Lake Champlain:<br />Phosphorus<br />By: Kristen Brucki<br />
About Lake Champlain<br />It is the sixth largest fresh water lake in the United States<br />The lake links New York Syste...
Information on Phosphorus<br />“Phosphorus is a nutrient vital to human, animal, and plant life.”<br />There are two forms...
Why is too much Phosphorus bad for the Environment?<br />Too much phosphorus under the right conditions in lakes, rivers, ...
….Continued<br />Algae thrive on phosphorus because it is an essential nutrient.<br />Too much algae can end up being spre...
Lake Champlain Phosphorus Problems<br />There are too many algae blooms that are killing fish.<br />Lake Champlain Basin P...
….Continued<br />New York and Vermont have issued Fish Consumption Advisories that advise people to limit the amount of, o...
Where does the Pollution come from?<br />There are two categories of the phosphorus pollution; point source and nonpoint s...
Nonpoint Source Pollution<br />Examples of nonpoint source pollution:<br />Storm water runoff, atmospheric deposition (thi...
Phosphorus Cycle<br />
What is being done to lower Phosphorus levels in Lake Champlain?<br />Many farmers have begun using best management practi...
….Continued<br />Buffers are being placed between farm land and any body of water that leads into the lake.<br />Upgrades ...
You Can Help Reduce too!(provided by http://lclt.org)<br />Reduce or discontinue use of pesticides.<br />Use phosphate fre...
Lake Champlain Committee<br />They have been helping to raise awareness about the increasing algae blooms in the lake.<br ...
….Continued<br />This committee is working with the University of Vermont to establish and run a volunteer monitoring prog...
….Continued<br />These volunteers work with the LCC in handling weekly surveys around Lake Champlain’s public access point...
What Programs Work<br />The Lake Champlain Committee has really done a lot of work in informing the community about ways t...
….Continued<br />State governmental organizations, such as the State Department of Environmental Conservation, academic in...
Sources of Information<br />http://www.london.ca/d.aspx?s=/Sewer_and_Wastewater/Phosphorus.htm<br />http://www.apnmag.com/...
Pictures Provided By:<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/10679224@N00/305468712/<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/10679224...
….Continued<br />http://www.evesbeauty.com/images/cancer_colors.jpg<br />http://go635254.s3.amazonaws.com/ecochildsplay/fi...
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  1. 1. Lake Champlain:<br />Phosphorus<br />By: Kristen Brucki<br />
  2. 2. About Lake Champlain<br />It is the sixth largest fresh water lake in the United States<br />The lake links New York System Canal System to Canada<br />Lake Champlain is cradled between Vermont’s Green Mountains and New York’s Adirondacks<br />
  3. 3. Information on Phosphorus<br />“Phosphorus is a nutrient vital to human, animal, and plant life.”<br />There are two forms of phosphorus in nature; organic and inorganic phosphate molecules.<br />Phosphates that are formed from plant or animal tissue are classed as organic<br />Minerals are an example of inorganic phosphates.<br />Nutrients essential for plants to grow<br />Both types of phosphate can be attached to particles in the water or can be dissolved in water<br />
  4. 4. Why is too much Phosphorus bad for the Environment?<br />Too much phosphorus under the right conditions in lakes, rivers, and streams can lead to accelerated plant growth, algae blooms, low dissolved oxygen, and the death of certain fish, invertebrates and other aquatic animals.<br />Research shows that just one pound of phosphorus can feed 300 to 500 pounds of algae.<br />
  5. 5. ….Continued<br />Algae thrive on phosphorus because it is an essential nutrient.<br />Too much algae can end up being spread across the water surface. The algae blooms do not allow sunlight to reach the underlying plants.<br />As you could imagine, no sunlight equals dying plants.<br />There are micro-organisms that feed on dying plants, but when they consume too much of the oxygen in the water, they leave fish and other aquatic animals to die.<br />
  6. 6. Lake Champlain Phosphorus Problems<br />There are too many algae blooms that are killing fish.<br />Lake Champlain Basin Program has found eleven substances in the lake to be “High Priority Toxins”, Dr. Robert Fuller said. “Among those substances, two historical problems are PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyl) and mercury because they are bioaccumulative.”<br />Both toxins can cause health problems, such as birth defects and cancer.<br />
  7. 7. ….Continued<br />New York and Vermont have issued Fish Consumption Advisories that advise people to limit the amount of, or not to eat, particular fish caught in the lake.<br />Along with some of the fish contamination, swimmers are concerned as well.<br />Dr. Fuller says it is harmful to eat the fish, because they have spent their whole lives in the water, so they accumulate PCB and Mercury. He also claims that swimming in the lake and drinking the water is fine in terms of PCB and mercury.<br />
  8. 8. Where does the Pollution come from?<br />There are two categories of the phosphorus pollution; point source and nonpoint source.<br />Point source pollution is the source of pollution that is discharged from a specific point.<br />Nonpoint source pollution occurs when the source is on a wide geographic area.<br />Point source pollution has improved thanks to the improvement of sewage treatment and other facilities.<br />The percentage of phosphorus pollution around Lake Champlain from point sources has decreased from 20 to 10 percent.<br />
