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    Bao cao datn Bao cao datn Document Transcript

    • QUADROCOPTER GVHD: Th.S SVTH : MSSV: 06111089 SVTH : MSSV: 06111096 1 11i
    • ---o0o--- ---o0o--- MSSV: 06111089 MSSV: 06111096 611111.1. BAY QUADROCOPTER1.2. - Quad - Quadrocopter - LabVIEW 1. : 30/08/2010 2. 21/01/2011 3. . 4. ThS. ..................... .................................................... ........................................... ......................................... .................................... ii
    • g TP. 11 Th.S iii
    • N TP. ng 11 Th.S iv
    • , - , trong hoa CB h p t P.HCM V , , , - , . 01 01 11 v
    • Quad Quadrotor H (Inertial ) hai PIDcho vi
    • ABSTRACT A Quadrocopter, also called a Quadrotor Helicopter, is an aircraft that is lifted byfour rotors on a cross-shaped frame. We succeeded in building a Quadrocopter with stiff and lightweight structure.Our Quadrocopter in-flight dynamics was measured via an IMU (InertialMeasurement Unit) which equipped with a dual-axis gyroscope and a three axis tilt-sensor. A microcontroller took these sensor inputs and performed PID controlalgorithm on the four motors by varying PWM signals sent to each of the motors. vii
    • i ii iii iv v viAbstract vii viii x xiii xiv 1.1 Quadrocopter 1 1 3 1.2 4 1.2.1 Quadrocopter 4 1.2.2 7 1.2.3 10 1.3 12 1.4 13 2: 2.1 Quadrocopter 14 2.2 Quadrocopter 17 2.2.1 17 2.2.2 20 2.2.3 -Euler 21 2.2.4 27 2.3 32 2.4 36 2.4.1 36 2.4.2 ? 36 2.4.3 38 viii
    • 2.4.4 38 2.4.5 40 2.5 - LabVIEW 42 2.5.1 LabVIEW 42 2.5.2 LabVIEW 43 QUADROCOPTER 3.1 46 3.2 47 3.3 51 3.3.1 52 3.3.2 53 3.3.3 Module RF 57 3.3 58 3.3.5 59 3.4 61 4.1 Quadrocopter 64 4.1.1 X 64 4.1.2 T 65 4.1.3 X 66 4.2 LabVIEW 67 4.2.1 67 4.2.2 69 4.3 73 4.3.1 Motor 73 77 5.1 84 5.2 85 5.3 85 86 Quadrocopter 87P V ATmega128 88 ix
    • -rex 600 1 1 2 Quadrocopter 2 Quadrocopter 3 4 - Richet Gyroplane No.1 5 Quad 5 6 6 - 7 - 8 8 9 9 - 10 11 Quad 11 Quad 12 Quadrocopter 14 15 15 16 162.6 Yaw 17 17 Quadrocopter 20 25 28 292.12 31 32 32 33 x
    • 33 34 35 35 37 37 38 40 40 41 LabVIEW 42 LabVIEW 43 44 44 45 m 45 LabVIEW 45 462 47 48 49 49 50 50 50 5110 52 1 52 2 53 53 4 54 5 55 6 56 7 57 8 57 xi
    • 9 58 20 Brushless motor FC2835-10T 59 21 -1060Rx3 59 2 60 23 ESC HiModel GX-40A 60 4 ESC Hobbywing Pentium 30A 61 5 61 6 62 7 62H 8 63 64 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 68 69 70 71 71 72 72 73 76 8 2 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 5 83 xii
    • 57 58 -10T 59HiModel GX-40A 60 A 61 74 75 xiii
    • I. : X m xE Y m yE Z m zE rad rad rad u m/s xB v m/s yB w m/s zB p rad/s xB q rad/s yB r rad/s zB E m E E m E E m/s2 E rad E E rad/s E rad/s2 VE m/s vector v E VB m/s vector B B m/s2 v B B rad/s vector B rad/s2 - E - - vector v theo - - vector v n t c t - xiv
