Rodney C. Nanney, AICP                                                                              http://www.buildingpla...
Rodney C. Nanney, AICP                                                                    http://www.buildingplace.net



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Rodney C. Nanney, AICP                                                                           http://www.buildingplace....
Rodney C. Nanney, AICP                                                                         http://www.buildingplace.ne...
Rodney C. Nanney, AICP                                                                                  http://www.buildin...
Rodney C. Nanney, AICP                                                                               http://www.buildingpl...
Rodney C. Nanney, AICP                                                                 http://www.buildingplace.net




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MTA-BuildingPlace Sm Wind Turbine Regs

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2010 MTA Educational Conference

HANDOUT1 - Planning for the Wind Slides

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MTA-BuildingPlace Sm Wind Turbine Regs

  1. 1. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP http://www.buildingplace.net The Way Things Were in the Wind Planning for the Wind Michigan Building Place Notebook Townships Association January 28, 2010 Rodney C. Nanney, AICP Building Place 1 2 Michigan Wind Potential Why are we talking about Marginal… alternative and renewable energy? • Higher utility costs • Growth in Michigan-based wind turbine Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook and solar energy manufacturing • Cost of renewable energy production is coming down • Federal and state government incentives (and mandates) 3 4 Electric Bills May Jump "Clean, Renewable, and Efficient Energy Act" • P.A. 295 of 2008 • establishes a system of renewable energy credits and permits “net metering” • 10% of an electric provider's energy must Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook come from renewable sources by 2015 • Electric and natural gas providers must create and file energy optimization plans • Creates Wind Energy Resource Zone Board 5 6 Michigan Townships Association 1
  2. 2. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP http://www.buildingplace.net The Way Things Are Today… Tax Credits for Small Wind Turbines • New Federal investment tax credit • Home, Farm, or Business use • Owners of small wind systems Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • 100 kilowatts (kW) of capacity or less • Potential credit = 30% of total installed cost • Available through 12/31/2016 7 8 Alternatives to the Propeller The Way Things are Going… • ~30’ high • Omni- directional • Relatively Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook inexpensive • ~1/2 acre site 9 10 Planning for our Energy Future Planning • Update local master plans to for our address energy issues • Evaluate local potential for Energy Building Place Notebook “renewable” energy: Future • • solar wind • geo-thermal • methane (landfill gas) • etc. 11 12 Michigan Townships Association 2
  3. 3. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP http://www.buildingplace.net Planning for our Energy Future Planning for our Energy Future • Consider energy conservation in • Renewable energy production as land development/re-development an economic development tool • Maximize solar energy potential in • Diversify farming income building and site design Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Municipal income source • Cluster of homes on smaller lots • Visibility/Advertising - Wind • Promote mixed-use development turbine systems placed to draw • Create walkable neighborhoods attention (and visitors) • Improve bicycle and public transit connectivity 13 14 Planning for our Energy Future • Sustainable Zoning or Place Zoning Regulating • Google “sustainable zoning” • Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute Small • www.buildingplace.net/place-zoning Wind Building Place Notebook • Promote LEED certification • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design • U.S. Green Building Council Turbines • New Buildings • Building Renovations • Neighborhoods (new) 15 16 Ordinance Preparation Ordinance Preparation • Wind turbine standards should be • Prior to preparing a wind turbine in the Zoning Ordinance ordinance: • Preferred - all standards in one • Invite an wind energy industry expert self-contained section or article from the to make a public presentation Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Similar to cell tower regulations • Consider individual site visit(s) to existing wind turbines • Purpose of ordinance is to allow • Review recent wind energy articles for reasonable use and minimize from the Michigan Planner, Planning & off-site impacts Zoning News, and other publications 17 18 Michigan Townships Association 3
  4. 4. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP http://www.buildingplace.net Ordinance Preparation • Use tables to organize information: Checklist of Issues to Consider !Height/fall zone/setback !Noise & shadow flicker impacts !Visibility/aesthetics Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook !Types of permitted units !Permitted locations !Preferred approval process !End of life/abandonment/removal 19 20 Height, Fall Zone, & Setback Height, Fall Zone, & Setback • Towers should be set back from all • Tower Height: property lines and buildings a • Require minimum ground clearance minimum distance equal to: for blades • 100% - 150% of overall height • Need to get above trees and structures by at least 25 - 35 feet Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Measure to tip of blade • Require tower design to minimize • Set maximum height for “by right” towers potential fall zone • Allow for taller towers with special • May allow temporary anemometer use approval “test” tower with reduced setbacks 21 22 Height, Fall Zone, & Setback Height, Fall Zone, & Setback • Setbacks are intended to: • Building-Mounted • Maximize safety Units: • Limit turbine height • Provide space to contain a catastrophic tower or blade failure above the building height Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Provide area for ice-fall or debris-fall • Require setback from • Protects property rights of adjacent building wall to landowners minimize visibility • Reduce visual impacts with distance • Require fall zone for unit within roof area 23 24 Michigan Townships Association 4
