Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 1
“The Buddha’s original teaching is not
a religion as the word is conventionally
unders...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 2
Theoretical Pariyatti
Practical Patipatti
Realisable Pativedha
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 3
Forewords
Why is it so difficult for one to know and see the ultimate truth? Why are w...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 4
dependent nature. Otherwise, a constant factor could not be achieved at all
and the na...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 5
As a conclusion, we shall know by now that nature is universal that bears with
the inh...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 6
1.0 Life Existence - How it begins and continues to begin?
Every existence does contai...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 7
The Cycle of Dependent Origination
The principle in effect: -
A stream of balanced phe...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 8
A stream of six sense bases would conjure up contact,
A stream of contacts would conju...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 9
The Orientation of Energy, Matter and Space
Key: -
The element of energy Electromagnet...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 10
The Web of Energy
Key: -
Point of friction = crystalised energy.
= a basis of matter....
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 11
The Network of Existence
For example,
The Structure of Human Skin
Key: -
Point of fri...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 12
3.0 Energy and Soul
What is energy? It is described as the ability to cause change or...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 13
4.0 Ātman
In Hinduism, ātman is defined as individual soul or essence that is eternal...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 14
across time and the plane of existence. This natural law is also known as the
law of ...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 15
within the same being or thing until the next disintegrating process begins upon
a sp...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 16
ignorance in the future.
The principle in effect: -
The seeing of ultimate truth lead...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 17
SAMSĀRA NIBBĀNA
Encircled by Conditional phenomena Release of Conditional phenomena
A...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 18
arise as well across the time stream (past, present and future) and the plane of
exis...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 19
tomorrow will be,
Repayment > new Loan $100
In another scenario, the balanced conditi...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 20
10.0 Law of Cause and Effect in Motion
Generally speaking, there are two categories o...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 21
More examples: -
1. When a car stops suddenly in a quick action, the reacting process...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 22
of scalars include speed, mass, electrical resistance, and hard-drive storage
capacit...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 23
Length, width and height are expressions that size and volume exist,
Size and volume ...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 24
12.0 The Concept of Emptiness in Buddhism
The concept of śūnyatā (emptiness) in Buddh...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 25
with the conditional phenomena. This is the correct understanding on the
concept of e...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 26
13.0 Form is Emptiness, Emptiness is Form
Why do we always hear Buddhists saying, ‘Fo...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 27
essence. They only exist in relation to each other as appearances that in turn
vary a...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 28
egolessness in oneself would arise concurrently. This realisation is part of the
fund...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 29
15.1 The Coffee in a Cup
Let’s say Coffee Original is one of the special brewed drink...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 30
as special brewed drinks.
As a conclusion, the new liquid mixture arising in Cup 1, C...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 31
well. At the end of the day, the Buddha has seen through that ‘dependence’
is part of...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 32
(unwholesome acts). Subsequently, upon the exposure of both the good and
bad influenc...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 33
18.0 What are Enlightenment, Awakening and Nibbāna?
Nibbāna is a phenomenon beyond al...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 34
title just like presidency. Presidents may come and go over the years in an
organisat...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 35
19.0 What is suffering?
The word ‘suffering’ seems to appear in every corner of Buddh...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 36
consciousness. The switch for the elements of prevailing consciousness would
be turne...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 37
21.0 Who am I?
Am I the mind? Am I the body? Or, am I the five body senses?
To the Ma...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 38
And this is how we explicate the presence in the waves of dependent
phenomena having ...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 39
Now, we need to look at the definition of existence. What exists is defined as
that w...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 40
But in what way is consciousness mistaken? Because all phenomena appear to
exist in t...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 41
25.0 Emptiness and Existence
Emptiness is a necessary prerequisite for any objects to...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 42
Stage 2 Intermediary Realisation
 Ability to differentiate the way things are percei...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 43
absolutely overtakes the soul of the possessed individual. This is because one
cannot...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 44
Let us look at the following illustrations: -
Illustration 1
Key: -
Force of Ignoranc...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 45
Key: -
Subtle Conscious Mind of Individual A Subtle Conscious Mind of Individual B
Su...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 46
Illustration 2
Key: - E = Energy M = Matter
Generation 1
Individual A Individual B In...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 47
Some lapse of time after the disintegrating process
M1-2 M1-3 M1-4 M1-5 M2-2 M2-3 M2-...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 48
In the above illustration, supposedly Individual A is an ardent pianist then the
new ...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 49
Key: -
Point A / Point B = subject / object = phenomenon of duality
mind
path of awak...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 50
The Progressing state of the Mind
Listed below is a comparison between an ignorant an...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 51
4. The presence in the waves of dependent phenomena has clouded the
mind from discern...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 52
7. Under a complete realised circumstance, the mind would be absorbed
into the black ...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 53
Conventional truth
Duality or multiplicity would arise in the presence of the mind. T...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 54
Dependent nature is a classification being performed by the mind. Without the
mind, t...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 55
32.0 Non-existence of the Mind
No Subject-object relationship
Ultimate truth
No duali...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 56
and therefore, one has to let go and blow away the mindset that is associated
with th...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 57
Append below, please find the illustrations that could clarify the above
scenario: -
...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 58
condition. In other words, the subtle mind consciousness plays an active role
in rela...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 59
An enlightened mind can be described as a prevailing conscious mind with
liberation f...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 60
The simultaneous big floods in several countries.
