Type 2 fuzzy ontology ahmadchan

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A smart coupling of type-2 fuzzy ontology (T2FO) with a multi-agent
system: A novel mechanism to automate the personalized itinerary

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Type 2 fuzzy ontology ahmadchan

  1. 1. A smart coupling of type-2 fuzzy ontology (T2FO) with a multi-agentsystem: A novel mechanism to automate the personalized itinerary Student Name: Syed Ahmad Chan Bukhari Student Id: 2010214029 Lab: Artificial Intelligence Lab Supervised by: Prof. Yong-Gi Kim Department of Computer Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju Korea 1
  2. 2. Contents• Background and motivation• Past research work• Proposed solution• ST2FO-MAS to automate personalized Itinerary (Problem Intro.)• Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology – Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology (A quick review of terminologies) – Type-1 Fuzzy system – Type-2 Fuzzy system• Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology Development – Crisp ontology development – Type-1 Fuzzy ontology Development – Type-2 Fuzzy ontology development• Multi-Agent System – Terminology, Role, Integration and usage – Architecture and working• Architecture of STFO-MAS and its Application to automate the personalized itinerary – inside decision supported multi-agent pool – Inside the Natural language query processing• Experiments and results – Ontology Evaluation – Overall system evaluation – Extracted results – Graphical efficiency comparison ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 2 itinerary
  3. 3. Background and Motivation• As the internet grows rapidly, millions of web pages are being added on a daily basis• Personalized information extraction and intelligent decision making on it behalf are challenging issues nowadays• Explosive internet heterogeneity making relevant Info. Extraction and intelligent decision making more challenging• Search engines are used commonly to find information• Conventional mechanism of searching: keywords and directory structure• Most of the data on internet is in imprecise, uncertain• Optimal searching not possible by using conventional ways• Currently users spend hours and hours to find desired information from internet• Any solution? ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 3 itinerary
  4. 4. Past research work Researchers Research area/ Domain Year Tools and technologiesYi et al. To represent the Chinese medicines 2010 Ontology, Fuzzy systemZhai et al. SCM 2009 OntologyA. Segev et al. Patent search 2010 OntologyHuiying et al. Enterprise information-retrieval model 2009 NLP, Ontology, AINoy et al. FOGA 2001 Fuzzy system, ANN, OntologyZhai et al. E-commerce domain 2008 Fuzzy Ontologyhang Shing et al. Diet recommendations for diabetic patient 2011 FML, ONTOLOGYC.S. Lee To present the computer Go knowledge 2010 Fuzzy system, ontologyWang, M et al. Automate meetings scheduling 2010 FNL, Ontology, AIJaber et al. Customized learning paths in an e-learning platform 2010 MAS, OntologyS. Yang E-health 2010 MAS, OntologySzu-Yin, L et al. Corporate tacit knowledge 2005 Ontology, AIJung et al. Indirect alignment between multiple language ontologies. 2011 MAS, Ontology, AI ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 4 itinerary
  5. 5. Proposed solution• Researchers proposed several solution but mostly failed with time, due to diverse and fatally vague nature of web data• Some solutions found working but with low precision rate and with high cost• We provide an end-to-end solution to automate the optimal information extraction and decision making• Our system based on: Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology MAS – Why Type-2 fuzzy system used? – Why incorporated Type-2 fuzzy system with ontology? – Why information security important? – What is Ontology and how can we exploit it? – What is the co-relation of MAS, NLP with T2FO and optimal information extraction and decision making?• Domain of application: Personalized itinerary booking (Why use this domain???) ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 5 itinerary
  6. 6. ST2FO-MAS to automate personalized Itinerary (Problem Intro.)• Manual air ticket booking : time consuming and laborious• Easiness of web technology provides opportunity to travel companies to online their portals• Thousands of solutions available now• Passengers spend hours to find acceptable fare• Travelers are anxiously waiting for solution with personalized outcomes Problems Proposed Solution Intensively blurred information Type-2 Fuzzy system Scattered information resources  T2FO and MAS Personalized constraints Type-2 Fuzzy ontology Tour’s operator limitations Information security based on XML Increasing Information security challenges (hacking risks) Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology Limitation of Fuzzy Information NLP acquisition techniques MAS,NLP and T2FO Usability issues Ontology with MAS Process Automation ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 6 itinerary
  7. 7. Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology A quick review of terminologiesOntology:The term ontology has its origin in philosophy and has been applied in many different ways.1. “An ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between those concepts.”2. “Formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization“ Main Components of OntologyIndividuals: instances or objects (the basic or "ground level" objects)Classes: sets, collections, concepts, types of objects, or kinds of things.Attributes: aspects, properties, features, characteristics, or parameters that objects (and classes) can haveRelations: ways in which classes and individuals can be related to one another ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 7 itinerary
