Transcript of "BIOFUELS AND THEIR FUTURE PERESPECTIVES"
“Biofuel and its Future Perspectives”
Zafar Iqbal Buhroo
Dr. M. F. Baqual
Date of seminar
In recent times, the world has been confronted with an energy crisis due
to depletion of fossil fuel reserves and increased environmental
The tremendous use of petroleum products is responsible for alarming
pollution of environment . This situation has lead to the search for an
alternative fuel, which should not be only sustainable but also
For developing countries, fuels of bio-origin such as ethanol, vegetable
oil, biomass, biogas etc are becoming focus of attention. Shrinking crude
oil reserves and limited refining capacity, world will have to depend
heavily on imports of crude oil.
From the point of view of protecting the global environment and the
concern for long term supplies of conventional fuels, it becomes
imperative to develop alternate fuels comparable with conventional fuels.
Biofuels is the only alternative.
WHAT IS BIOFUEL ?
Any fuel that is derived from
biomass i.e., plant material
or animal waste. Biofuels
are liquid or gaseous fuels
derived from renewable
heat, pressure, and steam to convert
materials directly into a gas composed primarily of
carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
feedstock is prepared and fed, in either dry or
slurred form, into a sealed reactor chamber called a
feedstock is subjected to high heat, pressure,
and either an oxygen-rich or oxygen-starved
environment within the gasifier.
Typical raw Materials
Coal, petroleum-based materials, and
Products of Gasification
Hydrocarbon gases (SYNGAS).
* Hydrocarbon liquids (oils).
* Char (carbon black and ash).
CO +H2 (more than 85
percent by volume) & carbon dioxide
gas production is an
Fermentation is carried out in an
air tight, closed cylindrical concrete
tank called a Digester
Layout Design of Gobar gas Plant
Cunningham & Cunningham. 2005. 4th Edition
30-35% Carbon dioxide
and other traces
Cow dung gas
Heating value– 600
B.T.U per cubic foot
Heating value– 1000
B.T.U per cubic foot
75% O. Humus
One pound of cow
one cubic foot of gas
Enough gas to cook a
days meal for 4-6
people in India
already has around 5000 BIOGAS plants.
million rural households in China have
2007, 12000 vehicles were fueled with
upgraded biogas worldwide mostly in Europe.
powered train is already in service in
Sweden since 2005.
Biogas- Feasibility in J and K
About 70% of the population derives its livelihood from the
agriculture sector and use agricultural residues, cattle dung cakes for
cooking as fuel.
Estimate shows availability of 87.06 lakh livestock in J and K state,
which reflect the vast potential for biogas generation .
If 60% of livestick @ 5 kg dung / livestock / day is utilised for this
purpose, about 3.26 lakh family size biogas plants of 2-3m 3 could be run
in the state.
The biogas thus generated will suffice the needs of more than 42.57
Energy production will also save more than 1087.3 million tones of
Biogas digested manure will be available for use in crops.
Biogas Technology ~ By SKUAST-K
SKUAST-K has designed the suitable biogas plant for round the
year production of methane gas under temperate climatic
Floating drum type biogas plant with poly house, giving
additonal heat was found successful for biogas production even at
Technology being transferred to rural people of the region
through field demonstrations, training programmes and
installation of plants at farmers level.
Division of Agri-Engineering, SKUAST- K, DST project
Reduction of waste
Extremely low emission of greenhouse gases
compared to fossil fuels.
Saving time of collecting firewood.
Improving hygienic conditions.
Producing higher quality fertilizer.
Reducing air and water pollution.
Bio Mass-Source of Energy
already supplies 14 % of the world’s
primary energy consumption. On average, biomass
produces 38 % of the primary energy in developing
4% of total energy from bio mass, around
is short of 15,000 MW of energy and it costs
about 25,000 crores annually for the government to
Mass from cattle manure, agricultural waste, forest
residue and municipal waste.
Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes to give bio gas
Fertilizers as by product.
electricity generation of 5.5kWh per cow per
Wikipedia : Biofuels in India
The fully integrated agro-biofuel-biomaterialbio power cycle for sustainable technologies.
Enhanced plant biomass production
Arthur et al., 2006
Global biomass resources from agricultural
residues, wood, and herbaceous energy crops.
~300 to 15,000
Production: ~35 to 50%
Production: ~25 to 30%
Production: ~15 to 30%
degree of polymerization
~300 to 15,000
Production :~ 35 – 50%
Polymer derived from
polymer of sugars;
degree of polymerization
~7 to 200
Arthur et al., 2006
World Ethanol Production
[F.A.O. Litch Publication, 2004]
Leading Ethanol Producers
Maize (95%) , some wheat &
Maize plus 15% wheat
THE WORLD SCENARIO
World leader in production and export of ethanol.
Ethanol produced per day equivalent to 200,000
barrels of gasoline.
24% blend ethanol mandatory.
Ethanol : a big boost to economy
E85 sells cheaper than gasoline
Currently production aimed at 4.5 Billion gallons/yr
MTBE phased out in many states
Soya bean main source of biodiesel
production capacity of 1.5 Billion
Biodiesel is a Biofuel consisting of fatty acid methyl
alkyl esters that are derived from organic oils,
3 Methyl Alkyl Esters
Biodiesel from Jatropha
Seeds of the Jatropha nut
is crushed and oil Is
The oil is processed and
refined to form bio-diesel.
Ready for Oil
Economic significance of Jatropha
Kumar et al., 2005
No engine modification
Increase in engine life
Biodegradable and non-toxic
Easy to handle and store
The first diesel engine was developed by Rudolf Diesel in
Germany (1895), it was powered by peanut oil in!
Bus runs on Biodiesel
A test flight has been performed in 2006 July by a Czech jet aircraft completely
powered on biodiesel.
The British Royal Train on 15 September 2007 completed its first ever journey run
on 100% biodiesel fuel supplied by Green Fuels Ltd.
BIODIESEL DEMAND & AREA OF PLANTATION
[Planning Commission Report, 2005]
IOC - Indian Railways MoU
Jatropha plantation on 70 ha of Railway land
1,10,000 saplings have already been planted in
Surendra Nagar, Gujarat
Shatabdi & Jan Shatabadi Train Trial Runs
5 Trains through Lucknow already running from
6th June 2004 on 10% Biodiesel
Reliance has taken up a project of 700million dollars for
cultivation of Jatropha in Andra Pradesh.
Mehla S K 2007
Jatropha in India : Promising bio-fuel crop for wasteland
In India, 5 large plants set up with a capacity of 300,000
liters per day, 4 medium size plants with a capacity of
30,000 liters per day, and a number of small plants with a
capacity of 1,000 to 3,000 liters per day. Practically all
plants are running at very low capacities, or closed due to
lack of oil.
Can Biodiesel From Jatropha work in India?
India needs 200 Billion gallons of B--oil to replace transpot
We required 384 mh of land for Jatropha cultivation is a
India with just 2.4% of global area supports more than 17%
of the human population and 18% of the cattle
Where do we find the oil for biodiesel?
A sustainable source of oil is to be found before we can
think of biodiesel.
Khan S & Rashmi , 2008
Comparison of some sources of biodiesel
In India only 5.4Mh area of algae ponds are required
to replace all the petroleum transportation fuels
Chisti Y, 2007
of biodiesel in diesel offers great opportunities for environment
protection and rural economy development.
improvement of particular species should be taken as future
environmental regulations and emission norms have led to
improvement in fuel quality and introduction of clean fuels like biodiesel.
all recedence or elimination of toxic gases from atmosphere which
otherwise are emanating from use of existing fuels.
and mass production of high yielding biofuel plants like
lower plants (microalgae).
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