– January 12, 2011
The death of Osa...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 61
consciousness. In the absence of the mind, the dependent phenomenon would
die out con...
Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 62
35.1 Mind Consciousness
It is regarded as the ‘working’ consciousness or the mind-in-...
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Nature, Reality & Buddhism

  1. 1. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 1 “The Buddha’s original teaching is not a religion as the word is conventionally understood. The Buddha taught ‘Dhamma’ – a moral, wholesome way of life which is universal, and can be practised by anyone. He did not teach ‘Buddhism’, and was not interested in making anyone a ‘Buddhist’.” ~ Acharya S. N. Goenka (1924 – 2013) ~ Ɲaturϵ, Ɽealitƴ § ẞuɖɖhisɱ by ЉuδδhiΨaksσ
  2. 2. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 2 Theoretical Pariyatti Practical Patipatti Realisable Pativedha
  3. 3. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 3 Forewords Why is it so difficult for one to know and see the ultimate truth? Why are we here - breathing, thinking and talking, right now? Why is there a beginning and then an ending? Why something, why not nothing? For one to see into the ultimate truth, one has to unwind everything back to the moment of the origin. We do know things and happenings exist because it can be known and felt by our senses. And our minds interpret event or happening as a condition that one has to go through, to persevere with, to soldier on with, to carry on with or to undertake with, inevitably. Since things and happenings have existed long before we have a slightest opportunity to recognise and understand it well, we are bound to suffer ignorantly. However, as human beings, we have the wisdom to carry out recognition on the entire cycle of events or happenings. In the dependent nature, we do know one thing that is consistently constant i.e. becoming. This becoming process is the main reason for all the things that we observe right here, right now. When there is a becoming process, there is a changing process. The changing process would then conjure up an ability of sorts that is known as ‘energy.’ Therefore, we shall be clear by now that energy is something that has always been in existence and remaining as a constant - as per the Law of Conservation of Energy that says energy in a system can neither be created nor destroyed and the sum of all energies is a constant or never changes. When we deal with the subject of energy, indirectly we also touch on the subject of matter. This is because energy and matter are simply two aspects of the same thing - both reflected in different forms only (as in Einstein's formula, E = mc2 ). Just like cause and effect are the same things - both reflected in a different time of events. As a summary, we could conclude that energy is a fundamental element in the dependent nature because every single thing or happening would involve with it. Even the so-called souls, spirits, ghosts - are all part of the elements of energy because they can be detected by electromagnetic devices. So when we mention that the sum of all energies in a system is a constant or never changes, it means that there is a need for a balancing act in the
  4. 4. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 4 dependent nature. Otherwise, a constant factor could not be achieved at all and the natural bounding law that dictates this circumstance of equilibrium in the dependent nature is called the law of kamma. In other words, the law of kamma is simply a natural bounding law of balancing. And only when there is a balanced circumstance, there is a chance for the process of formation i.e. under a balanced phenomenon, one could witness the emergence of forms; under an imbalanced phenomenon, one could witness the non-emergence of forms - and the cycle of conditional phenomena continues. For general understanding, the law of kamma is a comprehensive law that runs in a phenomenon full of complexity and in a way beyond the straight forward action-reaction principles being discovered by modern scientists. This is because events or happenings in the dependent nature would appear in varying frequencies under the conditional influences and thus the working result of kamma is non-conjecturable and to speculate about it would bring madness and vexation to anyone who conjectured about it. Right now, let us take a look at another angle of nature that is the non- dependent nature. What constitutes a non-dependent nature? A non- dependent nature is also known as an inherent nature of existence. Anything that inherently exists would not involve change and created objects cannot inherently exist since that would involve change. Therefore, we could conclude that all the things or happenings in the dependent nature cannot inherently exist because the changing process is the key element of it. So how could we identify the ultimate truth in the nature? Rightfully, we could mention that nature is ultimately universal and encompassed with both the inherent and the dependent qualities. The inherent quality of nature can be known as the deepest fact about things. It exists beyond mind, beyond concepts and words and it bears with the characteristics of beginning-less and end-less. Our minds are capable of perceiving this reality of nature and Buddhism is all about transforming an ignorant state of the mind into a realised one. An enlightened mind is able to discern the deepest fact about things in crystal clear and without hesitation after getting rid of the waves of dependent phenomena.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 5 As a conclusion, we shall know by now that nature is universal that bears with the inherent and the dependent qualities concurrently. The ultimate truth would remain unshaken no matter how one interprets it and one should not waste time trying to prove who is right, who is wrong, which school teaches more truths, etc. Trivial arguments would make one looks more foolish among all the other ignorant beings. And the world is not a closed one. Those who see, read, hear and evaluate for themselves can find the truth they seek. The role of religion in this era is not as a blockage but to help explain and educate in a mature manner. Be bound-less, be stereotype-less, be label-less. Mould a right attitude and it would open up a new horizon of things. Have a nice day! Buddhitakso June 2012 ‘The ultimate truth is simple; enlightenment can be direct and simple.’ ~ Buddhitakso ~ “If the Supreme Truth is unknown, the study of Scriptures is fruitless; and when the Supreme Truth is realised the study of Scriptures becomes fruitless.” From Sri Sankaracharya
