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Draft 1 Forging New Pathways to Libraries Ready for All Learners--Redesigning Learning Enviornments and the Learner Experience
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Draft 1 Forging New Pathways to Libraries Ready for All Learners--Redesigning Learning Enviornments and the Learner Experience



Proposal by Buffy Hamilton

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Draft 1 Forging New Pathways to Libraries Ready for All Learners--Redesigning Learning Enviornments and the Learner Experience Draft 1 Forging New Pathways to Libraries Ready for All Learners--Redesigning Learning Enviornments and the Learner Experience Document Transcript

  • CLEVELAND PUBLIC LIBRARY June 2013 Submitted by Buffy J. Hamilton, Learning Strategist Forging New Pathways to Libraries Ready for All Learners Redesigning Our Learning Environments and the Learner Experience CC IMAGE VIA HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/B-TAL/116220689/
  • 1 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Forging New Pathways to Libraries Ready for All Learners Redesigning Our Learning Environments and the Learner Experience Document Roadmap Introduction and Overview Process and Product of Collaboratively Composing a CPL Learning Playbook Theoretical Frameworks and Historical Precedents Images via Microsoft Clip Gallery
  • 2 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners PART I: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Rather than writing a prescriptive learning playbook of pedagogy, learning targets, assessment tools, and strategies for teaching and learning, I advocate for using an innovation hub approach to help incubate ideas and reflective practices (Mathews, "Hubs and Centers as a Transitional Strategy"). With the support of the Learning Strategist who will be serving as mentor, learning coach, advocate, and researcher, each branch will engage in ongoing transformation by learning how to: 1. Identify pivot points for meaningful and strategic change to develop a specific theme for learning and/or learning initiatives. 2. Develop and incubate a range of solutions and strategies for solving those challenges in their learning environments using design thinking and instructional design processes. 3. Assess the effectiveness and impact of those learning solutions and strategies with young people (preK-teens). GRAPHIC CREDIT: MATHEWS, "CHANGE NEEDS A BRAND: DON'T FEAR LABELS, LEVERAGE THEM"
  • 3 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners This participatory approach to design thinking will be a hybrid that blends elements of design thinking. Not only will this approach help branch librarians cultivate a culture of learning that values inquiry and creative thinking, but it will ultimately help library staff at the branch levels to build and sustain their capacity to organically identify and respond to challenges in their learning. By recasting each library branch as an innovation hub site within the larger Cleveland Public Library, we will collectively document and compose the narratives of learning in terms of processes and products, what we did and why, what worked or did not work and why, our successes, our challenges, and our next steps. As we embrace experience as education, we will “run plays” for innovative learning practices and vet the strategies that become part of our CPL Learning Playbook. Participatory design actively involves all stakeholders in the design process in order to help ensure the project meets their needs. Participatory design involves experimenting, contextualizing, and implementing ideas to develop prototypes or models of best practice ("Participatory Design"; Reich, "The Digital Fault Line: Power, Policy, and Leadership" )
  • 4 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners After engaging in summative assessment, the innovation hub and Learning Strategist will share emerging best practices, tools, and strategies in our work with youth as well as our insights about we learned as professionals and how that will inform not only future work on site at the branch, but how it might help us refine the implementation of this model of innovation hubs at the next wave of branch sites. Best practices, questions, expertise, and insights will be shared regularly and ubiquitously between the innovation hub team, Learning Strategist, Public Services, Youth Services, OPS, and Knowledge Office to build a larger shared cohesive body of understanding from this work that crosses departmental boundaries with both vertical and horizontal knowledge. The Learning Strategist will be on site three days a week for approximately eight to ten weeks to serve as a “guide on the side” to facilitate ideation, implementation, and assessment. The Knowledge Office and Public Services select an intial incubation site and meet with site staff to