  8. 8. Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology (A quick review of terminologies)Common definitions and concepts about type-1 Fuzzy set and type-2Type-1 Fuzzy system• The fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi Zadeh in 1965 to deal with vagueand imprecise concepts.• In classical set theory, elements either belong to a particular set or they don’tbelong.• However, in fuzzy set theory the association of an element with a particular setlies between ‘0’ and ‘1’ which is called degree of association or membershipdegree. A fuzzy set can be defined as:Definition 1: A fuzzy set ‘s’ over universe of discourse ‘X’ can be defined by itsmembership function µ_s which maps element ‘x’ to values between [0,1]. ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 8 itinerary
  9. 9. Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology (A quick review of terminologies)Type-2 Fuzzy System• Type-1 or conventional fuzzy logic can handle the uncertainty at certain level. Some Fact• vagueness are the vital parts of any real-time system• Uncertainty and vagueness is increasing continuously due to heterogeneity. How to handle the extensive blurred information?Solution: Type-2 Fuzzy logic• Type-2 fuzzy logic is the extended version of classical fuzzy set theory.• In type-1 fuzzy set theory, the membership values are crisp, while type-2 fuzzy systems have fuzzy membership values. 9
  10. 10. Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology (Ontology Development)OUR Proposed formation of Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology Building ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 10 itinerary
  11. 11. Development of Secure type-2 fuzzy ontology The anatomy of Type-2 Secured Fuzzy Ontology (LayeredDomain Ontology Development steps Architecture) 1. Determine the domain and scope of the ontology. 2. Consider reusing existing ontologies. 3. Enumerate important terms in the ontology. 4. Define the classes and the class hierarchy. 5. Define the properties of the classes. 6. Define the facets of the slots. 7. Create instances.Language: OWL-2 , RDF and ProtégéReasoner: Pellet, DeLorean ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 11 itinerary
  12. 12. Development of Secure type-2 fuzzy ontology• Fuzzy ontology can be defined in the form of fuzzy sets.• Let be fuzzy class in universe of discourse µ then and the relationship between two ontology classes are fuzzy relation• Annotation feature of protégé is used to define fuzzy concept in fuzzy ontology• Manual process of annotation adding is a complex and error pruning• Protégé fuzzy OWL tab helps us to make this process handy• A class of cheap ticket can be described in to fuzzy form as:•Similarly very cheap ticket can be expressed as: 12
  13. 13. Development of Secure type-2 fuzzy ontology 13Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology of Ticket Booking Domain
  14. 14. Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology (Information security)Why information security important?• Information is the most valuable assets of any organization.• Nowadays, secure information has become a strategic issue for onlinebusinesses.• In ontology, all kind of information is shared in plain text format.• This raises the issues of information leakage, altering and deletion ofinformation contentsPossible Information security Challenges• DOS attack on server• XML content exploit attack (data holders: CDATA,PCDATA, NUMBER)• X-Path altering attack (also known as XML bomb) Light Weight solution for content security• XML security recommendations developed by W3C •XML digital signature • XML encryption • XML key management specification (XKMS) •security assertion markup language • XML access control markup language XACML) 14
  15. 15. Secure Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology (Information security: Application scheme)<? XML version="1.0"?><! DOCTYPE Ontology [<! ENTITY xsd "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" > ]><owlx:Ontology owlx:name="http://www.ailab.gnu.ac.kr/t2fo"xmlns:owlx="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/owl-xml"> <CustomerInfo xmlns=http://www.ailab.gnu.ac.kr/st2fo-mas/person_ontology> <Name>ahmad chan</Name><EncryptedData Type=http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Element xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#> <EncryptionMethod Algorithm=http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#tripledes-cbc/><KeyInfo xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#> <EncryptedKey xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#> <EncryptionMethod Algorithm=http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#rsa-1_5/><KeyInfo xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#> <KeyName>white tiger</KeyName></KeyInfo><CipherData> <CipherValue>vHE@#$&&JUIOFdefghj...</CipherValue></CipherData></EncryptedKey></KeyInfo><CipherData> <CipherValue>yyFE%!JJNIcflijnvcthsdrtg...</CipherValue></CipherData></EncryptedData></CustomerInfo></owlx:Ontology> ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 15 itinerary