    • - EF N theoFB N theoFGE N BF G NGB ( ) -GH -UB -U1 NU2 NmU3 NmU4 Nm B B Nm moment theoR -T -J -EB - BEH ( ) - HMB -MH - ma tr th ng uHOB ( ) - BOH ( ) - HCB ( ) -CH ( ) - HS(... ) - rad/s 1 rad/s 2 rad/s 3 rad/s 4 rad/sTMT NTBET N xv
    • QBET Nm A kg/s p1 Pa p2 Pa p Pa p- Pa v1 m/s v2 m/s vI m/s v m/s v- m/s vV m/s vH m/s i t P rad/s dDBET N/ m dLBET N/ m dFBET N/ m c dTBET N/ m dHBET N/m I rad Io rad Itw rad I radII. a rad-1 2 A m2 75.5 x 10-3 b N s2 54,2 x 10-6 bBET N s2 54,2 x 10-6 bMT N s2 54,2 x 10-6 c m 0.02 CD - 0.05 CL - 0.05 (lift) xvi
    • d N m s2 1.1 x 10-6g m/s 2 9.81 gia tJ TP Nms2 104x10-6l m 0.22 Quadm kg 1.365 QuadrocopterNB - 2 A kg/m3 29 xvii
    • 1.1 nhau gi Quadrocopter [1](Quadrocopter, Quadrotor hay Quad - - - , gi sau:1.1.1 Quad -rex 600 1
    • 3 Helicopter Quad - - Quadrocopter - - - -Quad Quadrocopter. 2
    • Quad Quad nh. Quad 5 Quadrocopter -sau: - : - :t 4 - - - -sau).1.1.2 Quad (gyroscope) (accelero-meter) Quad Quad 3
    • Quad1.21.2.1 Quadrocopter C Quadro- copter 1.6 Quadrocopter Charles Richet Richet Gyroplane No.1 y- - Quadrocopter 75Kg - .5m. 4
    • nh 1.7 Breguet- Richet Gyroplane No.1 Quadrocopter 8 2Quadrocopter . 1.8 Quad 5
    • QuadrocopterQuadrocopter 1956, Convertawings l t Oemichen G. de Bothezat .B theosong song. . hai . hai xoay . Convertawings Model A Quad , Quadrocopter v [14] bay . 6
    • 1.2.2Quadrocopter a - anfly Innovations [1] 11 - Innovations - - - - - - - [1] -(Vertical Take Off and Landing Autonomous Unmanned Micro Aerial Vehicle) hayAAHRS ( Altitude and Attitude and H MD4- 7
    • Khung MD4- - - - 12 - 13c ParrotAR. - , b 8
    • Augmented 14d MikroKopter [13] 15 - Quad 9
    • 1.2.3 trong a. Quadrocopter t .HCM - .HCM. 16 M - Theo PGS- - .HCM, [12] b. Quadrocopter tQuad Quad scope 10
    • 17 c. Quadrocopter Quad -Quad ,H cho 8 Quadroto H scope 11
    • 9 Quad K Q , .1.3 Quadrocopter v.v Do trong - Quadrocopter. - - - 12
    • c - Quadrocopter l PWM. - (gyroscope accelerometer) Quad .1.4 : - - -T h : - Quadrocopter. - . - - LabVIEW. 13
    • 2.1 Quadrocopter [2] Quadrocopter (front) (back) (right) (left) oment 4 Quadrocopter(throttle up/down) xoay (roll) .(yaw) i so v sau Quadrocopter . , Quadrocopter motor QuadrocopterQuadrocopter. Quadrocopter: 14
    • Quad 2 Quadrocopter. a. Hover: Quad 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = H). 2 Hover b. Throttle: Quad Quad 3 Throttle + b. H A H Quad A Quadrocopter. c. Roll: Quadmoment c Xb 15
    • 4 Roll + b. H A B A B H.d. Pitch: Quadrocopter bay lui b. 5 Pitch + : quanh b. H A B A B H.e. Yaw: Quadrocopter b theosau 2 , 2 Quadrocopter quay quanh tr c Zb theo quay) quanh tr c Zb theo 16
    • 6 Yaw : + b. H A B A B H.2.2 Quadrocopter [2]2.2.1 7 - E E [m] [rad] Quadrocopter. - Quadrocopter, d V B [m/s], v B [rad/s], [N], vmoment [Nm] Quadrocopter. 17
