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  1. 1. Title : “Biofuel and its Future Perspectives” Name : Zafar Iqbal Buhroo Regd. No. : 2010-336-D Course No. : Seri-791 Seminar Incharge : Dr. M. F. Baqual Date of seminar : 29.12.2011
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION      In recent times, the world has been confronted with an energy crisis due to depletion of fossil fuel reserves and increased environmental problems. The tremendous use of petroleum products is responsible for alarming pollution of environment . This situation has lead to the search for an alternative fuel, which should not be only sustainable but also environment friendly. For developing countries, fuels of bio-origin such as ethanol, vegetable oil, biomass, biogas etc are becoming focus of attention. Shrinking crude oil reserves and limited refining capacity, world will have to depend heavily on imports of crude oil. From the point of view of protecting the global environment and the concern for long term supplies of conventional fuels, it becomes imperative to develop alternate fuels comparable with conventional fuels. Biofuels is the only alternative.
  3. 3. WHAT IS BIOFUEL ? Any fuel that is derived from biomass i.e., plant material or animal waste. Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels derived from renewable biomass.
  4. 4. Why Bio-Fuels? • Increasing energy requirement • Thrust on resource conservation • Soaring oil prices • Reducing availability • Stringent environmental regulations
  6. 6. BIOFUEL PLANTS:          Jatropha Jojoba Karanjia Neem Mahua canola Pedilanthus Camelina Calotropis Castor oil Plant Soybean Jatropha Sunflower Palm oil Maize Wheat Potato Sugarcane Rapeseed
  7. 7. GASIFICATION  process heat, pressure, and steam to convert materials directly into a gas composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.  The feedstock is prepared and fed, in either dry or slurred form, into a sealed reactor chamber called a gasifier.  The feedstock is subjected to high heat, pressure, and either an oxygen-rich or oxygen-starved environment within the gasifier.
  8. 8. Typical raw Materials Coal, petroleum-based materials, and organic materials. 
  9. 9. Products of Gasification * Hydrocarbon gases (SYNGAS). * Hydrocarbon liquids (oils). * Char (carbon black and ash). CO +H2 (more than 85 percent by volume) & carbon dioxide and methane. Biogas Production Syngas
  10. 10. Gobar Gas Gobar gas production is an anaerobic process Fermentation is carried out in an air tight, closed cylindrical concrete tank called a Digester
  11. 11. Layout Design of Gobar gas Plant Cunningham & Cunningham. 2005. 4th Edition
  12. 12. Typical composition of biogas Compound %age Methane 50-75 Carbon dioxide 25-50 Nitrogen 0-10 Hydrogen 0-1 Hydrogen sulphide 0-3 Cunningham & Cunningham. 2005. 4th Edition
  13. 13. Comparison:55-65% Methane 30-35% Carbon dioxide and other traces Cow dung gas Heating value– 600 B.T.U per cubic foot 80% Methane Natural gas Heating value– 1000 B.T.U per cubic foot
  14. 14. Cow dung slurry 2.5% Nitrogen 1.5% Phosphorus 0.8% Potassium 75% O. Humus Cow dung slurry One pound of cow manure generate one cubic foot of gas Enough gas to cook a days meal for 4-6 people in India
  15. 15. India already has around 5000 BIOGAS plants. 30 million rural households in China have BIOGAS digesters. In 2007, 12000 vehicles were fueled with upgraded biogas worldwide mostly in Europe. Biogas powered train is already in service in Sweden since 2005.
  16. 16. Biogas- Feasibility in J and K  About 70% of the population derives its livelihood from the agriculture sector and use agricultural residues, cattle dung cakes for cooking as fuel.  Estimate shows availability of 87.06 lakh livestock in J and K state, which reflect the vast potential for biogas generation .  If 60% of livestick @ 5 kg dung / livestock / day is utilised for this purpose, about 3.26 lakh family size biogas plants of 2-3m 3 could be run in the state.  The biogas thus generated will suffice the needs of more than 42.57 lakh persons.  Energy production will also save more than 1087.3 million tones of fuel wood.  Biogas digested manure will be available for use in crops. Contd.,
  17. 17. Biogas Technology ~ By SKUAST-K  SKUAST-K has designed the suitable biogas plant for round the year production of methane gas under temperate climatic conditions.  Floating drum type biogas plant with poly house, giving additonal heat was found successful for biogas production even at -6oC temperature.  Technology being transferred to rural people of the region through field demonstrations, training programmes and installation of plants at farmers level. Division of Agri-Engineering, SKUAST- K, DST project
  18. 18. Environmental Benefits • Reduction of waste • Extremely low emission of greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuels. • Saving time of collecting firewood. • Protecting forests. • Saving money. • Improving hygienic conditions. • Producing higher quality fertilizer. • Reducing air and water pollution.
  19. 19. Bio Mass-Source of Energy  Biomass already supplies 14 % of the world’s primary energy consumption. On average, biomass produces 38 % of the primary energy in developing countries.  USA: 4% of total energy from bio mass, around 9000 MW----  INDIA is short of 15,000 MW of energy and it costs about 25,000 crores annually for the government to import oil.