introduce the innovation hub concept IMPLEMENTING INNOVATION HUBS: FIRST STEPS AND SUBSEQUENT “WAVES” OF IMPLEMENTATION The process for implementing this approach will help each branch re-conceptualize their work as innovation hubs to develop our collective learning playbook. For our initial innovation hub, our prototype plan includes these key components: THE ROLES AND WORK OF THE LEARNING STRATEGIST Serves as a mentor who will embody multiple roles as co-teacher and co-learner with staff, learning architect, resource sherpa, observer, reflective partner, and researcher. Helps staff think reflectively, examine practices through multiple perspectives, and thoughtfully assess our work while helping staff to identify insights from both successful as well as unsuccessful strategies. Documents these processes of incubating staff ideas and strategies for learning and helps the staff share the stories of this work in a transparent manner with fellow CPL librarians to frame innovation as an ongoing effort that is discursive and moves along a continuum of progress. 1 2 3
  • 5 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Through this participatory design approach that embraces a hybrid of design thinking and innovation hubs, we will collaboratively compose a learning playbook as a community of learners that will document and share best practices for teaching, learning, and assessment by themes that emerge from our daily work rooted in the needs of the community. The process of participatory design as innovation hubs and the end product of the first edition of our learning playbook will enable all staff to: 1. Function as a community of learners as staff at the building level as well as collaborative communities of learning across the system. 2. Co-position ourselves as co-learners with our neighborhood communities. 3. Utilize participatory design as a vehicle for branches to self- identify goals they want to target related to the larger goals of the strategic plan and emerging practices for achieving those goals. Innovation Hubs: Springboards for Diving Deep with Ideas WHAT MIGHT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLAYBOOK LOOK LIKE IN ACTION AS INNOVATION HUBS INCUBATE AND ASSESS IDEAS AND STRATEGIES TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THEIR LEARNING COMMUNITIES? A children’s librarian at an innovation hub notices children who visit after school are often unruly and have difficulty acting appropriately. With the help of the Learning Strategist, she observes the children and learns about kinesthetic styles of learning and dramatic play. Her design challenge is now framed as “How do we help kinesthetic learners channel their energy and utilize drama as a medium for learning?” She enlists the help of a community partner to serve as a co-teacher to help children explore elements of drama and stage a mini-musical. As the librarian and learning strategist formatively and summatively assess the project implementation, they observe children who were previously considered “behavior problems” are now engaged and excited about learning. Consequently, with the input of the children, they begin co- designing storytimes, structured small group experiences, and independent learning centers focused around the theme of dramatic play and performance; they also now have a context to make strategic recommendations to reimagine the physical learning spaces in the library for children. This initial incubation trial is now also opening up possibilities for community mentors from the arts and drama communities in greater Cleveland who can help the library grow programming and participation around the theme of dramatic performance and play. CC IM AGE VIA HT TP://BIT .LY/1A512ZV 1
  • 6 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners • Branch Innovation Hub Team • Learning Strategist The Work: Process • Ideation • Implementation • Assessments • Reflections/Insights • Next Steps The Product: Learning Playbook Edition 1 PART II: COLLABORATIVELY CREATING A LEARNING PLAYBOOK AS A COMMUNITY OF LEARNERS We will endeavor to be a library that is a network of sustainable learning communities who: • Are genuinely responsive to the needs our communities, • Provide multiple points of access to meaningful learning experiences • Create learning enviornments that give everyone an opportunity to participate. While not everyone has to participate, multiple points of access and mediums invite young people of different modalties and learning styles to participate (Jenkins, "Confronting the Challenges of a Participatory Culture"). We seek to develop a “playbook” of best practices and pedagogy that will help all staff grow their capacity to be effective instructional designers who can identify best practices for identifying learning outcomes, creative approaches to teaching and learning, and strategies for assessing learning in multiple modes.