  6. 6. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 6 1.0 Life Existence - How it begins and continues to begin? Every existence does contain with the three basic elements - energy, matter and space. These basic elements would subject to the balanced and the imbalanced phenomena. Under a balanced phenomenon, these elements would start to integrate with each other to create aggregation. Under an imbalanced phenomenon, these elements would start to disintegrate from each other to create segregation. 1.1 The Cycle of Dependent Origination In the Buddhist context, the dependent nature is known as samsāra. Samsāra literally means ‘continuous flow’- referring to a repeating cycle of birth, life, death and re-birth. In other words, there is a repeating cycle of rising and falling activities that in turn would give rise to the regular balanced and imbalanced phenomena as being observed by the mind. This scenario can be portrayed in the cycle of dependent origination shown as below: - Balance leads to stability. Stability leads to aggregation. Aggregation leads to agitation. Agitation leads to information. Information leads to knowledge. Knowledge leads to representation. Representation leads to memory. Memory leads to compulsion. Compulsion leads to ignorance. Ignorance leads to blindness. Blindness leads to disorientation. Disorientation leads to confusion. Confusion leads to irrationality. Irrationality leads to impulse. Impulse leads to sparkling. Sparkling leads to inkling. Inkling leads to volition. Volition leads to awareness. Awareness leads to consciousness. Consciousness leads to manas. Manas leads to mind and body. Mind and body lead to sensation. Sensation leads to six sense bases. Six sense bases lead to conductivity. Conductivity leads to contact. Contact leads to stimulation. Stimulation leads to feeling. Feeling leads to experience. Experience leads to craving. Craving leads to grasping. Grasping leads to clinging. Clinging leads to unsettling. Unsettling leads to becoming. Becoming leads to creation. Creation leads to birth. Birth leads to energising. Energising leads to mobility. Mobility leads to hauling. Hauling leads to aging. Aging leads to draining. Draining leads to death. Death leads to fragility. Fragility leads to segregation. Segregation leads to diffusion. Diffusion leads to imbalance. Imbalance leads to adjustment. Adjustment leads to alignment. Alignment leads to new balance.
  7. 7. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 7 The Cycle of Dependent Origination The principle in effect: - A stream of balanced phenomena would conjure up aggregation, A stream of aggregation would conjure up information, A stream of information would conjure up memory, A stream of memories would conjure up ignorance, A stream of ignorance would conjure up volitional impulse, A stream of volitional impulses would conjure up consciousness, A stream of consciousness would conjure up body and mind, A stream of body and mind would conjure up six sense bases, Fragility Segregation Stimulation Draining Becoming Creation Birth Energising Mobility Aging Death Feeling Grasping Balance Memory Six sense basesConductivityContactExperience Craving Clinging Unsettling Compulsion Ignorance Disorientation Confusion Awareness Consciousness ManasMind & bodySensation Information Knowledge Representation Stability Aggregation Agitation Impulse Hauling Blindness Irrationality Sparkling Inkling Volition ImbalanceDiffusion Adjustment Alignment Black hole of Emptiness
  8. 8. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 8 A stream of six sense bases would conjure up contact, A stream of contacts would conjure up feeling, A stream of feelings would conjure up craving, A stream of cravings would conjure up clinging, A stream of clinging would conjure up becoming, A stream of becoming would conjure up birth, A stream of births would conjure up aging, A stream of aging would conjure up death, A stream of deaths would conjure up segregation, A stream of segregation would conjure up imbalanced phenomenon, A stream of imbalanced phenomena would conjure up new balanced phenomenon. Thus the conditional phenomena would continue repeatedly to depict the rising and falling activities in the dependent nature, just like a continuum of wavy pattern oscillating up and down. However, the cycle of dependent origination cannot be directly translated as a linear point of reference because the conventional reality does not work in-linear but in inter-dependence, inter- woven since the dawn of time in a very comprehensive and complicated network of existence. 2.0 Energy and Matter Energy and matter are simply two aspects of the same thing - both reflected in a different form. Just like cause and effect are referring to the same thing - both reflected in a different time of events. Matter is simply something that contains mass and takes up space as a solid, liquid, gas or plasma. The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. In other words, matter is also known as concerted, aggregated or concentrated or wrapped energy. As scientists have discovered, energy cannot be created or destroyed – it only transforms itself based on any subjected conditions. Therefore, we could summarise that all activities would evolve around the orientation of energy and matter in space at all times and it can be illustrated as below: -