    • OE: g c . xE: yE: zE: (xE,yE OB: g Quadrocopter. xB: Quadrocopter. yB: Quadrocopter. zB: E- Vector v [m] E B: T E = [X Y Z ] (2.1) E- [rad] T E (2.2) E E=> : =[ E E] T = [X Y Z ]T (2.3)- V B [m/s]: V B = [u v w ] T (2.4) B- [rad/s]: B = [p q r] T (2.5)=> : B T = [V B ] = [u v w p q r] T (2.6)-V R , TJ .- RR = R( , z) R( , y) R( , x) = (2.7) ck = cos k, sk = sin k, t k = tan k. Xoay E (yaw): = (2.8) 18
    • 1 (pitch): R( , y)= (2.9) 2 (roll): R( , x)= (2.10)- T : T = (2.11)- J : J = (2.12) 3x3- J : =J . (2.13)- VE = E = R .V B (2.14)- T : B =T . (2.15) 19
    • 2.2.2 Quadrocopter. 8 Quadrocopter m. E = FE => m. = R .FB => m( ) = R .FB => m ( ) = R .FB => m( ) = FB (2.16) m [kg] Quadrocopter. FE [N] v E [m/s2] [m/s2] [-] I. = => I. =T . => I. + x (I. )= T . (2.17) I [Nms2] [rad/s2] vector [rad/s2] vector 20
    • hai 2.16 2.17), : + = (2.18) I3 3 3x3. FB ent Quadrocopter.2.2.3 Newton-Euler : . . 2.13) =J (2.13) J E EQuadrocopter =[ E E] T = [X Y Z ]T (2.3) V B [m/s B [rad/sQuadrocopter B T = [V B ] = [u v w p q r] T (2.6) nt J J = (2.12) Ma tr n quay R n chuy n v T R = (2.7) T = (2.11) 21
    • 2.18): + = (2.18) OB I Quadrocopter 2.19): =[ ] T = [Fx Fy Fz x y z] T (2.19) 2.18 MB + CB ( ) = (2.20) MB CB ( ) 2.21 MB = = (2.21) MB the 2.22CB ( ) = = (2.22) k theo 2.23): T (k) = = (2.23) 2.20 Quad Quadrocopter. Quadrocopter. 22
    • GB ( 2 (2.24) GB ( ). B 1 T GB ( ) = FG = R FGE = R = (2.24) FGB FGE R R 1 RT . hai Quadrocopte(2.25): 4 OB ( ) J TP k 1 = J TP J TP (2.25) OB ( J TP 104x10-6 Nms2) (2.26) [rad/s] [rad/s] 2.25): = 1 + 2 3+ 4 = (2.26) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 ba 23
    • moment 2 EB UB 2 2 b [Ns ] d [Nms ]sau. (2.27) Quadrocopter: 2 UB EB = = (2.27) Quadrocopter , ,moment . EB (2.28): EB = (2.28) T 2.20 ng l c h c Quadrocopter 2.29): 2 MB + CB ( ) = GB ( ) + OB ( ) + EB (2.29) S px pl 2.29 nt cttheo h tr c B: 2 = MB ( CB ( ) + GB ( ) + OB ( ) + EB ) (2.30) u th i d ng h J TP (2.31) J TP 24
    • (2.32) IXX, IYY , IZZ c c: Id ch chuy n = I + MD2 v i M [Kg] ng c a v t th . D [m] d ch chuy n c a v t th so v i tr . => IXX = M (W2/12 + H2/12) + M (DY2 + DZ2) IYY = M (L2/12 + H2/12) + M (DX2 + DZ2) IZZ = M (W2/12 + L2/12) + M (DX2 + DY2) 9 H th ng h c c a Quadrocopter h 2.31 c vi t trongh tr c B c c p, tham chi c s d ng r ng 6 b c t ng h h ng l c h c n k t h p gi h tr tr c bi udi n trong h tr c m i, t m g tr um cch ng l c h c k t h p v u khi n (nhth ng c a h tr (2.33) bi u di n vector v n t c t ng tr c H : B T =[ E ] = [X Y Z ]T (2.33) H th ng l c h tr c vi t l i d ng ma tr n theo (2.34): 2 MH + CH ( ) = GH + OH ( + EH ( (2.34) ct tr c H. Ma tr th tr c H MH b ng v i ma trh tr 2.21 2.35): 25
    • M H = MB = = (2.35) i, ma tr H CH ( ) ng v i matr n Coriolis tr 2.36): CH ( ) = = (2.36) Vector h p d tr c H GH(2.37 th nc ng h c. E GH = FG = (2.37) u ng con quay h i chuy i, b ch tr c B. Ma tr t h i chuytheo h tr 2.25 2.38). OH ( = OB ( ) J TP J TP (2.38) Ma tr n chuy tr c H EH tr nc n quay . K t qu cma tr n chuy ng v i t c ch 2.39): 2 2 EH ( = EB = (2.39) S px pl 2.34 nt cttheo h tr c H: 2 = MH ( CH ( ) + G H + OH ( ) + EH ( ) ) (2.40) 26