  • 7 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners How might we begin to cultivate a playful, flexible, and responsive culture of learning for our patrons, particularly our children and teen learners, as well as our staff? How might we begin involving our youth in the design process of learning environments and experiences? How might a participatory culture of learning position us to grow co- created learning experiences between staff and youth? How might a participatory culture of learning help us re- conceptualize our literacy practices and beliefs? How might we diversify entry points and pathways for learning opportunities in our branches? How might we address issues of equity across the design and assessment processes to address participation gaps in our communities? How do we honor multiple ways of knowing, meaning making, and experience as education in our work? How will our work help us shape a practice of “hope and critique”? TAKING AN INQUIRY STANCE ON LEARNING AND LITERACIES The first edition of the CPL’s Learning Playbook will focus on youth as research has shown this is the first priority of our community. As staff collaborates to build this playbook from the “ground up” so that our work is rooted thoughtfully in theory, action, and reflection, we will begin by exploring this first set of essential questions to guide our work: CC IM AGE VIA HT TP://BIT .LY/10CKO5Q Questions informed by the research and writings of : Ito, Mizuko, Kris Gutiérrez, Sonia Livingstone, Bill Penuel, Jean Rhodes, Katie Salen, Juliet Schor, Julian Sefton-Green, S. Craig Watkins. 2013. Connected Learning: An Agenda for Research and Design. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub. Available At http://dmlhub.net/sites/default/files/ConnectedLearning_report.pdf; Nieto, S. (2013). Language, Literacy, and Culture: Aha! Moments in Personal and Sociopolitical Understanding. Journal of Language and Literacy Education [Online], 9(1), 8-20. Available at Http://jolle.coe.uga.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Language-Literacy-Culture.pdf
  • 8 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Design Thinking • Is a structured approach to generating and developing ideas • The five phases of design thinking include: discovery, interpretation, ideation, experimentation, and evolution (IDEO, "Design Thinking « Design Thinking for Educators") Innovation Hubs • Hubs are collaborative cross-departmental groups in which library employees of varying backgrounds and skills come together on common themes of strategic importance. • The hubs act in one sense as a “research and development lab” to explore, imagine, and brainstorm new roles and activities for libraries and deeper understandings about teaching, learning, and service. • They also are a “strike force” that implements, supports, and assesses emerging library roles and activities (Mathews, "R&D @ VT - a Quick Glance @ LearnHUB"). Incubating Playbook Practices as Innovation Hubs Cleveland Public Library will build upon principles of design thinking as well as Brian Mathews’ (Associate Dean for Outreach and Learning at Virginia Tech’s University Libraries) model of innovation hubs to help branch staff identify current strengths in children’s services as well as pivot points for change and growth. By using design thinking principles and an innovation hub approach, we can function as “incubator” sites who authentically and organically:  organize our approach to testing ideas and strategies  identify themes and patterns that emerge from our work  systematically documenting and reflecting upon our work.
  • 9 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Clear Vision • Growing our understanding of participatory learning so that all stakeholders feel confident in testing ideas and contributing to a shared set of practices and strategies for developing effective learning opportunities for youth. Modeling • Working in the mindset of "let's do this together" and experiencing what we are incubating together. Small steps • Breaking down our work into manageable steps to work toward the larger vision of and build fluency in our practices. Help People Move from Point A to Point B • Honoring the reality that all stakeholders are at varying points on the spectrum in their skillsets and thinking; working together to meet each other at points of need to build up each team member constructively. 1:1 Help • The Learning Strategist will serve as a mentor and coach to provide individualized help for each team member and to use what staff learn as a starting point for growth and reflection. Promote Champions • The Learning Strategist will serve as a situated co-learner and "connector" to honor and share the great work team members are doing. Share • The Learning Strategist will help document and share to help everyone move to a transformative level of work. Model and Promote Risk Taking • All team members will encourage and model risk taking to encourage each other to try ideas and push our thinking collectively together. Balancing Pressure and Support • Balancing a sense of urgency about our work while gently nudging the quality and depth of thinking and practice. People Are the Focal Point • Valuing what each team member brings to the table and recognizing our uniqueness and needs as learners. This incubator mindset will enable branch staff, the learning strategist, and library administration to have a “fail-proof” climate for growing staff confidence, capacity, and skill sets and to help all stakeholders implement what George Couros identifies as practices of innovation: (Couros, "10 Ideas to Move Innovation Forward")
  • 10 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Select initial site for this process with the help of Public Services Assemble Participatory Learning Innovation Hub team at the site (Branch Manager, Youth Librarian, Library Assistant Youth Emphasis, Learning Strategist, Chief Knowledge Officer) Ideate essential questions related to the learning spaces AND experiences we want to create in order to articulate themes, strategies, and practices for participatory learning to incubate Incubation and design drivers (How might we…?) Participatory Learning Innovation Hub team will collect, pilot, assess, and document strategies, design processes, tools, themes, and learning outcomes. Learning Strategist will help map and align work to CPL strategic plan and other community partners. Formative and Summative Sharings of Our Practices and Insights (Google Hangouts, Videos, Google Community or Sharepoint, Incubation Project Blog) Initial hub site will tweak this process based on what we have learned together and apply insights to the next wave of innovation sites. The Process The Learning Strategist will work with an initial “innovation hub” site where we will collectively build, learn, and assess our ideas, practices, and strategies together over a period of eight to ten weeks. At the end of this initial pilot, the branch team and Learning Strategist will collectively share our work, insights, and recommendations not only for that innovation site, but for the process and how it will inform the work of the next wave of innovation sites. Below is a visualization of how we will approach our work at the initial innovation hub site: As we refine this process of dreaming and designing, ideating and implementing, the Learning Strategist will be able to work with multiple branches to incubate and innovate as we build the playbook together branch by branch. By December 2014, we will have our initial crowd sourced draft of the playbook that will be shared online with the CPL community as well as our colleagues in the larger library community.
