Bui duong 4168-ap1


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Bui duong 4168-ap1

  1. 1. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 A.INTRODUCTION Marketing communication plays significant role in achieving overall marketingsuccess. People who work in marketing and promotions industry cannot perform well withoutclearly understand about it. Besides, clear understanding of advertising-one important part ofthe marketing communication can not be ignored. Two main parts of this report are used tomake these points more clearly. Part one will cover the understanding the scope of marketing communication. Firstly, Iwill explain the communication process that applies to advertising and promotion. Thendifferent parties involved in advertising and promotions industry also are interpreted clearlythrough their roles and structures as well as how those parties corporate to each other to haveappreciated campaign. Next, I will assess how promotion is regulated and examine currenttrends in advertising and promotion, including the impact of ICT. In the second part, the understanding the role and importance of advertising is showedthrough the explanation of the role of advertising in an integrated promotional strategy for abusiness or product as well as the creative aspects of advertising. Besides, branding and howit is used to strengthen a business or product is also explained. Finally, I will examine ways ofworking with advertising agencies. B.CONTENT 1Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  2. 2. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 I. UNDERSTAND THE SCOPE OF MARKETING COMMUNICATION 1.1. Explain the communication process that applies to advertising and promotion Marketing communication plays an important role in the influence to customers’ buyingbehavior of one business organization and then it will affect its overall marketing success. Inorder to understand the communication process, communication process of Schramm 1995 isused. Sender Encoding Message Decoding Receiver Media Noise Feedback ResponseFigure 1: Communication process of Schramm 1995(Source: “Marketing and Sales strategy”, BTEC HND, 2004) The marketing communication has four elements: Sender, Receiver, message andcommunication channel. In this process, the Sender (or the communicator/the source) sendthe message and the Receiver (or the audience/the destination) is the one who receives thatmessage. The message moves from Sender to Receiver through the communicationchannels which are called Media. It is important for the senders to understand clearly aboutthe purpose of the message before they encode the message through transmitting its meaningsinto symbolic forms such as words, sounds, signs, etc. In next step- decoding, the receiverwill convert these symbolic forms into a form that makes sense to him. The advertising issuccess only when the message is decoded by the receiver or in other words, the receiver hasto understand the message. Once the message is decoded, receiver will react to it through theirresponses. They also can show their respond through feedbacks. It is successful 2Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  3. 3. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1advertisement if receiver can decode the message correctly, then they will give the responseand feedback to the sender. However, the receiver may have misunderstood or may notreceive the message because of failing in decoding process or even if the encoding process isnot successfully. In both encoding and decoding process, the message is transformed can be affected byother factors which are called “Noise”- which can be defined as all factors which prevent thedecoding of message by the receiver in the way intended by sender. This can result ininaccurate interpretation of meaning. These factors can be languages, economic, social-cultural, legal and regulatory conditions and competition. Therefore, in order to communicateeffectively, the sender not only have to have a clear understand of the purpose of the messagebut also have to understand clearly about the audience to be reached as well as how thisaudience will interpret and respond to the message. If they are not, the communicationprocess will be failed. Besides, the sender also has to determine the most effectivecommunication media through which to reach the audience and then use up it. In addition, tofind out the receiver’s response to the message, effective feedback channels should beestablished. 1.2. Explain the organization of the advertising and promotions industry Advertising and promotions industry has a relatively complex structure. There arethousands of company are involved in this industry. However, they are divided into fourprinciple parties: Advertising agencies, client companies Advertisers, media supplier andsuppliers of promotional materials. Each party has its own roles and between them, there areclose relationships. Structure of communications industry is shown in the following figure: 3Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  4. 4. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1Figure 2: Structure of communications industry(Source: “Marketing and Sales strategy”, BTEC HND, 2004) a. Advertising agencies: They are any organization or individual distributing anadvertising product to consumers. The main activities of advertising agencies consist ofplanning advertising and promotional campaigns; scheduling and buying of media; buyingand integration of other promotional material. Therefore, the advertising agency will helpadvertisers to select suitable media channels and then contact with them to buy the media.They also calculate and purchase other promotional materials with are necessary for theadvertising and promotional campaign. Beside that, advertising agencies has responsibility fordesigning creative components. This is very important role, in order to differentiate from thecompetitors, attract customer and persuade the targeted groups to buy products. In addition,advertising agencies also have responsibility for the implementation of the campaigns and forthe monitoring and evaluation of the results as well as the administration and accountancy forthe process. It means that they will prepare the time scale, calculate the budget and monitorthem during the campaign. From the result of the whole process, they will evaluate whetherthis campaign is successful or not and how effective the money and other resources are usedfor the campaign. Advertiser select and hire an advertise agency to work for their advertising andpromotional campaign. Once an advertising agency is delegated all the campaign, this agencyhas right to contract with media suppliers to advertise for their client- advertiser- throughthese media channels. The agencies earned money through commission on media spacepurchased for their clients. The posters, brochures, flyers can be prepared by the advertisingagency themselves. However, if this agency can not prepare them or if they want to save time,they will hire suppliers of other promotional materials to prepare for them. 4Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  5. 5. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 Currently, there are more than 3000 marketing communication agencies in Vietnammarket. This brings a numerous of choice for any company who want to advertise for itsproduct, service or its own company. The number of foreign advertising in Vietnam is verysmall; however, they hold mostly proportion of the market share. Some famous ones are:JWT, DDB, Leo Burnett, Ogilvy, Saatchi, Daiko, BatesAsia, Grey, etc. Besides, some famousVietnamese Companies are Golden Communication group, LOWE Vietnam, Y&R Vietnam,and so on. Choosing suitable agencies is very important, and it affect directly to theeffectiveness of the work and the budget of the client. There are many types of advertising agencies: • Full-service agency (or one-stop shop) • Creative hot shops • Media independents • In-house • Marketing agency • À la carte Client can choose full-service agency- which one provides a complete advertisingservices: planning, creating, production, placing and media planning and buying. The fullservice also may also provide research services (market research, consumer research), othercommunication services such as direct marketing, public relations or sales promotion. In otherhand, different from full service agency, “à la carte” agency allows greater flexibility whenclient can choose different providers available o share out their communication tasks. In somecases, the combination of a “Creative hot shops” and “Media independent” can be a greatidea. While “Creative hot shops” specialize in creative ideas and solutions; “Mediaindependents” specialize in planning and buying media. In conclusion, there are many choicesfor advertiser to select suitable agencies for them. The way to work with each type of agencyis different from others. Therefore, it is necessary for the advertiser to understand clearlyabout characteristic of the chosen types to achieve business objectives and marketingcommunications strategies. b.Client companies Advertisers: They are known as “advertised”. They are the partywho has demand on advertising and promoting of their products, services and brand. They canbuild the advertising and promotion plan themselves through using the employees within thecompany or hire advertising agency do it for them. Therefore, their role is providing theoriginal need for the campaign; Selecting and briefing the agency. When the agency is hired, 5Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  6. 6. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1the client has to show and explain their needs, wants and requirements to the agency. Thesuccess of agency’s work partly depends on how detail the requirement is. After that, theyenjoy the discussion to build campaign plans and have responsibility for agreement with theplan. If the client finds something they are not satisfied in the campaign plan, they can requirethe agency change or improve it in order to fit with their purpose and requirements. Besides,clients play an important role in integrating the promotional planning into marketing planning.During the campaign, they have to evaluate and control this campaign and financing thewhole process. The purpose of this is to ensure the quality and effectiveness as well as thebudget of the campaign. c. Media suppliers: Media is fast and useful tool for advertising and it is also thechannel to make benefit for both media suppliers and their clients. The media suppliers canearn money from their media supply. In other side, their clients’ products and brand areadvertised wider through media channels. Today, when one business organization wants tofind one effective media channel for advertising, they have a variety of choices. They canchoose one or some of the followings: commercial television companies, commercial radiocompanies, newspaper and magazine owners, poster companies, etc. Each different mediachannel has its own advantages and its limitation. Therefore, it is necessary for the advertisingagency to calculate and choose suitable media suppliers for client’s campaign as well as howuse these media channels effectively. The successful advertising campaign not only bringbenefits for their clients, credit for advertising agency and revenue for the media suppliers,but also make this media channel become more attractive. Therefore, media supplier alsowants quality and interesting advertisements are broadcasted through their channel. Forexample, comparing with the past, “Hoa Hoc Tro”- a magazine for Vietnamese student onlycontained stories and interviews; now this magazine becomes much more attractive. Thereason is that it has advertisement for fashion shops, mostly are shops for teenage- the targetcustomer of “Hoa Hoc Tro”. Therefore, Hoa Hoc Tro’ s viewers always can up date newfashion trend. That makes this magazine become more attractive. In conclusion, a successfuladvertisement brings benefits for both advertisers and media suppliers. d.Suppliers of the other promotional materials: They are the partiers who carry outadditional activities for advertising campaign. They are printers, promotional gifts suppliers,exhibition organizations, co-coordinators of corporate hospitality and so on. Each party haseach own role. For example, the exhibition organizer has responsibility for informing place,information and price of product exhibition for the company. However, all activities of these 6Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  7. 7. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1suppliers contribute for the advertising and promotional purpose of the company and the flowof work is carried out under the contract between the company and these suppliers. 1.3. Assess how promotion is regulated in Vietnam It is necessary for any business organization and individual understand clearly about thelaw in which market they do business. This part will cover the law of Vietnamesegovernment. There are many degrees, ordinances or decisions related to advertising and promotion inVietnamese law. However, in this topic I only discuss and assess two representative one:Decree 37/2006/ND-CP and Ordinance 39-2001-PL-UBTVQH10. Decree 37/2006/ND-CP issued by Vietnamese government: “Detailing the CommercialLaw regarding trade promotion activities” also provides details the implementation of theCommercial Law regarding a number of trade promotion activities, including sales promotion,commercial advertising, trade fairs and exhibitions. Besides, since 1 May 2002, all advertising activities in Vietnam are governed byOrdinance 39-2001-PL-UBTVQH10 passed by the Standing Committed of the NationalAssembly on 16 November 2001. This ordinance is named “Ordinance on Advertising”.Detailed regulations for implementation of the Ordinance on Advertising were issued by theGovernment on 13 March 2003 under Decree 24-2003-ND-CP (“Advertising Decree”) andbecame effective as of 18 April 2003. The main points of these Decree and Ordinance will be covered in order to show howpromotion is regulated in Vietnam.a. Decree 37/2006/ND-CP  Sales promotion: The Decree regulates the principles of Sales promotion, maximum value of goods andservices used and maximum discount rate for promoted goods and services. All tradepromotion activities have to follow these principles. According to this, “Sales promotionprograms must be conducted in a lawful, honest, public and transparent manner and must notharm legitimate interests of consumers, other traders, organizations and/or individuals.”(Decree 37/2006/ND-CP, Article 4) All promotion programs which does not follow the law, dishonest and harm legitimateinterest of other individuals and organizations are not allowed. However, in market, there aresome advertising and promotion programs break this law. For example, in the “ Springpromotional program” for Enfa Mama- a kind of milk for pregnant women- Coop MartNguyen Kiem supermarket-Ho chi Minh city- told to customer that “Anyone who purchases 7Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  8. 8. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 12 Enfa Mama (type 400g) will be gifted one special DVD which teach the way to care babe”.However, customer does not receive any DVD after purchasing enough amounts. This makescustomer very angry. (According to http://vietbao.vn/Kinh-te/Khuyen-mai-thieu-trung-thuc/20053024/87/). An other example is the “Tôn vinh hoa hồng” (Nguyen Dinh Chieu, 3district, Ho Chi Minh) promotion program. The trader gives customer promotional giftswhich has very poor quality. This makes customer loose their belief on the sales promotionalprograms. (http://www.sggp.org.vn/thitruongkt/2011/8/266105/)Two above examples showed that some business organizations in Vietnam still do not followthe law, still using dishonest information in promotion programs. According to the law, allbreach will be punished. However, it is necessary to have more detailed laws in this issue. Followings are prohibited in all sales promotion programs: • Discriminatory treatment of customers participating in the same sales promotion program. • Conducting sales promotion while abusing customer’s trust and take advantage of ignorance or inexperience of customers. • Using curative medicines for human use in promotion programs. In addition, Article 4 of this Decree also regulates that “Sales promotion must not beconducted in a way that creates direct comparisons between ones goods and/or services andthose of other traders, organizations or individuals for the purpose of unfair competition”.This means that direct comparisons with other brands is not allowed in Vietnam. It is differentpoint comparing with the advertising and promotion law in American and some Europeancountries. For example, in American, Pepsi can use Coca-Cola in its advertisement and showsthat Pepsi is better, more delicious than Coca-Cola. However, in Vietnam, this type ofadvertising is prohibited. Further more, this Decree also regulates the responsibility of promoting trader issecuring favorable conditions for prize-winning customers to receive prizes; clearly andquickly settle for complaints about their sales promotion programs; guaranteeing the qualityof promoted goods and services. While Article 4 regulates the principles for promotion programs, Article 5 of Decree37/2006/ND-CP shows the maximum value of goods or services used for sales promotion andthe maximum discount rate for promoted goods or services, both of them must not exceed50% of this product or service. 8Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  9. 9. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 Forms of sales promotion also regulated clearly in this Decree. According to this, whenreceiving sample, customers shall not have to make any payment; and the samples given mustbe those which traders are selling or going to sell in the market. The trader also hasresponsibility to provide customer about the information related to the samples and ensure thequality of those.  Commercial advertisement The Decree regulates the contents and forms of commercial advertisement products.According to this, the law protects the intellectual property rights in commercialadvertisement activities. Besides, the Decree also protects children through strict laws.Children are protected through the prohibition to take advantage of children’s ignorance andinexperience to incorporate in advertisement products. For example, the advertisement whichmay abate the confidence in family and society of children or which directly suggest childrento ask their parents or others to purchase advertised product are not allowed in Vietnam.Further more, Vietnam governments also regulates clearly about commercial advertisementfor goods or services related to healthcare. This will protect customer when ensuring theyhave the right information about healthcare products and services.b. Ordinance 39-2001-PL-UBTVQH10 This Ordinance regulates details of law for Advertising in Vietnam market. Thecontents, forms, language of advertisements and preconditions are demonstrated clearlythrough this Ordinance. According to this, information that is provided through advertisingmust be true, accurate and clear, and must not cause loose and damage to producers, businesspersons and consumers. However, there are still some advertisements which break this law.For example, the advertisement of “Ozon machine” of Thien Minh Ngoc Uy Company. Thecompany advertises about the special function of its ozon machine to attract customer,however, this machine does not have this function. (According to http://laodong.com.vn/Tin-Tuc/Danh-mat-long-tin-cua-khach-hang/44534). When this problem is discovered, thecompany is punished and does not allow to continuous using this advertisement. The Ordinance also pointed out acts which are strictly prohibited in advertisingactivities. All advertising discloses State secrets, or which harms national independence andsovereignty, defense and security or the safety of society; or use national flag, the flag ofParty, the national emblem, and national melody, portraits of leaders or of Vietnamese dongof, image of traffic notices or signals are all banned. Advertising also does not allow tocontrary to traditions, history, culture, ethics or fine customs of the Vietnamese people arebanned; For example, too sexy and seminude images or violence are not suitable with 9Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  10. 10. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1Vietnamese culture and they are not allowed to used in advertising. Further more, themisleading advertising, advertising for goods and services which the law prohibits to betraded or advertised, such as heroin and cigarette also are interdicted. It can be said that,currently, advertising in Vietnam market follow this role rather well. Last but not least, the Ordinance showed the rights and obligations of organizations andindividuals who conduct advertising such as advertiser, media supplier, advertising agency,etc. and the contract procedure. This provides a clear guide for involved parties and to ensureall parties will follow the law. In conclusion, the law still has some limitation such as complicated procedures, thepolice for punishment are not strict enough and the management of advertising place is stillnot good. Some business individuals and organizations still break the law. However, throughthese Degree and Ordinance, the efficiency of State administration towards advertising andpromotion is improved; the lawful rights and interest of consumers, organizations andindividuals on advertising activities are protected. Further more, they also contribute to thedevelopment of Vietnamese socio-economic and bring a fair environment for advertising andpromotion activities to grow. 1.4. Examine current trends in advertising and promotion, including theimpact of Information communication technology (ICT) in Vietnam Nowadays, the living standard of people is much improved along with the more using ofmachine with high tech in their life and work, such as computer, laptop, and digital andinteractive TV and so on. It is remarkable that the development in telecommunications,electronics and computing bring great opportunities for marketing communication. Applyingtechnological development in advertising and promotion becomes the trend in over the wholeword as well as in Vietnam market. • Advertising through television : Although advertising on television is very expensive, many organizations still choosetelevision as the main channel to advertise their products or service. In Vietnam, almostfamilies have one or more televisions, so the television is the fast and easy way tocommunicate with a large audience. One trend in advertising on television today is hiringstars to appear in the advertisement. It helps to raise the effectiveness of that advertisementbecause that make audiences feel fashionable and improve the guaranteed of products, so maylead to the increase in sales volume of products or service which are advertised. Thefrequency of advertisement of any brand on the television can affect the purchase-decision of 10Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  11. 11. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1customer. If one product has never appeared on the television, customer may not know it andthey may do not believe on the quality of the product, and then they do not want to buy thisproduct. Comparing with one brand is appeared frequently on the television, every one hasknown this brand, and of course customer prefers the well-known one to the unknownproduct. When we mention to advertising through television, we can not ignore the innovation ofdigital TV and the impact of this development. Digital TV brings more number of serviceswhich can be delivered to audiences; brings viewers more choices of how and when theywatch and so on. Therefore, this also brings a greater opportunity for advertising industry.Advertisements can appear in many different TV channels at different time, with the betterquality of sounds and images. Besides, some recent years, television channel also provide “Home-shopping”. Thereare some special channels on television which not only advertise for products but also providehot-line for views to ask further information, to order and purchase product without going out.In Vietnam, we can mention to “TV Shopping”, “Saigon TV home-shopping”, “SCTV5-Shopping TV”, “SCTV10-Home Shopping” as some famous TV channels which are rathersuccessful in this field. In conclusion, television is one of effective choice for any company to inform, remind,and persuade customers to buy its product. • Internet + website: Nowadays, access to Internet is easier and cheaper comparingwith the past and it becomes familiar with a large portion of population. Therefore, Internet isan easy channel for one company to interact with their customers and advertising throughInternet becomes popular method in some recent years. The company can choose somewebsites has large number of viewers to advertise for their products and brand. They also canuse the company its own website for this purpose. Some websites are suitable foradvertisement in Vietnam market as vnexpress.net, dantri.com, 24h, youtube.com, enbac.com,etc. Significantly, some recent years, customers are attracted by the discounted price whichthey can receive if they access on and order products and services in some websites such ashttp://muachung.vn/ , http://www.nhommua.com/ , http://phagia.com.vn/ . This is an effectiveway to increase the sale volume and promote for the product and brand to the large amount ofcustomers. Some company has great sales promotion for the members of these websites,sometimes up to 50%-70% the price of product or service. 11Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  12. 12. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 It can be said that a great opportunity to develop relationships is provided through ICT:business-to-business and business-to-consumer. The development of ICT allows a quicklyand mass way to communicate to large audience. Now people can access on internet everytime and everywhere because of the innovation of USB 3G and wifi. Besides, computer nolonger is the only machine which allows us to access internet. Laptop, mac-book and mobileare already for internet access and multi-media. This make advertising through internet seemsto be very potential channel. ICT brings benefits not only for advertiser and advertisingagencies but also for the audiences. They can get the information and can react it as well ascan join some promotional campaigns very quickly. • Social networks: Social networks are more and more popular and this bring anumerous of benefits for online advertisers. An online community is built from a socialnetwork which collect many people who share interest, share their ideas and thinking, andeven and their activities. The latest generation of social networks we can mention to asYouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Twitter. Since late 2009, Facebook become aphenomenon in Vietnam and through Facebook, information is shared widely. Therefore,many business organizations, especially small and medium companies, have used Facebookas one effective channel to advertise and promote for themselves. Through the widelyconnection of Facebook, the up-dated information of the company, of its promotionalactivities is fast communicated to viewers. Besides, Youtube also is a social network whichcan advertise and promote for one product widely and fast. The videos of advertisements arepublic and viewers can enjoy them every time and every where through this social network. Inconclusion, the development of social networks brings better communication and quickerinformation sharing and then leads to the significant development of online advertisers.Certainly, social networks still continuous contribute great benefits to advertising andpromotion. • Outdoor advertising Outdoor advertising is rather popular today and this type is forecasted to continue todevelop in the future. Outdoor advertising focused on marketing to customers when they are“on the go” in public places, in transit, waiting or in specific commercial locations. The maintypes of outdoor advertising are advertisement on billboards, street furniture, transitadvertising, and alternative advertising and so on. In big cities of Vietnam such as Ha Noi andHo Chi Minh city, especially in highways or main streets and main roads, advertising inbillboard is more and more popular. The street furniture is the advertising which placed in busshelters, mall kiosks and so on. In addition, in Vietnam, it is popular to advertise on buses. 12Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  13. 13. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 The alternative advertising includes advertisement in stadiums, rest area, etc. Everyday people go out; those advertisements naturally inform and remind customers about companies’ products or services In general, outdoor media is quite effective. It can attract customer by the short message and repetition. This channel should be used up, however, the government also need to have the effective police to manage this channel.II. UNDERSTAND THE ROLE AND IMPORTANTCE OF ADVERTISING In this part, the understanding the role and importance of advertising will be interpreted through the explanation of the role of advertising and the creative aspects of advertising. Besides, branding and how it is used to strengthen a business or product is also explained. Finally, I will examine ways of working with advertising agencies. We will look at the case of GTEL Mobile with brand name “Beeline VN” to make this subject more clearly. Firstly, the overview about “Beeline VN” will be showed: OVERVIEW OF BEELINE VN 13 Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  14. 14. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 The Vietnamese telecom market is now considered to be fiercely competitive with ahigh penetration level and participation of many new network operators. However, it is still apotential market to invest in. The leading integrated telecommunications operator in EasternEurope & Central Asia –VimpelCom also wants to invest in this market. In July 2009,VimpelCom co-operated with a Vietnamese telecommunication company, GTelTelecommunications to open a new mobile phone network in Vietnam, named BeelineVietnam. GTEL Mobile use “Beeline VN” as the brand-name to launch in the VietnameseTelecommunications market. The company is not only a business enterprise purely but alsothe international combination aiming to bring Vietnamese peoples a new trend and style intelecommunications industry. Currently, 3 great telecom suppliers -Viettel, Mobifone and Vinaphone have nearly thewhole share market and advantageous factors to develop a mobile network such asinfrastructure, rate and so on are thoroughly exploited by other mobile networks. In addition,Beeline is still a new comer in Vietnam market. Therefore, the company needs to invest muchmore in advertising and promotion to attract more customers. However, it is important for thecompany to choose the suitable promotion tools to have the best result. The belowexplanation will focus on advertising and the comparison with other tools of the promotionalmix in order to have the best choice in this situation. 