    • X Y Z J TP (2.41) J TP -Euler c Quadrocopter. qu tr c B, c cho 2.32).2.2.4 - - MT) - - BET) g - - - - - TMT [N] v- [m/s] v1 [m/s] v2 [m/s] v+ [m/s] 27
    • p- [Pa] p1 [Pa] . p2 [Pa] p+ [Pa] 10 1 2). TMT = A(p1 p2 ) TMT = A (v- - v+ ) = A A v1 (v- - v+ ) A [m2 A A [kg/m3 1v2 -sau: 2 2 p- + A v- = p1 + A v1 2 2 p2 + A v2 = p+ + A v+ + = p- v1 = (v+ + v- )/2 vI = (v1 v- ) = (v+ v- )/2 28
    • TMT =2 A A v1 vI v- = 0, suy ra v1 = vI MT = Wp = WP = 2 A A vI2 vI = [m/s] [- = vI / ( H RP). H P 2.11 11I [rad] T 29
    • vT [m/s] H V I t dDBET dLBET dFBET [N/m] BET BETdFBETdTBET ngang dHBET[N/m]. v H vv = vI = P RP vH = P r= P RP (r/ RP) P 2 dLBET = 0.5 A vH CL c dr. 2 dLBET = 0.5 A vH CD c dr. CL[- D[- L a [rad-1 -1 a ]. CL = a =a ( I I) Iot Itw I = Io - Itw I: I = dLBET = A vH2a ( Io - Itw - ) c dr theo dTBET I dTBET = dLBET cos I - dDBET sin I dLBET TBETdTBET B [-] l B ). 30
    • 2 TBET = NB (dTBET / dr)dr = NB Aa c P RP3 Io/6 - Itw/8 - /4). ngang dHBET I dHBET = dDBET cos I + dLBET sin I dDBET + dLBET BET BET QBET [Nm] = NB ((dBBET / dr) + (dLBET / dr) ) r dr 2 = NB Ac P RP4 (CD/8 +a Io/6 - Itw/8 - /4) c. cqua 12 . . 31
    • [3] [4]2.3 g. 3 4 32
    • BLDC cho . Electronic Speed Controller) , pha. BLDC, n rotor 5 ESC50Hz. 6 33
    • 7 - - 1 (xungBEMF Back ElectroMagnetic Field pulses).xung BEMF. 34
    • 8 [13]9 . Khi 35
    • g moment [5] [6]2.42.4.1 X(k)=S(k)+N(k) M k 1 N (k ) 0 M M M X (k ) S (k ) k 1 k 12.4.2 "A New Approach to Linear Filtering and Prediction Problems" 36
    • trong . .accelerometer gyroscope. 2.20 : 2.21 37
    • 2.4.3 Kalman x 2.22 2.222.4.4 xk A * xk 1 B * uk 1 w k 1 (1) z k H * xk vk (2) A - x A B u u l. 38
    • w~N(0,Q) v ~N(0,R) .tr ek xk xk ek xk xk c: Pk E ek ek T T Pk E ek ek sau: xk xk K * zk H * xk (3) H * xk ek K * z k H * x k k k k theo K, ta k Kk Pk H T ( HPk H T R) 1 Kk 1- 2- 39
    • ta xk 1 - uk 1 (g x0 H z0 ta 2.23. 2.232.4.5 2.24 Bode 40
    • 2.25 , gyroscope, ... 41
    • .2.5 - LabVIEW2.5.1 LabVIEW LabVIEW ( National Instruments, . LabVIEW ,... ( LabVIEW ysinh, v.v LabVIEW: - - LabVIEW 42
    • - - Lab,... - LabVIEW. - ...2.5.2 LabVIEW LabVIEW VI (Virtual Instrument). *. Front Panel Block Diagram. 2.27 Front P D LabVIEW LabVIEW : - Panel):LabVIEW (controls) (indicators) 43
    • 2.28 Front panel Controls = Inputs Indicators = Outputs , trong 2.29 trong Front Panel- Diagram): . 44
    • 30 Block Diagram, Block Diagram funtions) Panel. 31 LabVIEW i 32 LabVIEW 45
    • QUADROCOPTER3.1 RS-232 Thu RF ESCs Pin Lipo Joysticks Khung Motors Quadrocopter : Pin 9V : : - Volt roll pitch - Quadrocopter - 46
    • 3.2 thanh QuadrocopterQuadrocopter o. Quadrocopter l hanhD / . thanh 20mm = 254mm), .0mm . k Quadrocopter phay CNC . 3.2 , 47
    • Sau mkhi 3.3 Quad- 48
    • - prop saver- 3.4 3.5 49
    • 3.63.73.8 50
    • - 40% , Newton-Euler 3.93.3 : - - - Quadrocopter 51