  9. 9. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 9 The Orientation of Energy, Matter and Space Key: - The element of energy Electromagnetic vibration The element of matter Gravitational wave The chain of mind consciousness J0 J2 J1 F0 F2 H2 H0 H1 C1 G2 C2 C0 G0 K1 F1 L0 L1 L2 E0 N1 E1 E2 A2 B1 A0 B0 A0 K0 K2 2 C0 H1
  10. 10. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 10 The Web of Energy Key: - Point of friction = crystalised energy. = a basis of matter. ‘Energy is space in tango, space is energy in play.’ ~ Buddhitakso ~
  11. 11. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 11 The Network of Existence For example, The Structure of Human Skin Key: - Point of friction = a communion of the two opposite forces. = a balanced point. 1. This is how the network of connectivity arises in the dependent nature i.e. all the elements are inter-depending, inter-waving and inter-relating with one another since the dawn of time. 2. Energy is all about vibration. And vibration is about the alternate movement of opposite forces and it travels in a wave pattern shown as below: - FA1 FA2 FA1-2 = FA2-1 FA3 FA4 FA3-2 = FA1-1 FA3-1 = FA4-2 FA2-2 = FXX-X F(A3-1=A4-2)-1 = FXXXX-XXXX F(A3-1-A4-2)-2 = F(A3-2-A1-1)-1 F(A3-2=A1-1)-2 = F(A1-2=A2-1)-1 F(A1-2=A2-1)-2 = F(A2-2=XX-X)-1 Cause-Effect Effect-Cause
  12. 12. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 12 3.0 Energy and Soul What is energy? It is described as the ability to cause change or do work. Now, let us look at soul. Soul is defined as non-material part of a human body, believed to exist for ever, emotional and intellectual energy. As such, is it incorrect to relate soul as part of the elements of energy? On the other hand, one may hear of the Law of Conservation of Energy that says energy in a system can neither be created nor destroyed. It may take on various forms (e.g. kinetic, potential, heat, light, chemical, nuclear, electrical, mechanical, etc.) Therefore, the sum of all the energies in the system is a constant or never changes. When a person is lying dead, both the elements of energy and matter would head off from each other. The elements of energy would sustain a liberty of sorts and over time, the elements of matter would transform into the elements of energy as well before assuming into another new life forms and this cyclic process continues repeatedly. Now, let us take an example of a worn out PC (Personal Computer). Whilst the hardware parts may meet its due time, the software parts may not and it could be recycled and reconfigured before being put to use onto other PC. On another instance, we could summarise that ice, water and steam are different forms deriving from the orientation of H2O properties under the subjected conditions. At the end of the day, when the ice form ceased to be, the elements of energy within it would assume into the water or the steam form. The elements of energy within the ice form did not just die out or cease to exist. Also, it is well known that modern scientists who work on hypotheses could not conclusively agree to acknowledge the presence of souls or spirits due to the complication in garnering consistent results at any given time period. However, the so-called souls or spirits could still be detected by electromagnetic devices and this scenario has confirmed that souls or spirits are part of the elements of energy. There are bountiful cases related to souls or spirits available in every corner of the world but most of the investigations merely lead to a mystifying end.
  13. 13. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 13 4.0 Ātman In Hinduism, ātman is defined as individual soul or essence that is eternal, unchanging, and indistinguishable from the essence of the universe. However, Buddhism sees no ātman or no eternal soul. Therefore, the correct interpretation is Buddhism recognises no eternal-soul and not no-soul. In other words, Buddhism sees in a basis of blueprints in individuals that is always evolving under the influence of conditional phenomena. Whereas, Hinduism sees in a basis of blueprints that is eternal and never changing under any circumstances. 5.0 Law of Kamma and Newton’s Law of Motion The law of kamma is a natural phenomenon law discovered and realised by human civilisation long time ago – so as all the natural law principles testified and verified by modern scientists. In other words, all the natural phenomenon laws have been in existence since the dawn of time with or without any discoveries by human beings. For general understanding, the law of kamma is a comprehensive law that runs in a phenomenon full of complexity and in a way beyond the straight forward action-reaction principles being discovered by modern scientists. If we analyse intently into the Newton’s 3rd law of motion and the law of kamma, both of these laws did share a certain degree of similarity. For instance, it is correct to say that good begets good, evil begets evil. When one pays to behave like an animal in the present lifetime, one would be repaid in the next life as an animal. Just as sow apple seeds, reap apple fruits; sow orange seeds, reap orange fruits or Action 1 conjures up Reaction 1; Action 2 conjures up Reaction 2. 6.0 Law of Nature and the Buddha’s teachings If one observes intently at the surroundings, everything that exists would always try to achieve a harmonious balance. All things or matters would only exist in perpetual conditions under a balanced phenomenon. Thus when things run off-balance or when one stirs up in any circumstances, the natural law that maintains equilibrium would take its regular course to balance it in another way