2.1. Explain the role of advertising in an integrated promotional strategy for abusiness or product The tools of the marketing communication consist of advertising, sales promotion,public relations, personal selling and direct marketing. Each tool has its own characteristics.Among all above tools, advertising can be considered as indispensable tool in order to createawareness, motivation, and trial and provide information. It is the way to get the message tothe desired audience. An effective advertising can lead to increased sale volume and thenincreased market share for the advertisers, as well as can bring higher profitability. We canlook at the case of Beeline VN to understand more clearly about the role of advertising in anintegrated promotional strategy for a business or product. a. The key functions of advertising: The first important function of advertising is “Inform”. Advertising makes customeraware of new products, informs them about specific brands. Further more, advertising is usedas a tool to educate public about particular product features and benefits. From this, customercan find solution for their demand. 1 month before launching in Vietnam market, Beeline VNhad had very attractive advertisement in television and internet. The advertisement did not 14Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  15. 15. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1show the product or service of Beeline, but just focused on pointing that “There is somethingvery interesting in next some days”. This makes people feel curious: they wanted to knowwhat is coming and they had to wait to discover it. Along with the message “Coming soon” isthe image and colour of this brand: Lovely chicken-black and yellow. The frequencyapparition of the advertisement brings awareness to customer. Then, the next part of Beeline’sadvertisement is introduced, not only through television but also through other mediachannels. This show Beeline VN’s pack with fully features: logo, symbol, price, bonus, etc.The public now are informed about “Beeline VN” brand, and they are also educated that:Beeline is a mobile network, with cheap price; attractive mobile services and a lot ofpreferential policies for customer. After informing people, advertising persuade them. Beautiful advertisements of BeelineVN with attractive information about benefits and functions of its product and service areused to persuade customers to try this mobile network. Especially, advertising reach targetaudiences of Beeline VN- the teenage and the youth. The demand for “cheap mobile network”is created. With cheap price and a lot of bonus, surely it is attractive characteristic to persuadetarget group to use this mobile network. Beside, advertising also persuade other groups to tryit. Therefore, advertising can help increase uses of a product and reduce sales fluctuations. A successful advertising also can offset competitors’ advertising and so it is used as atool to compete. However, if advertising is not frequent, customer can forget this brand.Therefore, advertising also is used to remind and reinforce customer, create top-of-mindawareness. Besides, advertising also add value. The competition between different companies whooffer the same types of product or service requires the innovation, both in design andfunctions. This also leads to the requirement for improving quality and can alter consumerperception. Currently, Beeline VN focuses on the youth and teenage- two groups often areattracted by new things and by new trend. Therefore, the company invests a lot of designlovely images to present for the brand in its advertising and promotional activities. Last but not least, advertising also assists other effort such as: Delivering salespromotions assist sales representatives, pre-sell products, provide salespeople with valuableintroduction. b. The tools of marketing communication that Beeline has focused on: Currently, Beeline VN has focused on advertising, sales promotion and publicrelation. Beeline VN uses different ways to advertise and promote their products such asadvertising on T.V, magazines, website, etc. This will help inform customer about the 15Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  16. 16. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1products and services of Beeline, persuading customer to use services of VN Beeline and soon. Furthermore, Beeline VN use company image in procedure present for customer, or for itspromotion staff. At the special time, we can see many beautiful young people wear dress andrice motor which contain Beeline logo and image in almost main road in big cities. It makescustomer really attractive and makes Beeline VN become more familiar with mobilecustomer. Picture 1: Using promotion girls to advertise for Beeline VN Beeline VN continuously has sales promotion activities to increase sale and tocompetitive with other mobile network suppliers. Besides cheap price for using, Beelinefrequently gives their customer bonus; double money in customer’s account; free calling, etc.The latest sale promotion activity of Beeline VN is “Lucky Tuesday” or “Every Tuesday,100% bonus” and “Win a full package to Old Trafford”. This brings opportunity for BeelineVN user to watch very famous football match. Especially, Beeline VN has a lot of lovely giftsfor its loyal and lucky customers, such as pens, T-shirts, hats, bags, balls, ect. All of them arevery lovely and contained images and logos, colours of Beeline VN. These gifts can makecustomer more satisfy with the mobile network they chosen; increase awareness and interestamongst target audiences, as well as indirectly advertise for Beeline VN brand. 16Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  17. 17. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 Picture 2: Free gifts-one of promotion activities of Beeline (Sourcehttp://manutd.beeline.vn/thong-bao/34/qua-tang) Public relations (PR) are also focused on by Beeline VN. PR can be utilized tocommunicate with external public, media and it is also one effective way helps “Beeline VN”becomes closer with the public. Scholarship Beeline gives for poor students in “Beeline tiepsuc den truong” campaign is an example of its public relations. Picture 3: Public relation activity of Beeline VN (Source: c. Comparing between advertising and other tools of promotion mix: Beeline VN now still has a small market share, so the company spends a lot foradvertising and sales promotion. Adverting has disadvantage as the cost is high and it requires a big size of investmentand the level of wastage is also high. Because advertising is expensive, especially advertisingthrough television, any company who want to choose advertising also has to calculatedcarefully the budget and choose the suitable channel and suitable time for their advertisement.In addition, the ability to deliver a personal message and level of interaction of advertising isstill low, comparing with other tools such as personal selling or direct marketing. However, while personal selling can not be used to reach a large audience and thatability of sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing is still at medium level,adverting is the most effective tools to reach a large audience; gain their awareness and attractthem to come with the company’s products. It is very important characteristic of advertisingthat make adverting is always chosen, although whether other tools are use or not.Advertising helps Beeline VN reach large audiences in a cost-effective way. As I have 17Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  18. 18. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1mentioned in the previous parts, Beeline VN still a new comer in Vietnam market and itsmarket share is still very small, it is necessary for the company invest more in advertising andpromotion to get higher awareness of public, make “Beeline VN” becomes popular toeveryone. Continuousness of advertising also is necessary to remind and reassure customers.Other benefits of advertising are effective targeting, low unit cost and reach mass audiencesquickly. 