    • 3.3.1 3.10 (Spread Spectrum 3.11 52
    • 3.12 -3.3.2 53
    • 3.14--- - .- 54
    • 55
    • 3.16ATmega ATmega8 MHz raBaud khi UART, , ATmega ATmega - -bit. 56
    • . 3.173.3.3 Module RF 915MHz UART 8-bit, 19200bps, c . 3.18 Module RF UART 3.1 57
    • 3.3.4 IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit , 6 : .IMU 5 ( IDG650 ) gyro LISY300AL . 3.19 LISY300AL 3.2 LISY300AL IDG650 MMA7361L 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V 2000 o/s 1.5 g 00 o/s 440 o/s 6.0 g 0.5 mV/ o/s 800 mV/g 3.3 mV/ o/s 2.27 mV/ o/s 206 mV/g 4.5 KHz 25 KHz 6.0 KHz / / 400 Hz , . Tuy ra gyroscope . 58
    • 3.3.5 T FC2835-10T1.2Kg. 3.20 Brushless motor FC2835-10T BLDC FC2835-10T 3.3 T -10T STT 1 2 3 25 (Ampere) 4 1200 (gram) 5 < 10x7 (inch) 21 EP-1060Rx3 59
    • 22 EPP1045 Quad er).tractor , Quad . - cho [9] : cho . BLDC 3.23 ESC HiModel GX-40A 3.4 T ESC HiModel GX-40A STT 1 (Volt) 2 3 BEC (battery eliminator circuit) 2A / 5V 4 8KHz 5 Programmable No 60
    • 3.24 ESC Hobbywing Pentium 30A 3.5 T Hobbywing Pentium 30A STT 1 5.6 6.8 (Volt) 2 3 BEC (battery eliminator circuit) 2A / 5V 4 8KHz 5 Programmable Yes brushless DC motor: ESC .0 .0 .0 .0ms. ATmega12 2 Timer 16- 6 , BLDCQuadrocopter . .3.4 Sai , =0 PWM Quadro- , _ ESC PID 3 copter pha IMU 3.25 61
    • 3.26 . , 3.27 62
    • pitch, roll : Start (throttle, roll, pitch, yaw) (roll, pitch, yaw)3.28 63
    • 4.1. Quadrocopter4.1.1 X o [10] Vector ).ra t sinXZ = sin(Axz) = Rx / Rxz ; cosZX = cos(Axz) = Rz / Rxz sinYZ = sin(Ayz) = Ry / Ryz ; cosZY = cos(Ayz) = Rz / Ryz => tanXZ = tan(Axz) = sinXZ / cosXZ = Rx / Rz tanYZ = tan(Ayz) = sinYZ / cosYZ = Ry / Rz => Axz = arctanXZ = atan2(Rx, Rz) Ayz = arctanYZ = atan2(Ry, Rz) Rx Ry Rz ng ADC 10-bit: Rx = (ADC_Rx * Vref / 1023 VzeroGx) / Sensitivity Ry = (ADC_Ry * Vref / 1023 VzeroGy) / Sensitivity Rz = (ADC_Rz * Vref / 1023 VzeroGz) / Sensitivity gyroscope : RateAxz = (ADC_GyroXZ * Vref / 1023 VzeroRatexz) / Sensitivity RateAyz = (ADC_GyroYZ * Vref / 1023 VzeroRateyz) / Sensitivity 64
    • 4.1.2 Kalman : [11] { // Inputs u = gyros; y = angle; // Update the state estimate // x = A * x + B * u x_00 += (A_01 * x_10) + (B_00 * u); // Compute the innovation -- error between measured value and state // inn = y - c * x inn_00 = y - x_00; // Compute the covariance of the innovation // s = C * P * C + Sz s_00 = P_00 + Sz; // Compute AP matrix for use below // AP = A * P AP_00 = P_00 + A_01 * P_10; AP_01 = P_01 + A_01 * P_11; AP_10 = P_10; AP_11 = P_11; // Compute the kalman gain matrix // K = A * P * C * inv(s) K_00 = AP_00 / s_00; K_10 = AP_10 / s_00; // Update the state estimate // x = x + K * inn x_00 += K_00 * inn_00; x_10 += K_10 * inn_00; // Compute the new covariance of the estimation error // P = A * P * A - K * C * P * A + Sw APAT_00 = AP_00 + (AP_01 * A_01); APAT_01 = AP_01; APAT_10 = AP_10 + (AP_11 * A_01); APAT_11 = AP_11; KCPAT_00 = (K_00 * P_00) + (K_00 * P_01) * A_01; KCPAT_01 = (K_00 * P_01); KCPAT_10 = (K_10 * P_00) + (K_10 * P_01) * A_01; KCPAT_11 = (K_10 * P_01); P_00 = APAT_00 - KCPAT_00 + Sw_00; P_01 = APAT_01 - KCPAT_01; P_10 = APAT_10 - KCPAT_10; P_11 = APAT_11 - KCPAT_11 + Sw_11; // Output return = x_00; } 65