  14. 14. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 14 across time and the plane of existence. This natural law is also known as the law of balancing. In the Buddhist context, the law of balancing can also be classified as the law of kamma. The law of kamma is a natural law that is not shaped by someone else; no one owns it; neither Buddhism – but merely to ensure equilibrium in the nature at all times. Also, we need to understand that long before the rising of Buddhadhamma about 2,550 years ago, the realms of existence has run its course in accordance with the natural bounding laws. And the wise Buddha has seen through the reality of it, thus advocating remedies for a permanent liberation. The Buddha has recommended Middle Path (the path of balancing) that acts as a fundamental route to taste enlightenment while facing with the law of kamma (the law of balancing). Middle Path is all about focusing on core, neutral, balance and upright. It means to investigate and break through the core of life and all things without any attitudes of favouritism. Any investigations must commence based on unbiased grounds i.e. on neutral and upright positions. In other words, one needs to investigate the problem from various angles, analyse the findings, understand the truth thoroughly, and find a reasonable conclusion. Also, the Buddhadhamma lays great emphasis on human thought and action in dealing with the natural environment, society or individual problems. It is concerned with the relationship between thoughts and behaviour, and the relationship between behaviour and its consequences. In short, the Buddha recognises all thoughts and actions as wholesome or unwholesome only. The meaning of wholesome would be in totality of perspective and unwholesome would be in non-totality of perspective. There is no holy or sinful act or thought in the eyes of the Buddha except for skillful or unskillful one. 7.0 Basic elements and Conditional phenomena When the three basic elements - energy, matter and space interact together, the very first dot of integrating process begins under a balanced phenomenon. When the billion and trillion dots come together, it would manifest into some sort of beings or things. Respectively, each dot contains a sort of genetic information that is unique and the aggregate of multiple dots would conjure up a pool of behaviour subsequently. Such a unique behaviour would be enfold
  15. 15. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 15 within the same being or thing until the next disintegrating process begins upon a specific time of maturity. During the disintegrating process, the three basic elements would liberate from each other and sustain a freedom of sorts under an imbalanced phenomenon. When more different beings go through the same disintegrating processes, more different elements of energy and matter would sustain with freedom of sorts and thus assimilate among each other in the realms of existence before waiting for the subsequent balanced phenomena. For instance, the three basic elements would separate from each other when a being is lying dead. Both the elements of prevailing and subtle consciousnesses would depart from the body. It is the same scenario for plants, insects or any material things – but only the elements of subtle consciousness exist and would depart from the body. 8.0 Law of Dependent Origination So far all the available suttas on the Buddha’s teachings have pointed out ignorance as the first link in the wheel of life. However, if we were to observe this aspect of ignorance intently, it simply could not arise out of thin air. Definitely, it has to arise out of some kind of memorised events that have taken place beforehand. In psychology, memory is defined as an organism's ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences. So when the process of aggregation begins, some sort of information would be produced, stored and recalled within the integrated elements. In a layman term, this process is called the creation or pro-creation within beings or things. If the memory aspect is absent, the process of replication could not arise in any beings or things at all. Let us illustrate the learning of speeches among young children. If a child has no ability of memorising, then whatever lessons that were taught on would be forgotten or erased instantly and the progression into the next advanced level would be deemed impossible. However, in Buddhism, there is a recommendation for one to see and live in the present; neither in the past nor in the future. When one lives well in the present, one would lead to a cessation of memories of the past and this would subsequently lead to a cessation of
  16. 16. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 16 ignorance in the future. The principle in effect: - The seeing of ultimate truth leads to the cessation of balanced phenomenon, The cessation of balanced phenomenon leads to the cessation of aggregation, The cessation of aggregation leads to cessation of information, The cessation of information leads to cessation of memory, The cessation of memory leads to the cessation of ignorance, The cessation of ignorance leads to the cessation of volitional impulse, The cessation of volitional impulse leads to the cessation of consciousness, The cessation of consciousness leads to the cessation of body and mind, The cessation of body and mind lead to the cessation of six sense bases, The cessation of six sense bases lead to the cessation of contact, The cessation of contact leads to the cessation of feeling, The cessation of feeling leads to the cessation of craving, The cessation of craving leads to the cessation of clinging, The cessation of clinging leads to the cessation of becoming, The cessation of becoming leads to the cessation of birth, The cessation of birth leads to the cessation of aging, The cessation of aging leads to the cessation of death, The cessation of death leads to the cessation of segregation, The cessation of segregation leads to the cessation of imbalanced phenomenon, The cessation of imbalanced phenomenon leads to the cessation of conditional phenomena, The cessation of conditional phenomena leads to the cessation of time, The cessation of time leads to the unconditional freedom of basic elements - energy, matter and space. Ultimately, the pure energy would freeze indefinitely in the absence of time – this is the ambience of nibbāna. Let us refer to the following illustration: -