2.2. Explain branding and how it is used to strengthen a business or product inVietnam According to Jobber, 2007 “Branding is the process by which companies distinguishtheir offerings from their competition. By developing a distinctive name, packing and design,a brand is created.” When “Brand” is mentioned, the followings are concerned: • Brand • Brand name • Brand mark • Trade mark • Trade name • Brand equity We will use the case of Beeline VN to demonstrate more clearly this aspect. Beeline isinternational joint-venture mobile network and it has a strong brand name in the world withmore than 16 years of experience and over 60 million customers in Easter Europe. In 2009,the brand name “Beeline” was valued at 8.9 billion USD. It not only is one of the 100 costliestbrand names in the world, but also is one of the 10 costliest brand names in thetelecommunications market. In the Vietnam market, Beeline VN is still a new comer.However, Beeline VN can use up the brand name in international market as a competitiveadvantage of its own. 18Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  19. 19. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 Picture 1: Beeline logo and sologan Firstly, brand name refers strictly to letters, words or groups of words which can bespoken. When “Beeline” is mentioned, we immediately think of an international joint-venturemobile network, with cheap price, lovely images and suitable for teenage and the youth. Onother hand, “the brand mark is a design element, such as a symbol (e.g., Nike swoosh ), logo(e.g., Yahoo! graphic), a character (e.g., Keebler elves) or even a sound (e.g., Intel insidesound), that provides visual or auditory recognition for the product.” (According tohttp://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/product-decisions/brand-names-and-brand-marks/). Brand image is the first thing comes up in mind when customers thinkabout one particular company. The brand image should be easy to look back and able to godeeply in customers mind. The name Beeline comes from “Bee”- one lovely animal whichhas the small body with two colours: yellow and black. Therefore, their two main colors ofBeeline logos are black and yellow and the company. Besides, the company has used chickimage and the fish image for BigZero pack and Big& Cool pack. It is very attractive forcustomer, especially for the youth and teenage groups- target customers of Beeline VN. Inaddition, two colours are also very suitable with the brand name. The brand is formed fromthe combination between the brand name and the brand mark, and it becomes the linkbetween marketing activities of Beeline and the customer’s perception. Picture 2: Beeline use images of chicken and fish with two coulors-black andyellow-to present for its two packs. 19Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  20. 20. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 In entire promotional activities, the company image is used up and this makecustomer have strong awareness about the company brand. At the special time, we can seemany beautiful young people wear dress and rice motor which contain Beeline logo andimage in almost main road in big cities. It makes customer really attractive and makes brandof Beeline VN become more familiar with mobile customer. Picture 3: Black and yellow colour are used on entire marketing andpromotional activities of Beeline to present for the brand. (Source: http://my.opera.com/beelinekingdom/blog/?startidx=10) Some years ago, in Vietnam market, Beeline seemed to be an unknown name with manypeople. However, through strong marketing and promotional campaigns and therepresentational attractive image and coulors, Beeline has already existed in customer’s mind.This shows that the Beeline- brand equity or the value of this brand has increased. Indifferent words, Beeline now has higher brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality,etc. It is said that “Branding build the market shares”, and brand is very important andpowerful tool for any organization to communicate and attachment. It plays very significantrole to differentiate a product or service of one company to others as well as to help theircustomer to single out their product above the noise made by competitors. Today the marketis crowed with numerous of products which have similar in terms of benefits and quality, sothis brings difficulty to customer when they have a lot of choices and they do know whichproduct of which company they should choose. Brand is created to resolve this problem.Brand names tell the buyer about the quality of the products, alert consumers to products thatmight benefit them and it increases shopper efficiency. Moreover, brand also is effective toolto strengthen a business or product. A strong brand will give customers certain believe in thequality of its products and services, so they tend to purchase and repurchase these products orservices as well as advice their familiars to use them. Therefore, brand brings its owner a lot 20Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  21. 21. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1of benefits such as price premium opportunities, growth, legal advice, and increased brandloyalty and so on. Although in Vietnam market, Beeline VN is still a new comer and it still is not strongbrand. However, Beeline VN can use up the advantages of valuable and famous brand namein international market as a competitive advantage of its own. In addition, to strengthen itsbrand in Vietnam market, the company should invest more in advertising and promotion toattract more customers, persuade them to use this mobile network in order to get highermarket share. Further more, Beeline VN also needs to improve the quality of its products andservices, invest in innovation to get the best products and services to serve customer. 2.3. Review the creative aspects of advertising for targets audience in Vietnam Advertising plays an important role in creating the image of product or service incustomer mind. The development of telecommunication, electronics and computing brings thegreat opportunity for the development of advertising industry. However, the rapiddevelopment also leads to the harsh competition in this industry. The advertisement of onecompany, for one product line, has to be different from the ones of other companies and haveto be better in both form and content. In addition, a numerous of advertisement on differentmedia channels sometimes makes people feel tired with them. Advertisements appeareverywhere and some advertisements seem similar to others. That is so boring for people whodo not want to see the same type of advertisement day by day. Those are the reasons whyadvertising should be creative. It is said that the creative aspects may be the vital element forthe success of advertising as well as the whole campaign. Advertising needs to inform remind and persuade the target customer. Therefore, tohave an adverting campaign with creative aspects while still ensure all above elements, thecompany and advertising agency need to work together to define a series of relatedadvertisement such as: • Advertising message • Advertising theme • Advertising style • Graphic design • Visual aid (pictures, illustrations, cartoon, etc.) • Type style • Use of language 21Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  22. 22. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 The company needs to define clear objectives to help agency has a guideline to follow.The purpose of advertising is to achieve set objectives, so if the set objectives are notachieved, the advertising is unsuccessful. After the objectives are set, agency identifiesproduct benefits, develop advertising appeals and execute the message. The purpose of theseactivities is creating differentiated advertising, which can inform, remind and persuade thetarget customer. For example, the objective of Beeline VN with the advertising campaign of“Billionaire” pack is to raise awareness of people about one very profitable mobile pack forcustomer, persuade them to use this pack and to gain higher market share. The target customerof Beeline VN in this campaign is the youth and the teenage. Therefore, its advertisementsshould send the message “profitable, cheapest mobile pack” to audiences. This message alsopersuades audiences to purchase this pack. The Beeline VN targets to the youth and teenage, so its advertisements should becolorful. This is why yellow and black colors are chosen in advertisement of Beeline VN. Tobe effective, any advertisement has to have a main theme or angle, within which the sellingpoints can be conveyed. Selling points are the features of products or services which are newor which differentiate those products or services from competitors. Each selling point andbenefit of product and service will be expressed as a “benefit”. Then, the ones which can mosteffectively persuade the customer to buy the product or use service will be selected. They canbe attractive price, good quality, convenience, environment friendly, fashion; beautifuldesign, etc. Those benefits will be the company’s selling proposition, or main selling theme.For example, in case of “Big zero” advertisement of Beeline VN, attractive price is focusedon, while in Vinamilk’s advertisement, good quality and delicious taste is the main key. After identifying product’s benefits, advertising appeals need to developed andevaluated. This will help identify the advertising style will be chosen. These appeals may beprofit, health, love and romance, fear, admiration, convenience, fun and pleasure, vanity andegotism or environmental consciousness. Type of appeal depends on the benefits of productsthat the company wants to show, the message they want to send and the target customer theywant to reach. Currently, in Vietnamese advertisement, profit, health, fun and pleasure,convenience, love and romance are used a lot. For example, “Big Zero” advertisement ofBeeline VN emphasizes on products saves and protects money of customers. In other hand,the advertisements of cosmetics and perfumes such as IZZI, Romano, and My time are focuson “Love and romance”. “Fun and pleasure” appeal is used to advertising vacation and beer.“Fear” such as old age, losing health also used to advertising for health service, beauty service 22Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  23. 23. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1and for medicine and products which good for health. However, in Vietnam, because of theinfluence of social-culture, the “shock” advertisement and “sex” appeal is not often used. The next step is executing message. The advertising message’s purpose is to attract theattention, hold the attention and persuade the reader to make action. Here, the graphic design,use of colour and typestyle all make an important contribution to effective advertising. Onegood design should have suitability. This means it should be appropriately related to themessage and surroundings. It also has to ensure consistency, tension, continuity and unity.Therefore, the design should just give one dominant impression, and ideally have onedominant visual feature. The colour must be impact and interest, emphasis, organization,mood, and more important, it must able to reflect or reinforce the message. Further more, visuals are used in advertising because visuals are clearer, more impactfuland memorable than text. Last but not least, it is important to evaluate campaign results. This will helps marketersadjust objectives for future campaigns. 2.4. Examine ways of working with advertising agencies to achieve businessobjectives and marketing communications strategies Agencies have earned their money through commission on media space purchased fortheir clients. Agencies play an important role throughout the marketing and promotionalcampaign and the effectiveness of advertising agency’s work affect directly to the wholeresult. Therefore, it is important to choose suitable advertising to help the company carry outthe campaign. There are many types of advertising agencies: • Full-service agency (or one-stop shop) • Creative hot shops • Media independents • In-house • Marketing agency • À la carte There are many types of advertising agencies, so it is important for the company tochoose suitable agencies to work for them. For example, client can choose full-serviceagency- which one provides a complete advertising services: planning, creating, production,placing and media planning and buying. The full service also may also provide researchservices (market research, consumer research), other communication services such as directmarketing, public relations or sales promotion. In other hand, different from full service 23Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  24. 24. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1agency, “à la carte” agency allows greater flexibility when client can choose differentproviders available o share out their communication tasks. The agency selection process is carried out under the strict requirements and must bebased on following criteria: • Services offered: Planning, creative, research, integrated, international? • Agency size: How many clients, is it part of a group? • Quality of work: Past and present, any creativity or effectiveness awards? • Relevant experience: In market sector and promotional discipline? • Competing accounts: Are there any current or potential clashes or conflicts of interest? • Cost: What is the likely cost and method of remuneration? • Location: Is the agency conveniently located for meeting? • Reputation: Track record, working relationships and success? (According “Marketing and Sales strategy”, BTEC HND, p.11 & p.12) The selection of advertising agency is based on these criteria and the certainrequirements of the company. The decision-making process has to begin with an initial searchfor suitable agencies candidates. The company seeks information about some potentialadvertising agencies and then they base of above criteria to evaluate which ones are the mostsuitable choices. Then, credentials presentation is organized and during this presentation,agencies has opportunity to present their organizational details in order to persuade a potentialclient to short-list them. After a short-list of three or four agencies is determined, the “Clientbrief” is hold to provide advertising agencies the relevant background information, themarketing communication objectives, target markets, budget and time considerations, etc.This step is very important to provide basic information and requirements of clients foradvertising agencies. Then, these agencies will compete with other by showing their creativeideas and its response to a client’s brief through “the pitch”. The final selection will be takencarefully, and based on the evaluation of the whole process. Once one agency is hired, the client has to show and explain their needs, wants andrequirements to the agency. The more detail the requirement is, the better campaign theagency can design and conduct. It is also very important that the client has to provide allnecessary information for the agency because the process requires agencies to gain detailedunderstanding which products, which company they will make advertising for and what kindsof customer the company want to focus on. After that, both client and agency will enjoy the 24Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  25. 25. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1discussion to build campaign plans and the client will decide whether or not they agree withthat plan. If the client finds something they are not satisfied in the campaign plan, they canrequire the agency change or improve it in order to fit with their purpose and requirements.However, the client should enter the process with open mind. In addition, the agency alsoexpects their client to have clear idea about what they want to accomplish in their advertisingcampaign. The client should show their target and the sales goals they would like to achieve.Only when the client clearly communicates their goals to the agency, the agency can helptheir client to meet these goals. The client will provide a budget for adverting agencies tocarry out the work and bases on this budget and the objectives, the agencies will decide themedia channels with are most suitable and effectiveness in each different periods. Then theadvertising campaign will be implemented. Besides, to ensure the quality and effectiveness aswell as the budget of the campaign, client has to evaluate and control the campaign andfinancing the whole process. The agencies also have to join the control and evaluationprocess. Solutions or alternative plans should be prepared in case of any significant problemduring the campaign. In short words, to achieve business objectives and marketing communications strategies,the relationships between client and advertising agencies must be ensured. Besides, each partyin the promotion industry have to support to each other while still perform well its roles. RECOMMENDATION FOR BEELINE VN’S CASE The report has mentioned on Beeline VN case. Therefore, I will give somerecommendation to have Beeline VN has good promotion campaigns. Currently, Beeline VNcan apply some advertising and promotional methods bellows: • Continue using advertising through television, internet. • Continue using street advertisements to make customer see Beeline VN’s image every where, but they should be usually changed and modified to be different. This method is very effective and does not spend too much money. Beeline VN should focus on using posters, banners at entertaining place (Vincom plaza, Parkson Plaze,etc…), advertisement at bus-stop,etc. They also can hire “Big TV” in streets to show their attractive advertising video. • Continue give available presents just for Beeline’s customers (such as clothes, helmets, etc.). Young people always find modern and unique in their choices to differentiate from others. Thus, if Beeline design special and unique present just for its customers, it will attract a large amount of young people and can become a new trend. The colour and image of Beeline VN now is very lovely and 25Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  26. 26. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 attractive. The company can use up its in designing special gifts, makes Beeline image and colours become more and more familiar to the public. 26Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  27. 27. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 C. CONCLUSION In conclusion, through two main parts, this report has covered the understanding thescope of marketing communication and focus on the understanding the role and importance ofadvertising. In the first part, the communication process, the advertising and promotionsindustry, current trends in advertising and promotion in Vietnam including the impact of ICTwere interpreted. The Vietnamese law related to advertising and promotion also was pointedout. In the second part, the role of advertising in an integrated promotional strategy, creativeaspects of advertising, branding aspect and how it is used to strengthen a business or productwas also make more clearly through detailed explanation and representative examples. Lastbut not least, I also point out the ways of working with advertising agencies to help businessorganizations and individuals have the most effective results in their advertising andpromotion campaigns. The fact the consumer always wants to see exciting, professional and relevantpromotion. The well promoted brand may attract more customers. Therefore, it is necessaryfor any business organization to have a good plan with creative aspects in order to get the bestresults in advertising and promotion campaign. 27Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  28. 28. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1 D.REFERENCE 1. Book sources:BPP, BTEC HND Program, Marketing and Sales strategy, part A.2. Internet sources:• No author, Element of the communication process, [Online], Available athttp://www.mbaknol.com/business-communication/elements-of-the-communication-process/[Assessed on 20th , October,2011]• No author, (2008), Role and functions of advertising agencies, [online]. Availablefrom: http://www.mbaknol.com/marketing-management/role-and-functions-of-advertising-agencies/ [Assessed on 22nd, October,2011]• No author, (2011), Working with an advertising agencies [online]. Availablefrom:http://www.gaebler.com/Advertising-Agencies.htm [Assessed on 22nd, October,2011]• No author, List of advertising agencies in Vietnam, [Online], Available fromhttp://www.vietnamtradefair.com/dn/kt_qctk.htm [Assessed on 22nd, October,2011]• Know this, Brand names and brand marks, [Online]. Available athttp://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/product-decisions/brand-names-and-brand-marks/). [Assessed on October 29th, 2011]• No author, Các hiểu biết cơ bản về ngành Quảng cáo. [Online], Available fromhttp://www.mait.vn/tin-tuc/tin-kinh-te/242-cac-hieu-biet-co-ban-ve-nganh-quang-cao[Assessed on 22nd, October,2011]• Nguyen Tu, Limitation in administration of advertising and promotion in Vietnam,[Online], Available from http://vietbao.vn/Kinh-te/Nhieu-bat-cap-trong-quan-ly-hoat-dong-quang-cao/30136313/87/ [Assessed on 27nd, October,2011]• Degree 37/2006/ND-CP, Detailing the Commercial Law regarding trade promotionactivities, [Online], Available fromhttp://www.vinhphuc.gov.vn/sotmdl/sotmdl/vbpq/0406nghidinh372006cp.html [Assessed on29nd, October,2011]• Ordinance 39-2001-PL-UBTVQH10, Ordinance on advertising, [Online], Available fromwww.vietnamlaws.com/.../O39na16Nov01Advertising[XV789].pdf , [Assessed on 29nd,October,2011] 28Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page
  29. 29. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION _ ASSIGNMENT 1• Provision for advertising law, [Online], Available fromhttp://danluat.thuvienphapluat.vn/du-thao-luat-quang-cao-thieu-chieu-sau-xa-thuc-te-49733.aspx [Assessed on 29nd, October,2011]• No author, Xu hướng quảng cáo trực tuyến ở Việt Nam hiện nay, [Online], Availablefrom http://giaiphapseo.com/hoi-dap-tiep-thi-dien-tu/xu-huong-quang-cao-truc-tuyen-o-viet-nam-hien-nay [Assessed on 24th , October,2011]• Tuan Diep, BeeLine cùng với Ngành giáo dục huyện Tiên Yên tiếp sức trẻ em nghèođến trường, [Online], Available from: [Assessed on 26th ,October,2011]• Nghia Huynh. Xu hướng Quảng cáo thế giới và những định hướng phát triển tại Việtnam. [Online]. Available at http://www.mait.vn/tin-tuc/tin-kinh-te/243-xu-huong-quang-cao-the-gioi-va-nhung-dinh-huong-phat-trien-tai-viet-nam [Assessed on October 29th, 2011]• Prv.Tnd., Quảng cáo và xu hướng của thị trường Việt Nam trong năm 2011, [Online],Available at http://www.saga.vn/Marketing/Chienluoc/22202.saga [Assessed on October 29th,2011]• Vietbao, Khuyến mại thiếu trung thực, [Online], Available at http://vietbao.vn/Kinh-te/Khuyen-mai-thieu-trung-thuc/20053024/87/), [Assessed on November 4th, 2011]• Bich Huong, Đánh mất lòng tin của khách hàng, [Online], Available athttp://laodong.com.vn/Tin-Tuc/Danh-mat-long-tin-cua-khach-hang/44534 [Assessed onNovember 4th, 2011]• Mai Thi, Bán hàng khuyến mại kém chất lượng , [Online], Available athttp://www.sggp.org.vn/thitruongkt/2011/8/266105/, [Assessed on November 4th, 2011]• Beeline, Beeline promotional gift, [Online], Available athttp://manutd.beeline.vn/thong-bao/34/qua-tang [Assessed on November 4th, 2011] 29Bui thi Thuy Duong-4168 Page