    • 4.1.3 Kalman - = A_01 = B_00 - = 0.3 rad = 17.2o - Q angle = 0.0001 Q gyro = 0.0003 2 accelerometer con quay gyroscope 66
    • 4.2. LabVIEW [7] [8]4.2.1 3 LabVIEW ATmega LabVIEW 4 LabVIEW 67
    • SA -time out, stop bit, VISA resource name ( ). 4.5 K - VISA 6 K -V 4.7 K 4.8 K Code script Node: 4.9 script Node 68
    • 4.2.2 Quadrocopter Quadrocopte 4 hai pitch, roll. 4.10 QuadrocopterQuad 69
    • :4.11 Quad Quadrocopter. 70
    • 4.12 Block Diagram c i sub VI:- VI Artificial Horizon /Roll 4.13 ial Horizon 71
    • -K : Quad 4.14 Node rong LabVIEW c 3D LabVIEW. 5 3D 72
    • 4.3.4.3.1 Motor Thrust Motor Motor Motor E-4 E-4 E-4 90o 1Kg Balance Scale 16 o khung Quadrocopter . HiModel GX-40A,motor FC2835-10T GWS EP-1060Rx3. ATmega Timer 16- Phase and Frequency Correct, giESC. [15] Hobbywing Pentium30 sang EPP1045. ATmega Timer 16- Fast PWM 2 4 . Sau 73
    • 4.1 (1)Thrust (g) Front Back Right Left 10 1107 - 1107 - 1107 - 1107 - 20 1123 16 1123 16 1123 16 1123 16 30 1135 12 1134 11 1132 9 1131 8 40 1142 7 1141 7 1140 8 1140 9 50 1155 13 1148 7 1148 8 1145 5 60 1164 9 1158 10 1156 8 1154 9 70 1172 8 1167 9 1168 12 1164 10 80 1181 9 1173 6 1175 7 1172 8 90 1190 9 1184 11 1184 9 1183 11 100 1202 12 1192 8 1192 8 1188 5 110 1205 3 1203 11 1199 7 1194 6 120 1213 8 1205 2 1204 5 1204 10 130 1227 14 1212 7 1206 2 1208 4 140 1233 6 1218 6 1216 10 1214 6 150 1240 7 1230 12 1233 17 1223 9 160 1253 13 1238 8 1241 8 1237 14 170 1261 8 1250 12 1250 9 1245 8 180 1268 7 1258 8 1260 10 1253 8 190 1270 2 1268 10 1270 10 1261 8 200 1276 6 1273 5 1273 3 1269 8 210 1285 9 1283 10 1281 8 1272 3 220 1294 9 1289 6 1286 5 1280 8 230 1302 8 1297 8 1294 8 1290 10 240 1310 8 1307 10 1302 8 1300 10 250 1323 13 1315 8 1307 5 1317 17 260 1335 12 1328 13 1319 12 1323 6 270 1343 8 1337 9 1330 11 1336 13 280 1357 14 1343 6 1340 10 1341 5 290 1362 5 1355 12 1349 9 1347 6 300 1366 4 1361 6 1354 5 1352 5 310 1368 2 1370 9 1360 6 1359 7 320 1376 8 1379 9 1371 11 1367 8 330 1387 11 1386 7 1380 9 1376 9 340 1398 11 1397 11 1390 10 1385 9 350 1403 5 1402 5 1399 9 1396 11 360 1410 7 1410 8 1409 10 1402 6 370 1415 5 1417 7 1417 8 1418 16 380 1423 8 1425 8 1424 7 1426 8 390 1431 8 1434 9 1430 6 1431 5 400 1440 9 1440 6 1434 4 1437 6 410 1448 8 1445 5 1439 5 1442 5 420 1452 4 1452 7 1448 9 1449 7 430 1462 10 1460 8 1459 11 1454 5 440 1464 2 1467 7 1466 7 1460 6 450 1468 4 1470 3 1471 5 1466 6 74