  • 11 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners OUTCOMES AND IMPLICATIONS OF THIS PROCESS  Challenge and interrogate our beliefs about what we teach, when we teach, how we teach, what we can stop, what we need to start, and identifying who we should work with in the larger Cleveland community ((Mathews, Burkhardt, and Pressley, "Hacking the Learner Experience").  Empower our librarians as instructional designers and learning architects.  Align our practices with the library mission and library strategic plan ((The Third Teacher, "Hack Class: Shape Your Ecology, Empower Learning at SXSWedu 2013").  Transform the culture of learning for the Cleveland Public Library staff AND patrons by honoring and valuing curiosity, questioning, and problem-solving.  Develop a deeper understanding of our “wrapper” for transformative change, participatory learning and culture (Mathews, "CHANGE NEEDS A BRAND: Don't Fear Labels, Leverage Them").  Create meaningful and ongoing opportunities for learning for both library patrons as well as staff.  Assess impact with qualitative and quantitative data as well as multiple theoretical lenses to give context to our work as we consider issues of equitable access to opportunities for learning and what we see in the daily activities of the library. (THOMAS AND BROWN)
  • 12 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners PART III: THEORETICAL LENSES FOR EXAMINING OUR WORK AND HISTORICAL PRECEDENTS Participatory Learning: Our Compass for Vibrant Communities of Learning The Cleveland Public Library Strategic Plan 2012-2014 outlines five strategic priorities: 1. Form communities of learning 2. Fight community deficits 3. Ready for the Future: (CPL 150) 4. Cultivate a global perspective 5. Innovate for efficient and sustainable operations This plan reflects the library’s mission to be “the people’s university” and elevate the library as a hub for multiple kinds of learning opportunities for people of all ages. In order to effect this change, we must seek the input of our branch communities to be strategic in identifying our learning outcomes, pedagogy, strategies, and assessments as we strive to approach teaching and learning in a thoughtful, reflective manner. We must also be willing as practitioners to embody the qualities of lifelong learners to elevate our own capacity to provide effective service that has measurable impact with supporting quantitative and qualitative data. In Expect More: Demanding Better Libraries for Today's Complex World, Dr. R. David Lankes asserts “Great libraries come from great librarians” (106). Growing an internal culture of learning and innovation are imperative for achieving the strategic plan’s goals and effecting change in the city of Cleveland. R. David Lankes
  • 13 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners When analyzed as a word cloud, the strategic plan reflects an emphasis on learning and communities, a focal point that is an impetus for a new trajectory to take us from being a library that is collection centric to one is learner centric where experience is an essential pathway to meaning making and education. The formation of communities of learning both internally with staff as well as externally with our patrons will be essential to the library achieving the other four strategic priorities. This endeavor will inherently require us to adopt an inquiry stance on all aspects of our beliefs, practices, expectations, and policies as a library as well as the roles we play and can potentially play in our communities. How do we begin to conceptualize a lens to frame these shifts? Brian Mathews advocates organizations begin with identifying a label for change because “Change requires a flexible label. Change needs a brand. It needs texture and context. Change without a wrapper is just chaos” (“CHANGE NEEDS A BRAND: Don't Fear Labels, Leverage Them"). Concepts of participatory learning and culture will serve as the “label” that will be the organizing framework to help Cleveland Public Library identify pivot points for change as we explore what it means to be a library driven by community needs and aspirations. By creating learning environments through a lens of instructional design that values collaborative, flexible, and playful learning experiences rooted in actual community needs and wishes, the Cleveland Public Library can begin to craft authentic learning spaces that are truly participatory. ORIGINAL GRAPHIC BY BUFFY J. HAMILTON
  • 14 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Principles to Guide Our Design of Learner Experiences and Instructional Design As a library that will embrace participatory culture and learning, Cleveland Public Library will seek to value and honor these qualities in the learner experience: 1. Multiple access points to artistic expression and civic engagement 2. Strong support for creating and sharing 3. Fluidity in the roles of novices and experts 4. A sense of connectedness and community 5. Patron contributions matter and will be visible in library services, programming, and learning spaces (Jenkins, "Confronting the Challenges of a Participatory Culture") This culture of learning, inquiry, creating, and sharing will offer people opportunities to join as well as initiate communities of learning that enable participants to: 1. Have many chances to exercise creativity through diverse media, tools, and practices 2. Adopt an ethos of co-learning, respecting each person’s skills and knowledge 3. Experience heightened motivation and engagement through meaningful play 4. Experience activities and experiences that feel relevant to learners’ identities, interests, and needs 5. Honor rich connections between the worlds of home, school, work, community, and the world at large (Reilly et al.)
