Chapter2 slide 2_t&d

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Chapter2 slide 2_t&d

  1. 1. Training & Development Needs Analysis Training
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Models of Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cybernetic & Information Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential Learning Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ‘learner’ and the organisation’ : transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Model of Training Needs Analysis (TNA) : individual and organisational levels of analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Special training and development needs : diversity management </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning <ul><li>‘ Training and developmental activities are designed to bring about changes in behaviour’ </li></ul><ul><li>Arnold, Cooper & Robertson (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is ‘ a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Bass & Vaughan (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>How do we learn ? Psychological theories... </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reinforcement Theories <ul><li>Pavlov (1904) ‘Classical Conditioning’ - making dogs dribble </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner (1965) ‘Operant Conditioning’ - teaching pigeons ‘ping-pong’ </li></ul><ul><li>Watson & Rayner (1920) ‘little Albert’ </li></ul><ul><li>Nord (1969) application of Skinner’s ‘positive reinforcement’ principles to org./mgmt practices </li></ul><ul><li>N.B. Conditioning by punishment ? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cybernetic & Information Theories <ul><li>How information is received and monitored (‘’human thermostats’’ - Stammers & Patrick, 1975) </li></ul>Skills Analysis - what ‘cues’ or ‘stimuli’ an experienced worker is being guided by (e.g. typist : ‘hunt & peck’)
  6. 6. Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving <ul><li>Reflect the way in which we learn to recognise and define problems or experiment to find solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trial & error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deductive reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information seeking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kohler (1973) Theory of ‘Insight Learning’ or ‘Discovery Learning’ (e.g. Chimps, bananas and sticks or Archimedes ‘Eureka!!’) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stage Five : Person Analysis <ul><li>Who in the organisation needs training </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of training is needed </li></ul><ul><li>KSA deficits - must have suitable performance criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>performance appraisal ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>360-feedback ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KSA’s of new recruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development Centre ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-assessments </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Special Training Needs <ul><li>Retraining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning how to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ageing workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managing Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-cultural training (increasing globalisation, multi-cultural societies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal Opportunities legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training the Unemployed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term unemployed (more than 27 weeks continuously) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causes of long-term unemployment (physical, psychological & environmental factors) </li></ul></ul>

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