  5. 5. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP http://www.buildingplace.net Height Issues That May Come Up Noise Impacts • Icing (Ice Throw): • Noise impacts may extend well beyond • Under certain conditions, ice may build up property line on turbine blades • Causes blades to slow or stop • Topography and weather conditions may • Ice then sloughs or falls to the ground within cause noise to: Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook area = diameter of blades • “Skip” over some areas, or • Lightning: • Concentrate or amplify in other locations • Wind turbines do not attract lightning • Small wind turbines with narrow, fast- • Pose no threat to neighboring properties • Release of pent-up static electricity that moving blades create more “white moves from turbulent atmosphere to ground noise” and less whine or pulsating sound 25 26 Noise Impact Example Noise Impact Example • The wind turbine industry says: • “The blades…make a ‘whooshing' sound and mechanical parts or unusual wind currents can produce a Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook steady ‘hum' or ‘whine.' • However, ambient noise is usually louder than any noise produced by wind turbines (which) are significantly quieter than older 27 models.” 28 Noise Impact Example Noise Impacts • A neighbor says: • Require blade and turbine noise data • “(W)e now live with the daily presence of with application turbine noise, 24/7. … The noise is as • Set standard for maximum permitted constant as the wind…. noise levels at the property line • “It can be a low rumbling, whooshing, Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Typical: Maximum of 45 dB(A) - 55 dB(A) grinding background noise that one can just hear above the sound of the trees or • Rustling leaves = 10 dB(A) • it can build to an in-your-face noise, (a) • Rural evening = 20 dB(A) pulsating sound that echoes in your head, • Quiet rural area = 40 dB(A) keeps you awake at night, and beats on your • Ordinary conversation = 60 dB(A) house like a drum.” 29 30 Michigan Townships Association 5
  6. 6. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP http://www.buildingplace.net Shadow Flicker Visual Character & Aesthetics • A “flickering” shadow is created by • Some find wind turbines to be graceful rotating blades visual amenity • Require sun angle data and daytime • Others find units to be an unwelcome path of the wind turbine’s shadow visual intrusion • Summer and especially winter paths Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Require monopole tower • Concern for those with photosensitive • Non-reflective color (white, gray, black) epilepsy or similar conditions • No guy wires • Not a significant issue for smaller • Minimum FAA lighting turbines with narrow blades and higher • No signage rotation speed • Strict maintenance plan 31 32 Types of “Small” Wind Permitted Locations and Energy Systems Approval Processes • Agricultural wind turbines • Agricultural Wind Turbines: • Windmills for pumping, etc. (historical) • Allow limited number per acre or • Isolated site power generation parcel “by right” • Additional source of income Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • building/zoning/electrical permits • Private or residential wind turbines • Rooftop • Set maximum height for “by right” • Freestanding turbine towers • Non-residential wind turbines • Allow additional or taller agricultural • Demonstration project wind turbines with special use • Commercial “attention-getting” installation approval 33 34 Permitted Locations and Permitted Locations and Approval Processes Approval Processes • Private or Residential Wind Turbines: • Non-Residential • Require special use approval so Wind Turbines: neighbors are aware of proposal • Require special use • Maximum of one per parcel Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook approval • Rear yard only • Beware that project • Allow only in “rural” residential may be intended as district(s)? “attention-getter” • Building-mounted units likely require • Think of dealership substantial structural upgrades flags and whirly-gigs! 35 36 Michigan Townships Association 6
  7. 7. Rodney C. Nanney, AICP http://www.buildingplace.net End of Life, Additional Requirements Abandonment, & Removal • Detailed site plan • Require information about • Documentation of compliance: anticipated lifespan with application • Construction and electrical codes • Maintenance plan • Setbacks and fall zone Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Removal agreement • Noise limitations • Remove within 90 days of abandonment • Lighting and signage limitations or ceasing operation • Proof of liability insurance • Removal bond for non-residential units • Method of climb prevention 37 38 Final Notes Thank You • Wind turbines are a fast-changing For more information: technology Rodney C. Nanney, AICP • Any ordinance will likely need to be Building Place updated in one to two years (734) 483-2271 (phone) Building Place Notebook Building Place Notebook • Assistance from qualified professionals key to success (866) 611-4207 (fax) • Planning consultant info@buildingplace.net (email) • Attorney http://www.buildingplace.net • Wind energy expert 39 40 Michigan Townships Association 7

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