  20. 20.  Bio Mass from cattle manure, agricultural waste, forest residue and municipal waste.  Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes to give bio gas  Fertilizers as by product.  Average electricity generation of 5.5kWh per cow per day!! Wikipedia : Biofuels in India
  21. 21. The fully integrated agro-biofuel-biomaterialbio power cycle for sustainable technologies. Contd.,
  22. 22. Enhanced plant biomass production and processing Arthur et al., 2006
  23. 23. Global biomass resources from agricultural residues, wood, and herbaceous energy crops. Cellulose Polymer of β-(1,4)-glucan; degree of polymerization ~300 to 15,000 Cellulose Major global biopolymers Production: ~35 to 50% Production: ~25 to 30% Production: ~15 to 30% Polymer of β-(1,4)-glucan; degree of polymerization ~300 to 15,000 30% Production :~ 35 – 50% 5– ~1 25 – uc ti n: on :~ ti o uc 30% Lignin Polymer derived from coniferyl, coumaryl, sinapyl alcohol Pro d d Pro Major global biopolymers Hemicellulose Short-chain branched, substituted polymer of sugars; degree of polymerization ~7 to 200 Arthur et al., 2006
  24. 24. Sugarcane Molasses Agricultural waste Sorghum Grain and Tubers Lignocellulosic biomass
  25. 25. World Ethanol Production [F.A.O. Litch Publication, 2004]
  26. 26. Leading Ethanol Producers Country Crop Brazil (ProAlcool) Sugarcane Molasses USA Maize (95%) , some wheat & Barley Canada Maize plus 15% wheat (
  27. 27. Ethanol THE WORLD SCENARIO BRAZIL World leader in production and export of ethanol. Ethanol produced per day equivalent to 200,000 barrels of gasoline. 24% blend ethanol mandatory. USA Ethanol : a big boost to economy E85 sells cheaper than gasoline Currently production aimed at 4.5 Billion gallons/yr MTBE phased out in many states Soya bean main source of biodiesel
  28. 28. INDIA Sources of ethanol:  Sugarcane  Molasses  Agricultural waste Annual liters production capacity of 1.5 Billion
  29. 29. Ethanol Application worldwide [IEA Report, 2001]
  30. 30. Biodiesel Biodiesel is a Biofuel consisting of fatty acid methyl alkyl esters that are derived from organic oils, plants, animals through the process of transesterfication. TRANS + 3 Methyl Alkyl Esters (BIODIESEL)
  31. 31. Flowers  Biodiesel from Jatropha  Seeds of the Jatropha nut is crushed and oil Is extracted   The oil is processed and refined to form bio-diesel. BIODIESEL Ready for Oil Fruits Harvested
  32. 32. Economic significance of Jatropha Soap production Green manure vermiculture Medicinal uses Soil erosion control Potentials of Jatropha Employment generation Animal feed Hedge Lubricants Pesticidal value Ericulture Biodiesel Kumar et al., 2005
  33. 33. ► Eco-Friendly ► Clean burning ► Renewable fuel ► No engine modification ► Increase in engine life ► Biodegradable and non-toxic ► Easy to handle and store
  34. 34. Bio-diesel The first diesel engine was developed by Rudolf Diesel in Germany (1895), it was powered by peanut oil in!
  35. 35. Bus runs on Biodiesel  A test flight has been performed in 2006 July by a Czech jet aircraft completely powered on biodiesel.  The British Royal Train on 15 September 2007 completed its first ever journey run on 100% biodiesel fuel supplied by Green Fuels Ltd.
  36. 36. BIODIESEL DEMAND & AREA OF PLANTATION [Planning Commission Report, 2005]
  37. 37. IOC - Indian Railways MoU   Jatropha plantation on 70 ha of Railway land 1,10,000 saplings have already been planted in Surendra Nagar, Gujarat  Shatabdi & Jan Shatabadi Train Trial Runs conducted earlier  5 Trains through Lucknow already running from 6th June 2004 on 10% Biodiesel
  38. 38. Reliance has taken up a project of 700million dollars for cultivation of Jatropha in Andra Pradesh. Mehla S K 2007
  39. 39. Jatropha in India : Promising bio-fuel crop for wasteland In India, 5 large plants set up with a capacity of 300,000 liters per day, 4 medium size plants with a capacity of 30,000 liters per day, and a number of small plants with a capacity of 1,000 to 3,000 liters per day. Practically all plants are running at very low capacities, or closed due to lack of oil. (NNFCC, 2011)
  40. 40. Can Biodiesel From Jatropha work in India?  India needs 200 Billion gallons of B--oil to replace transpot fuels used…  We required 384 mh of land for Jatropha cultivation is a big constraint…  India with just 2.4% of global area supports more than 17% of the human population and 18% of the cattle  Where do we find the oil for biodiesel?  A sustainable source of oil is to be found before we can think of biodiesel. Khan S & Rashmi , 2008
  41. 41. Comparison of some sources of biodiesel CROP OIL YIELD (L/ha) CORN 172 SOYBEAN 446 CANOLA 1190 JATROPHA 1892 OIL PALM 5950 COCONUT 2689 MICROALGAE-a 1,36,900 MICROALGAE-b 58,700 In India only 5.4Mh area of algae ponds are required to replace all the petroleum transportation fuels Chisti Y, 2007
  42. 42. Oil Content of Microalgae
  43. 43. CONCLUSION: Blending of biodiesel in diesel offers great opportunities for environment protection and rural economy development. Genetic aspects. improvement of particular species should be taken as future Stricter environmental regulations and emission norms have led to improvement in fuel quality and introduction of clean fuels like biodiesel. Above all recedence or elimination of toxic gases from atmosphere which otherwise are emanating from use of existing fuels. Identification and mass production of high yielding biofuel plants like lower plants (microalgae).