  17. 17. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 17 SAMSĀRA NIBBĀNA Encircled by Conditional phenomena Release of Conditional phenomena Act of Emptying Act of Extinguishing Act of Neutralising Elements sustain in PERPETUITY Elements sustain in PERMANENCY Presence of Time Absence of Time SUFFERING PEACE 9.0 Balanced condition and Sentient beings Balance is generally defined as a state of equilibrium or equipoise; equal distribution of weight, amount, etc; a condition of being steady; a state of equilibrium or parity characterised by cancellation of all forces by equal opposing forces; a harmonious or satisfying arrangement or proportion of parts or elements, as in a design. On the other hand, sentient is defined as responsive to or conscious of sense impressions; finely sensitive in perception or feeling. Sentient beings are denoted as beings with consciousness or sentience or specifically it denotes the presence of the five aggregates and are characteristically not enlightened and are thus confined to the death, rebirth and suffering characteristic of samsāra. When we describe the characteristics of sentient beings, we are actually referring to the energy being enfold within the matter that is subject to the rising and the falling events. The consciousness aspects within the sentient beings would initiate thoughts or acts that are devoid of inherent existence. For every rising force of thoughts or acts, a new equal opposing force would Energy Space Matter Matter Space Energy
  18. 18. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 18 arise as well across the time stream (past, present and future) and the plane of existence. Continuous rising and falling of thoughts or acts would shape the wheel of life as in samsāra. As mentioned earlier, energy and matter are simply two aspects of the same thing - both reflected in different forms per se. Just like cause and effect are the same things - both reflected in a different time of events. Let us look at the following illustrations: - Cause = Effect Cause 1 conjures up Effect 1, Effect 1 conjures up Cause 1-1, .., etc. Action = Reaction Action 1 conjures up Reaction 1, Reaction 1 conjures up Action 1-1, .., etc. If present, Cause 1 > Effect 1, Action 1 > Reaction 1 future will be, Effect 1 > Cause 1-1, Reaction 1 > Action 1-1* * This is the typical scenario of a good person having to face with the unfortunate events; a bad person having to enjoy the fortunate events in a lifetime. For example, Loan $100 = Repayment $100 If today, Loan $100 > Repayment $100
  19. 19. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 19 tomorrow will be, Repayment > new Loan $100 In another scenario, the balanced condition could be depicted in our daily act of giving and taking i.e. The rise of unreserved taking or reward leads to the rise of accountable giving or sacrifice (unfavourable energies attract unfavourable energies), The rise of unreserved giving or sacrifice leads to the rise of unaccountable taking or reward (favourable energies attract favourable energies). A cessation in the conditional phenomena would lead to the cessation of cyclic influences i.e. when action ceasing, reaction ceases; when cause ceasing, effect ceases. And the antidote to the cessation of it would be radiating loving- kindness and compassion that act as means for weakening the links of suffering in the wheel of life. The principle in effect: - A stream of loving-kindness and compassion would conjure up empathy, A stream of empathy would conjure up boundless, A stream of boundless would conjure up voidness, A stream of voidness would conjure up stillness, A stream of stillness would conjure up peacefulness, A stream of peacefulness would conjure up enlightenment. As a summary, every existence (sentient, non-sentient, or any material things) consists of energy and matter that would orientate toward a harmoniously balanced condition that is in accordance with the universal laws. Under a balanced phenomenon, one could witness the emergence of forms; under an imbalanced phenomenon, one could witness the non-emergence of forms and the cycle of conditional phenomena continues repeatedly.
  20. 20. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 20 10.0 Law of Cause and Effect in Motion Generally speaking, there are two categories of motion i.e. the constant and the variable motion. When we mention that a rising force of something would generate a new equal opposing force under the law of balancing, we are actually referring to a process of action and reaction under a condition of constant motion. However, under a condition of variable motion, the law of balancing would orientate in a unique harmonising mechanism (as in Newton’s 2nd law of motion). Let us look at the following illustrations: - 10.1 Constant Motion Under a circumstance of constant motion, come factor equals to become factor: - Come factor = Become factor 10.2 Variable Motion 10.2.1 Acceleration When come factor accelerates, the relative become factor would decelerate: - Come factor ↑, Become factor ↓ (End results: Mental and physical progresses slow down  the circumstance of time dilation in Einstein’s special theory of relativity.) 10.2.2 Deceleration When come factor decelerates, the relative become factor would accelerate: - Come factor ↓, Become factor ↑ (End results: Mental and physical progresses speed up  the ambience of deep meditation.)