  • 15 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners HISTORICAL PRECEDENTS While this new emphasis on participatory learning may seem like a radical shift, CPL’s history reflects this approach in its early history during the first three decades of the twentieth century. Library clubs, which were initially organized around reading interests in the late 1800s and early 1900s, provided children opportunities to explore interests and engage in inquiry with their peers; these clubs were facilitated by children’s librarians as well as community members who served as mentors to help children engage in “…multiple activities to stimulate minds, inspire imaginations, and have some fun” (Wieland, Children’s Work Library Reading Clubs 1903- 1936). At their height, some 40,000 children were participating in library clubs, and ninety-five volunteers served the clubs. Some clubs were supported by community organizations, such as the Natural History Museum and Cleveland Museum of Art. The clubs were organic in nature with some lasting only a few weeks while others were sustained over long periods of time, including some that reorganized over periods of five to ten years. The clubs included a diverse range of groups, including those who belonged to gangs as well as children of various ethnicities. Some clubs included both boys and girls while others were primarily one gender. Clubs met at various times of the day and intervals; a club for working adolescents even met at night to accommodate the needs of teens who held day jobs to support their families. Some clubs took field trips, staged productions of plays, and donated their crafts, such as rag dolls and quilts, to others in need throughout the community. LORAIN BRANCH CLUB; PHOTO COURTESEY OF, CLEVELAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ARCHIVES
  • 16 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Interests of the clubs included music, languages, art, knitting, aviation, model airplane building, nature, science, drama and plays, electricity, garden, poetry, stamps, sports, debate, travel, and crafts. The clubs not only provided entry points to hands-on exploration of an area of interest, but they also were a real-world springboard to books and informational materials. The library clubs reflected the qualities of participatory culture and what James Gee today calls affinity spaces: “locations where groups of people are drawn together because of a shared, strong interest or engagement in a common activity… affinity spaces encourage the sharing of knowledge or participation in a specific area, and informal learning is a common outcome” (Wikipedia, "Affinity Space"). These clubs are historically significant because they embody the principles of participatory learning: clubs were learning communities formed around patron interests; librarians, mentors, and patrons were co-learners; many clubs provided opportunities for participants to share their knowledge or creations with a larger community; the clubs contributed to a sense of belonging for children and teens whose needs and interests were at the center of this medium for interest driven learning that provided fun, enrichment, and education. Children’s librarians had the professional freedom and agency to help establish, facilitate, and design learning experiences for these clubs with input from the children. JUNIOR DRAMATISTS JUNIOR DRAMATISTS, MILES PARK BRANCH, MARCH 1931 IN THE “ENCHANTED GATE” CELIA PARKER, LEADER; PHOTO COURTESY OF CLEVELAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ARCHIVES
  • 17 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Learner Centric Fun Networked with community partners Flexible hours Interest and need driven Inclusive of many kinds of learners Trust and relationships matter Concluding Thoughts As we reimagine ways to elevate the work of CPL children’s librarians to cultivate more vibrant learning communities through our branches, the work of children’s librarians from the past provides guideposts for effective practices for the present. Innovative learning spaces and experiences for children in our branch libraries will reflect participatory qualities to engage young people.
