, Columbia, Mexico, South Africa, Australia and INDIA. </li></ul><ul><li>While talking about the international scenario, temperature is the most important aspect of climate and can be used to grade climatic zones on a scale of five. </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Tropical, with annual and monthly averages above 20° C (68° F); </li></ul><ul><li>subtropical, with 4 to 11 months above 20° C, and the balance between 10° and 20° C (50° to 68° F); </li></ul><ul><li>temperate, with 4 to 12 months at 10° to 20° C, and the rest cooler; </li></ul><ul><li>cold, with 1 to 4 months at 10° to 20° C, and the rest cooler; and </li></ul><ul><li>Polar, with 12 months below 10° C. </li></ul>
  23. 27. Africa Asia North America South America Australia 1. Algeria 2. Angola 4. Botswana 6.Burundi 7. Cameroon 8. Cape Verde 14. Egypt 17. Ethiopia 20. Ghana 23. Kenya 25. Liberia 26. Libya 27.Madagascar 31. Mauritius 33. Morocco 35. Namibia 37. Nigeria 38. Rwanda 43. Tanzania 47. Zambia 48. Zimbabwe 1. Bangladesh 2. China 3. India 4. Indonesia 5. Laos 6. Malaysia 7. Maldives 8. Mongolia 9. Myanmar 10. Nepal 11. Pakistan 12. Philippines 13. Sri Lanka 14. Syria 15. Thailand 16. Vietnam 17. Yemen 2. Bermuda 3. Costa Rica 4. Dominica 7. Greenland 11. Haiti 12. Honduras 13. Jamaica 15. Mexico 17. Nicaragua 18. Panama 19. Puerto Rico <ul><li>1. Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>4. Chile </li></ul><ul><li>5. Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>7.Falkland </li></ul><ul><li>8. Islands </li></ul><ul><li>9. Guyana </li></ul><ul><li>10. Paraguay </li></ul><ul><li>11. Peru </li></ul><ul><li>13. Uruguay </li></ul><ul><li>14. Venezuela </li></ul>1.Australia 2. Fiji
  24. 28. <ul><li>British Petroleum (UK) Plans to establish 100,000 hectares of jatropha plantations in Indonesia to feed the 350,000-tonne-per-year biodiesel refinery that it is building in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Der Horst Corporation (Singapore) Building a 200,000-tpy biodiesel plant in Juron Island in Singapore that will eventually be supplied with jatropha from plantations it operates in Cambodia and China, and possible new plantations in India, Laos and Burma. </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Biofuels (Australia) Hired Agro Diesel of India to manage a 100,000-heactare Jatropha plantation and a contract farming network in India to feed its Malaysian and Chinese biodiesel refineries. </li></ul><ul><li>D1 Oils Among its many global jatropha operations, it has a joint venture in the Philippines with the Philippine National Oil Company for the operation of a 1,000-hectare Jatropha mega-nursery. </li></ul><ul><li>NRG Chemical Engineering Pte (UK ) signed a US$1.3 billion deal with state-owned Philippine National Oil Co. in May 2007. NRG Chemical will own a 70% stake in the joint venture which will involve the construction of a biodiesel refinery, two ethanol distilleries and a US$600-million investment in Jatropha plantations that will cover over 1 million hectares, mainly on the islands of Palawan and Mindanao. </li></ul>
  25. 29. <ul><li>It is a woody crop requires only 600 mm of rainfall annually. </li></ul><ul><li>It is planted in any kind of land with a minimum spacing of 1.5m x 1.5m and maximum spacing of 3m x 3m. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For single row, hedge plantation, 2mX2m is fine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1 hectare about 2500 plants can be grown. </li></ul><ul><li>They will start producing seeds from the 2 year of plantation. </li></ul><ul><li>The maturity time of the plant is 5 th year and its life span is of 45 – 50 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Every year it will give about 4 – 5 tones of seed which means that we will get about 2 – 3 kg of seeds per plant. </li></ul>
  26. 30. <ul><li>Currently most of the seeds produced in India are sorted and used for the Plantation purpose or for Crushing for the oil purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>About 80% of seeds are used for the plantation purpose and rest for the oil extraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation of Jatropha alone is not economical, as there is less income in the first 2 – 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>So Castor or Soya is intercropped with it in the fallow land to get the income in first 2 – 3 years also. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer application is necessary: “If there is no input, there will be no output” is universally true </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning is necessary for optimum yield </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight is necessary for higher yield (the old rule) </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>Jatropha saplings should be planted 3 months before onset of monsoon on the barren land, so that it will receive rain water during the rainy season. </li></ul><ul><li>During hot summer months about 3 – 5 liters of water should be provided to each plant once in a week. </li></ul><ul><li>After two years it will start yielding seeds and fruits. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is irrigated properly with the required amount of water then it can double the seeds giving capacity. </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>Land : </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Labor / Man Power </li></ul><ul><li>Machines / equipments </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers / manure / pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Water and electricity </li></ul>
  29. 35. <ul><li>􀁹 With a 5000 kg seed at 4 year, irrigation and </li></ul><ul><li>fertilizer investment, ca 1600 USD, yearly operating </li></ul><ul><li>costs of 300 in year 4 and further, the costs of 1 kg </li></ul><ul><li>seed are 0.14 USD/kg with project discount of 3 to 12 </li></ul><ul><li>% (10 , 20 year), which requires the oil to cost 0.61 </li></ul><ul><li>USD/kg with a extraction project discount factor of </li></ul><ul><li>9% (15 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>􀁹 With 8000 kg seed at 4 year, costs are 0.10 USD/kg </li></ul><ul><li>seed and oil at 0.45 USD/kg (idem) </li></ul>
  30. 40. <ul><li>Latin name: Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) </li></ul><ul><li>Famili: Euphorbiaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Plant appearance: shrub/small tree, 3-5 m on </li></ul><ul><li>height. </li></ul>
  31. 41. THANKS… FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION ... [email_address] www.bulkagro.com www.jatrophaseedsbank.com

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