  9. 9. Nonpoint Source Pollution<br />Examples of nonpoint source pollution:<br />Storm water runoff, atmospheric deposition (this occurs when pollutants are transferred from the air to the Earth’s surface), and ground water discharge.<br />Storm water runoff carries any pollutants on the road surface into the lake; such as, de-icing chemicals, animal wastes, oils that are thrown away improperly, etc.<br />Atmospheric pollutants can be carried by rain<br />
  10. 10. Phosphorus Cycle<br />
  11. 11. What is being done to lower Phosphorus levels in Lake Champlain?<br />Many farmers have begun using best management practices (BMP’s). These include nutrient and waste management. Manure is stored in pits until it is ready to be spread as fertilizer for fields. Farmers are encouraged to wait until all snow has melted and the ground has thawed before manure is spread, doing this will help reduce the manure that runoffs into the lake. <br />
  12. 12. ….Continued<br />Buffers are being placed between farm land and any body of water that leads into the lake.<br />Upgrades in waste water treatment plants have begun, along with improving storm water management, and controlling erosion.<br />The Land Trust also helps improve water quality by conserving land. Over the past 26 years they have conserved over 4,000 acres and 16 miles of shoreline. This conserved land helps, because it is a non-contributor of phosphorus<br />
  13. 13. You Can Help Reduce too!(provided by http://lclt.org)<br />Reduce or discontinue use of pesticides.<br />Use phosphate free dishwashing and laundry detergents.<br />Clean up after your pets so that the waste does not run off directly into the lake untreated.<br />Wash your car on grass rather than pavement so the detergent can be filtered through grass instead of running directly into the storm water system and into the lake untreated.<br />If you have a lawn, cut back on the amount of fertilizer you use. Cut only a third of the length of the grass with a sharp blade, leave the cuttings to naturally fertilize the grass. If you must fertilize use a low phosphate fertilizer.<br />If you live near or on the Lake, landscape your property with native plants that will provide a buffer between your lawn, garden, or road so as to filter out any pollutants including phosphorus before they reach the Lake.<br />
  14. 14. Lake Champlain Committee<br />They have been helping to raise awareness about the increasing algae blooms in the lake.<br />People need to understand more about the issue of phosphorus so that they can contribute to the cause in a positive way and help decrease the growth of phosphorus in Lake Champlain and possibly reduce phosphorus in other streams, rivers, and lakes in the country.<br />
  15. 15. ….Continued<br />This committee is working with the University of Vermont to establish and run a volunteer monitoring program.<br />This program is meant to determine when algae blooms appear to be producing toxins, then they will inform the public by using relevant health agencies when toxic blooms occur.<br />The LCC helps the public distinguish blue-green algae by producing a brochure about identifying different types of algae.<br />
  16. 16. ….Continued<br />These volunteers work with the LCC in handling weekly surveys around Lake Champlain’s public access points during the summer and reporting on conditions of algae blooms.<br />
  17. 17. What Programs Work<br />The Lake Champlain Committee has really done a lot of work in informing the community about ways to reduce the amount of phosphor that goes into the Lake.<br />All the steps that they have taken (mentioned in other slides), are helping and seem to be improving the water quality<br />
  18. 18. ….Continued<br />State governmental organizations, such as the State Department of Environmental Conservation, academic institutions, and some private companies have begun efforts to improve and preserve the lake.<br />Public awareness seems to have the most impact, as more and more people become aware of what they can do to help, it seems that the community can highly change the water quality along with the LCC and other committees.<br />
  19. 19. Sources of Information<br />http://www.london.ca/d.aspx?s=/Sewer_and_Wastewater/Phosphorus.htm<br />http://www.apnmag.com/fall_2006/kasamaLakeChamplainPollution.php<br />www.epa.gov/glindicators/air/airb.html<br />http://www.lawntolake.org/phos.htm<br />http://www.lclt.org/Phosphorus.htm<br />http://www.lakechamplaincommittee.org/lcc-at-work/algae-in-lake/<br />http://www.lycos.com/info/phosphorus--lakes.html<br />http://www.lcbp.org/PHOSPSUM.HTM<br />
  20. 20. Pictures Provided By:<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/10679224@N00/305468712/<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/10679224@N00/305468712/<br />http://www.canaryfans.com/pictures/blue_green_algae.jpg<br />http://delmackandcheese.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/dead_fish.jpg<br />http://www.wackypackages.org/stickers/91_topps/44_front_one_fish_two_fish_red_fish_dead_fish.jpg<br />http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/04eNdOZ4Qr2Vc/610x.jpg<br />http://www.vermont-map.org/vermont.jpg<br />
  21. 21. ….Continued<br />http://www.evesbeauty.com/images/cancer_colors.jpg<br />http://go635254.s3.amazonaws.com/ecochildsplay/files/2009/02/mercury_500.jpg<br />http://img310.imageshack.us/img310/5714/pollution5kq.jpg<br />http://fizyka.phys.put.poznan.pl/~pieransk/Physics%20Around%20Us/Rain%20drops%2002.jpg<br />http://www.pickawayswcd.org/pictures/filter%20strips%20and%20%20buffers/grass_fs_allen_co.jpg<br />http://media.washingtontimes.com/media/img/photos/2009/03/30/20090329-194244-pic-569143494_r564x423.jpg?5188025d4c9c4f9067ba2939665ac4debf69e51c<br />

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