    • 4.2 (2)Thrust (g) Front Back Right Left 10 2100 - 2214 - 2214 - 2214 - 20 2130 30 2235 21 2235 21 2235 21 30 2160 30 2250 15 2255 20 2255 20 40 2190 30 2270 20 2278 23 2275 20 50 2222 32 2280 10 2285 7 2285 10 60 2255 33 2300 20 2310 25 2300 15 70 2285 30 2320 20 2327 17 2315 15 80 2315 30 2340 20 2343 16 2344 29 90 2345 30 2350 10 2355 12 2355 11 100 2375 30 2370 20 2375 20 2370 15 110 2403 28 2380 10 2390 15 2382 12 120 2430 27 2400 20 2402 12 2396 14 130 2455 25 2406 6 2414 12 2410 14 140 2485 30 2412 6 2430 16 2420 10 150 2510 25 2430 18 2443 13 2435 15 160 2530 20 2445 15 2460 17 2452 17 170 2560 30 2465 20 2477 17 2470 18 180 2590 30 2480 15 2495 18 2480 10 190 2620 30 2495 15 2510 15 2500 20 200 2645 25 2510 15 2525 15 2520 20 210 2670 25 2528 18 2541 16 2535 15 220 2696 26 2539 11 2550 9 2550 15 230 2715 19 2550 11 2568 18 2570 20 240 2740 25 2570 20 2580 12 2584 14 250 2770 30 2590 20 2605 25 2600 16 260 2800 30 2605 15 2625 20 2620 20 270 2825 25 2620 15 2640 15 2640 20 280 2855 30 2635 15 2655 15 2656 16 290 2885 30 2652 17 2673 18 2670 14 300 2915 30 2670 18 2683 10 2677 7 310 2945 30 2675 5 2695 12 2690 13 320 2975 30 2690 15 2710 15 2705 15 330 3010 35 2705 15 2725 15 2720 15 340 3040 30 2730 25 2740 15 2737 17 350 3070 30 2750 20 2757 17 2759 22 360 3100 30 2770 20 2777 20 2772 13 370 3120 20 2790 20 2797 20 2786 14 380 3150 30 2802 12 2810 13 2805 19 390 3180 30 2816 14 2822 12 2820 15 400 3200 20 2832 16 2832 10 2832 12 ESC Hobbywing Pentium 30A ESC HiModel GX- 75
    • 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 2100 2300 2700 2900 2500 3100 10 10 30 30 50 50 70 70 90 90 110 18 17 110 Back Back 130 130 150 150 170 170 190 Front Front 21076 190 230 210 250 230 Right 270 Right 250 290 270 310 290 330 Left Left 310 350 370 330 390 350 410 370 430 390 450
    • - - , - Hobbywing Pentium 30 1045.4.3.2 19 Trong Quad yaw cho - - Ziegler - - Cohen Coon: 77
    • ,Ziegler - . - 0 gi .0 20 78
    • 21 roll . o . , 79
    • 22 I pitch 80
    • 23 ID roll 81
    • ---- 10o 10o . o- Khi g . 24c. t chung-- ot t p o .- , 82
    • 25 QuadrocopterTrong . 83
    • 55.1. Quadrocopter. - - - - - - Quad - - - - LabVIEW 84
    • 5.2. - - - -5.3. - Quadrocopter . . . . . v.v... -wifi -Quadrocopte 85
    • [1] , TP.HCM, 10/2009.[2] Tommaso Bresciani, Modelling, Identification and Control of a Quadrotor Helicopter, Lund University, Sweden, 10/2008.[3][4] BLDC Motor Modelling and Control A Matlab/Simulink Implementation, Chalmers University, Sweden, 05/2005.[5] 07/2009.[6] .[7] Prentice Hall, LabVIEW for Everyone: Graphical Program Made Easy and Fun, Third Edition, 27/07/2006.[8] National Instruments, LabVIEW Basics I & II Course Manual version 6.0, 09/2010.[9] RC Groups, Quadrocopter and Tricopter Info Mega Link Index, 12/2010. URL http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1097355[10] Starlino, A Guide To using IMU (Accelerometer and Gyroscope Devices) in Embedded Applications, 12/2010. URL http://www.starlino.com/imu_guide.html[11] SparkFun Electronics, Help with implementing Kalman filter for IMU 5?, 09/2010. URL http://forum.sparkfun.com/viewtopic.php?t=6186[12] . URL http://www.clbmohinh.com/forum/[13] MikroKopter, 01/2011. URL http://www.mikrokopter.de/ https://www.mikrocontroller.com/[14] Multicopter Wiki, Multicopter Table, 12/2010. URL http://multicopter.org/wiki/Multicopter_Table[15] Machine Intelligence Laboratory, Generating PWM signals using Timers in the ATmega chip, 08/2010. URL http://mil.ufl.edu/~achamber/servoPWMfaq.html 86