  21. 21. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 21 More examples: - 1. When a car stops suddenly in a quick action, the reacting process becomes slower in relative to the action and this is a basis for greater inertia effects – serious injuries on the passenger. 2. When a car stops steadily in a slow action, the reacting process becomes quicker in relative to the action and this is a basis for lesser inertia effects – mild injuries on the passenger. 3. When one launches a bullet toward a target – too quick an action would take the target longer time to react relatively. If compared with launching a throw of baseball – slower an action would give relatively longer time for the target to react. 4. When one runs water on a piece of paper in low velocity, the atoms or molecules within the paper have sufficient time to react relatively quicker to hold tight as a scale unit and vice versa. Naturally, we always involve in motions that vary in frequencies under the influence of conditional phenomena and this scenario coincides with the Buddha’s saying that the working result of kamma was one of the four unconjecturables and to speculate about it would bring madness and vexation to anyone who conjectured about it. 11.0 Space and Time Some people may say that time is an illusion and does not exist after all. So what actually is time? Frankly speaking, time is something that is created; not born (a non-natural existence). Time is an indicator for event; whereas length, width and height are indicators for size and volume. All these indicators belong to a category named as dimension. In other words, dimension is created for the task of measurement per se and therefore, not something that arises out naturally. Also, time is a scalar factor. A scalar refers to a quantity or phenomenon that exhibits magnitude only, with no specific direction. Example
  22. 22. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 22 of scalars include speed, mass, electrical resistance, and hard-drive storage capacity. Any interval of time is also scalar - it has magnitude only. On the other hand, space is a natural element in the realms of existence; just like the elements of energy and matter. Space is merely a plane for all the activities or existences i.e. the orientation of energy or matter under the conditional phenomena. Presently, scientists have discovered that space has three spatial dimensions (length, width and height) and one temporal dimension - that is time. In cosmology, the concept of spacetime combines space and time to a single abstract universe. In fact, there is another X-factor dimension exists to accommodate for non-discerning circumstances. As a summary, we could mention that the three spatial dimensions were created for expressing all existences under static phenomena and the combination of 3 + 1 + X-factor dimensions were created for expressing all existences under dynamic phenomena. 11.1 What actually happens to an object under accelerating motion? When an object is set under an accelerating motion, the becoming process of the object would be stretched as compared with a relative object that is set under a constant or a decelerating motion. In other words, the becoming process of the object has been slowed down comparatively; not the time has been dilated or slowed down. Time would only assume the expression that the becoming process has slowed down and not the other way round. Literally, the slowing down of the becoming process would mean the slowing down of the aging process for a sentient being. This is the correct understanding behind the thought experiment of twin paradox which concerns a twin who flies off in a spaceship traveling near the speed of light and returns to discover that his or her twin sibling has aged much more. The principle in effect: - Time is an expression that becoming process exists, Becoming process is not an expression that time exists.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 23 Length, width and height are expressions that size and volume exist, Size and volume are not expressions that length, width and height exist. Shadow is an expression that object and light exist, Object and light are not expressions that shadow exists. Effect A is an expression that Cause A exists, Cause A is not an expression that Effect A exists, Cause A is an expression that Effect pre-A exists. In other words, When no cause arising, no effect would arise, When no object and light arising, no shadow would arise, When no becoming process arising, no time would arise. Similarly, the word of time has been used frequently for expressing different scenario of becoming processes, such as follows: - NO TIME = an expression of no opportunity for a new becoming process to begin. TIME TO TIME = an expression of moving from the past to the present becoming process; the present to the future becoming process. TIME PASSED SLOWLY = an expression of hoping for a faster becoming process. TIME DILATION = an expression that the becoming process slows down. Once again, time is a dimension because it is a scale of measurement created for gauging the events. Therefore, time could not be self-sustainable and has no entity. For one to reflect time as an entity is a point of view based on delusion, just like the misconception of self entity in beings. When there is no becoming process, there is no time. So time does not exist in nibbāna.
  24. 24. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 24 12.0 The Concept of Emptiness in Buddhism The concept of śūnyatā (emptiness) in Buddhism has always been the main subject of confusion among the followers. Now, let us analyse into it. We need to understand that long before the rising of Buddhadhamma about 2,550 years ago, the realms of existence has run its course in accordance with the natural bounding laws. The wise Buddha has seen through the reality of it, thus advocating remedies to liberate oneself from these laws permanently. For general understanding, nature is full with wonders and has reached a saturated level of complexity that encompasses all sorts of activities such as aggregation, segregation, evolution, mutation, assimilation, etc. In other words, all of these activities have had happened in a manner long before we have a slightest opportunity to realise it. This scenario is the key to the rising of ignorant aspects in the realms of existence. As a consequence, we always tend to make the observation on events in the context of ‘result’ perspective or from the ignorant point of view. There are plenty of examples for the observation deriving from this conventional perspective i.e. formation, suffering, disease, sickness, terrorism, calamity, existence, etc. Nevertheless, the wise Buddha has realised these circumstances and recommended with a paradigm shift i.e. for one to make the observation on events from the context of ‘cause’ perspective or the awakened point of view instead. Thus far, it is this new-found perspective that could one liberate from the cyclic influence of conditional phenomena. One of the good examples is the introduction of the cardinal doctrine of Dependent Origination. As mentioned earlier, nature has already reached a saturated level of complexity and this circumstance has created difficulties for one to observe the events free from defilements. If we could unwind all the events that have taken place in the nature, we could realise the origin of it i.e. all the activities, events or processes would evolve around the orientation of energy or matter in a plane called space at all times. At the end of the day, we could see that every existence (sentient, non-sentient, or any material things) is nothing but merely basic elements (energy, matter and space) that would orientate in accordance
  25. 25. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 25 with the conditional phenomena. This is the correct understanding on the concept of emptiness in Buddhism. In other words, we could mention that the form entity has a delusive nature and it is generated out of the ignorant point of view or from the context of ‘result’ perspective. We could not view form as an entity because it is an appearance, though not illusive, but devoid of inherent existence and varies under the influence of conditional phenomena. Rightfully, the Buddha has recommended one to see all the circumstances as they truly are (not as they delusively are). And it is through the philosophy of emptiness could one begin to experience the cleansing of ignorant aspects. Once the ignorant aspects have been extinguished or neutralised, the awakening aspects would arise concurrently. An act of emptying = an act of extinguishing = an act of neutralising ≠ an act of annihilating. The principle in effect: - Seeing Dhamma is seeing Buddha, Seeing Buddha is seeing Dhamma. Seeing Buddha is seeing Nibbāna, Seeing Nibbāna is seeing Buddha. Seeing Emptiness is seeing Form, Seeing Form is seeing Emptiness. Seeing Energy is seeing Matter, Seeing Matter is seeing Energy. Seeing Cause is seeing Effect, Seeing Effect is seeing Cause. Seeing Action is seeing Reaction, Seeing Reaction is seeing Action.