  16. 16. Multi-agent system ( Terminology, Role, Integration and usage)• Diversity and complexity factors are increasing day by day in modern software applications.• The multi-Agent system is considered an efficient technology in the development of distributed systems.• A multi-Agent system is basically the group of interconnected agents, in which each agent works autonomously while sharing information.• An agent is a bunch of code which is designed to perform a specific task on the behalf of its user.Why we used MAS? Our domain is diverse Complex and unstructured For automatic information extraction For intelligent decision making ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 16 itinerary
  17. 17. Multi-agent system ( Architecture and working) ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 17 itinerary
  18. 18. A graphical architecture of STFO-MAS and its Application to automate thepersonalized itinerary 2 3 1 4 5 6 7 8 18
  19. 19. Whats inside decision supported multi-agent pool? Agent Name Agent Acronym Funcationality Query Processing Agent QPA  Natural language to query building  Query Processing  Query Optimization Personal Preferences and PPSA  Interaction with personal ontology Schedule Maintaining Agent  Communication with other agents to rovide the personal preferences information  Monitoring the information process and implementations of user constraints. Type-2 Fuzzy Inference T2FIA  Crtical decision making based on information Engine Agent  Remain in touch all the time with PPSA and SBTA  Responsible for making underlying connection with fuzzy ontology Secured Bank Transaction SBTA  Receiving requests for transaction. Agent  Authentication  Resorce allocation  Transaction processing  Log generation Ticket reservation Agent TRA  Making connection with travel agency databases  Finding and reserving of the optimal ticket  Keep in touch with T2FIA AND PPSA Multi-agent system schema ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 19 itinerary
  20. 20. Whats Inside the Natural language query processing agent (QPA)?I(noun) want to(preposition) go(verb)from(preposition) Seoul(noun) toLondon(noun) to attend(preposition) ameeting(verb) . The meeting will beheld afternoon (noun, adjective), so Iwant to take (verb) vegetables (noun)in lunch (noun). Please book (verb) aticket (noun) of economy class (noun+adjective) with cheap rate (noun+adjective) and minimum delay (noun+adjective).” ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 20 itinerary
  21. 21. Experiments and resultsOntology Evaluation • We evaluated the ontology after completion of each phase of T2FO development to measure the efficiency •We used Manchester OWL-2 syntax of DL-query to evaluate the efficiency of ontology Some queries results are: ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 21 itinerary
  22. 22. Experiments and results System security Evaluator ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 22 itinerary
  23. 23. Experiments and results Overall system evaluation•Information system can be categorized on the basis ofits effectiveness.•There are some known ways to define the efficiency of aninformation system, such as the precision, recall and time• To exact judge the performance, we requested five volunteer tohelp us in experiments.•The volunteers enquired from the system by using crisp ontologyand Type-2 fuzzy ontology.• we noted the time, precision and recall in each mode• Mathematically, the precision and recall can be expressed as the following:here ‘ce’ is the total number of records that are extracted from the internet,and ‘te’ and ‘fe’ represent the true and false elements in the extracted records. ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 23 itinerary
  24. 24. Experiments and results (Extracted results) Overall system performance results recoded in the case of the secured type-1 fuzzy ontology. Total Number of No of False Precision Recall Job Number of True Elements (fe) Percentage Percentage Completion Resource Elements (te) (PP) (%) (RC) (%) Time (JCT) Extracted (Seconds) Corpus 1 (ce) Volunteer 1 569 191 378 61.1 74.8 180 Volunteer 2 479 146 333 58.9 76.6 234 Volunteer 3 587 275 312 58.1 68.1 156 Volunteer 4 389 87 302 94.8 81.8 132 Volunteer 5 495 198 297 62.5 71.5 210 Overall system performance results recoded in the case of the secured type-1 fuzzy ontology. Total Number Number of No of False Precision Recall Job Completion of Resource True Elements Elements (fe) Percentage (PP) Percentage (RC) Time (JCT) Extracted (te) (%) (%) (Seconds) Corpus 1 (ce) Volunteer 1 569 311 258 68.8 71.2 228 Volunteer 2 479 292 187 71.9 67.3 258 Volunteer 3 587 496 91 86.5 54.2 286 Volunteer 4 389 278 111 77.9 58.3 305 Volunteer 5 495 267 228 68.5 64.9 315 ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 24 itinerary
  25. 25. Experiments and results Overall system performance results recoded in the case of the secured type-2 fuzzy ontology. Total Number of No of False Precision Recall Job Number of True Elements (fe) Percentage Percentage Completion Resource Elements (te) (PR) (%) (RC) (%) Time (JCT) Extracted (Seconds) Corpus 1 (ce) Volunteer 1 569 437 159 78.2 56.5 336 Volunteer 2 479 337 142 77.2 58.8 319 Volunteer 3 587 530 57 91.1 52.55 422 Volunteer 4 389 279 110 77.9 58.23 357 Volunteer 5 495 391 104 82.6 55.3 467 ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 25 itinerary
  26. 26. Experiments and results (Efficiency Comparison) Crisp ontology Case Fuzzy ontology Case ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 26 itinerary
  27. 27. Experiments and results (Efficiency Comparison) Type-2 Fuzzy ontology Case Combine Efficiency Analysis ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 27 itinerary
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  31. 31. Many Thanks for your Kind attention! ST2FO-MAS to automate personlized 31 itinerary

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