  • 18 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Works Cited Cleveland Public Library Strategic Plan 2012-2014. N.p.: n.p., n.d. PDF. Couros, George. "10 Ideas to Move Innovation Forward." The Principal of Change. N.p., 22 May 2013. Web. 30 May 2013. <http://georgecouros.ca/blog/archives/3890>. IDEO. "Design Thinking « Design Thinking for Educators." Design Thinking « Design Thinking for Educators. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2013. <http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/design-thinking>. Ito, Mizuko, Kris Gutiérrez, Sonia Livingstone, Bill Penuel, Jean Rhodes, Katie Salen, Juliet Schor, Julian Sefton-Green, S. Craig Watkins. 2013. Connected Learning: An Agenda for Research and Design. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub. Available At http://dmlhub.net/sites/default/files/ConnectedLearning_report.pdf Jenkins, Henry. "Confronting the Challenges of a Participatory Culture." Web log post. Confessions of an Aca-Fan: The Official Weblog of Henry Jenkins. N.p., 25 Oct. 2006. Web. 23 May 2013. <http://henryjenkins.org>. Lankes, R. David. Expect More: Demanding Better Libraries for Today's Complex World. [S.l.]: R. David Lankes, 2012. Print. Mathews, Brian, Andy Burkhardt, and Lauren Pressley. "Hacking the Learner Experience." Hacking the Learner Experience. SlideShare, 16 Apr. 2013. Web. 07 May 2013. <http://www.slideshare.net/laurenpressley/hack-18938371>.
  • 19 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Mathews, Brian. "CHANGE NEEDS A BRAND: Don't Fear Labels, Leverage Them." Web log post. The Ubiquitous Librarian. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 02 May 2013. <http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/theubiquitouslibrarian/2013/04/25/chan ge-needs-a-brand-dont-fear-labels-leverage-them/>. Mathews, Brian. "Hubs and Centers as a Transitional Strategy." Web log post. The Ubiquitous Librarian. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 23 Apr. 2013. Web. 02 May 2013. <http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/theubiquitouslibrarian/2013/04/23/hubs -and-centers-as-a-transitional-strategy/>. Mathews, Brian. "R&D @ VT - a Quick Glance @ LearnHUB." The Ubiquitous Librarian. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 30 Oct. 2012. Web. 06 May 2013. <http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/theubiquitouslibrarian/2012/10/30/rd- vt-a-quick-glance-learnhub/>. Nieto, S. (2013). Language, Literacy, and Culture: Aha! Moments in Personal and Sociopolitical Understanding. Journal of Language and Literacy Education [Online], 9(1), 8-20. Available at Http://jolle.coe.uga.edu/wp- content/uploads/2013/05/Language-Literacy-Culture.pdf "Participatory Design." EduTech Wiki. N.p., 23 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 June 2013. <http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Participatory_design>.
  • 20 ForgingNewPathwaystoLibrariesReadyforAllLearners Reich, Justin. "The Digital Fault Line: Power, Policy, and Leadership." Education Week. N.p., 5 May 2013. Web. 11 June 2013. <http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/edtechresearcher/2013/05/the_digital_fa ult_line_policy.html>. Reilly, Erin, Henry Jenkins, Vanessa Vartabedian, and Laurel Felt. "PLAY! (Participatory Learning and You!)." PLAY! (Participatory Learning and You!). SlideShare, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 May 2013. <http://www.slideshare.net/ebreilly1/play-participatory-learning-and-you>. Speer, Julie, Brian Mathews, and Tyler Walters. Hubs and Centers as Transitional Change Strategy for Library Collaboration. N.p.: n.p., 18 Apr. 2013. PDF. The Third Teacher. "Hack Class: Shape Your Ecology, Empower Learning at SXSWedu 2013." Hack Class: Shape Your Ecology, Empower Learning at SXSWedu 2013. SlideShare, 7 Mar. 2013. Web. 06 May 2013. <http://www.slideshare.net/thethirdteacher/hac-kclass-tttpresov1>. Thomas, Douglas, and John S. Brown. A New Culture of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change. N.p.: CreateSpace, 2011. Kindle. Wieland, Ann Marie. Children’s Work Library Reading Clubs 1903-1936. N.p.: n.p., 2013. Print. Wikipedia. "Affinity Space." Wikipedia. N.p., 10 Mar. 2013. Web. 23 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affinity_space>.