    • AB NV QUADROCOPTER 87
    • V ATMEGA128module gyro eATmega128 - Flash: 128 Kbytes - EEPROM: 4Kbytes - SRAM: 4Kbytes - 64 thanh ghi I/O - - - -bit (Timer/Counter 0,2) - -bit (Timer/Counter 1,3) - - - - -bit -bit ) - -bit - -bit - - - - WI - - - - V - 5.5V 88
    • ATmega , -bit ATmega128B.1 ADC trong ATmega128 Trong ATmega -bit. ADCL. - . 89
    • - - - -bit -700KHz - so 10-bit). bit B.2 - Free running: , - Single conversion:1/ ADC Multiplexer Selection Register ADMUX: thanh ghi o analog.2/ ADC Control and Status Register A ADCSRA:3/ The ADC Data Register ADCL ADCH: WizardAVR , - - xung clock, (8-bit, 10-bit) 90
    • B.2 USART trong ATmega128B.2.1 USART (Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous serial Receiver andTransmitter - b t n n t b v b b ) - : (Trans -B.2.2 ATmega128 ATmega 91
    • SART Clock Generation, Transmitter, Receiver.parity errors.1/ Internal Clock Generation The USART Baud Rate Generator UBRR: thanh ghi .2/ USART I/O Data Register UDRn:3/ USART Control and Status Register A UCSRnA4/ USART Control and Status Register B UCSRnB5/ USART Control and Status Register C UCSRnC6/ USART Baud Rate Registers UBRRnL UBRRnH: 92
    • 5 UART- .- / .B.3 PWM trong ATmega128 ATmega -bit -bit.(Timer/Counter). - BOTTOM: b Timer/Counter - MAX: Timer/CounterTimer/Counter 8-bit MAX 16-bit MAX - TOP: khi Timer/Counter MAX, TOP thanhghi 93
    • Timer/Counter 1 (Timer/Counter 3 ):1/ Timer/Counter 1 Control Register A TCCR1A:Bit 7:2 COMnX1:0 (X= A,B,C): Compare Output Mode for channel X:OCnB, OCnC (n=1,3).Bit 1:0 WGMn1:0: Waveform Generation Mode: k Timer/Counter 1.2/ Timer/Counter 1 Control Register B TCCR1B:Bit 2:0 CS12:0: Clock Select: imer/Counter. 94
    • 3/ Timer/Counter1 TCNT1H TCNT1L: t16-bit thanh ghi TCNT1L. Thanh ghi . (n=1,3)ghi OCRnX (n=1,3. X=A,B,C)4/ Output Compare Registers: Output Compare Register 1 A OCR1AH OCR1AL Output Compare Register 1 B OCR1BH OCR1BL Output Compare Register 1 B OCR1CH OCR1CL - ng xung ng5/ Input Capture Register 1 ICR1H ICR1L: thanh ghi Input C TOP6/ Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register TIMSK: Ba (PWM) imer/Counter 1: - Fast PWM: 1 BOTTOM TOP BOTTOM 6 Fast PWM 1, 8, 64, 256, 1024): - Phase Correct PWM: (hight resolution). , BOTTOM TOPBOTTOM. H Fast PWM. ICRn X. 95
    • 7 Phase Correct PWM: - Phase and Frequency Correct PWMBOTTOM TOP 8 96
    • Phase Correct PWM: - Hai c PWM . -T ast PWM. - F thanh ghi ICRn, ta . CodeWizardAVR: 9 PWM- .- non- .- 20ms (50Hz n=39999.- . 97