  26. 26. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 26 13.0 Form is Emptiness, Emptiness is Form Why do we always hear Buddhists saying, ‘Form is Emptiness, Emptiness is Form?’ What actually is form? We can actually see form as an appearance but why would we say it is empty? Isn’t it strange, right? Well, for the common populace, form is viewed as an entity. Entity means thing which exists as a separate unit. So is it correct to say that form does exist as a separate unit as what our ordinary mind perceived? Let us make a simple illustration now. Supposedly, you stand in front of a large mirror looking at yourself – what you could see is your own appearance of physical body. Now, if you continue to see inside yourself, search deeper and deeper within yourself, what would you see? You could probably see various internal organs, blood veins, nerves, fluids, unit cells, etc. At the end of the day, can you describe the innermost section of your physical body? After the single unit cell, what else do you see inside further? Can you find any core essence that is eternal or non-changing? You probably couldn’t find anything inside further. When one couldn’t find anything inside further, how does one translate it into? Isn’t it empty? So could we say that form is ultimately empty in the real sense? However, we shall not confuse emptiness with nothingness. Emptiness cannot be meant as nothingness. While we say that form is emptiness, there are still basic elements enfolding it. Just like when we do declare a vessel as empty, it does not literally mean nothing inside the vessel – there could still be air, radiation, dust, viruses, etc. that cannot be discerned by our naked eyes. At the end of the day, we could declare that form is empty in the real sense because there is no core essence within it except for the basic elements that orientate and evolve constantly under the influence of the external conditions. What our naked eyes view as form is actually the matter that is also known as concerted, aggregated or concentrated or wrapped energy. Since we can’t see energy with our naked eyes, we would say that the innermost of form is empty rather than nothing. As a conclusion, everything that exists is empty because there is no essence to anything and nothing has ever existed in its own quality – nothing is permanent and unchanging. All objects exist conditionally without an eternal
  27. 27. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 27 essence. They only exist in relation to each other as appearances that in turn vary as per the perceptions of the beholders. Energy is the underlying element for all the existences and it is dependent on the conditional phenomena. 14.0 The Concept of Non-self in Buddhism The concept of anattā (non-self or absence of separate self) in Buddhism has always been the main subject of confusion among the followers. Now, let us analyse into it. Simply it means, ‘Now you see it, now you don't.’ This is what the concept of emptiness in Buddhism is all about – the absence of static entity. Nothing stays unchanging even for a slightest moment at all times. By the time you think who you are, you are already not the same ‘you’ seconds ago. So where are you to find the original static of ‘you’ as you assume along every passing of moments? At the end of the day, you could only see a stream of you constantly passing by on every slightest moment. So I repeat, you could only see a stream of you - not the one stop entity of you. Just like you could not step twice into the same river; for other waters are ever flowing on to you. The stream of you would mean you are part of the becoming processes that arise in the nature. All the different shapes and forms that exist in the nature are merely the momentary outcomes of the constant and the continuous becoming processes in the realms of existence. Under a balanced phenomenon, one could witness the emergence of forms; under an imbalanced phenomenon, one could witness the non-emergence of forms - and the cycle of conditional phenomena continues repeatedly. In addition, the stream of you is devoid of inherent existence. It means that you do not exist independently by the definition of the physical container that you always presume to be. You are merely the results of energy or matter orientation that evolve constantly and continuously in the space at all times. In other words, you are just like part of the Lego pieces or bricks that can be assembled and connected in many ways, to construct such objects as vehicles, buildings, and even working robots - anything constructed can then be taken apart again, and the pieces used to make other objects. When one is fully awakened to the principle of emptiness or non-self, the state of
  28. 28. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 28 egolessness in oneself would arise concurrently. This realisation is part of the fundamental routes to enlightenment as prescribed by the Buddha. 15.0 Non-self, Voidness and Rebirth in accordance with Buddhism Buddhism sees in anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (voidness or emptiness). But how do we explain it? Firstly, let us analyse what it means by non-self. In Buddhism, the non-self means the non-ownership of self. What we used to claim such as the ‘I’ or ‘you’ or ‘we’ is merely an expression for our minds to comprehend on the day-to-day communication with another individual. However, this expression does not grant us with an ownership of our soul or body. And it is easier to explain the non-ownership of our body than our soul because we could see the rising (birth) and the passing (death) of physical bodies every time and anywhere we go. As for the ‘soul’ thing, Buddhism sees in the absence of eternal existence of it. Soul is just a plain description for something that arised in intelligence but without physical appearance. And it is also not permanent and subject to change at all times under the influence of conditional phenomena (voidness in every existence). So again, there is a non-ownership of the soul-of-self. But how do we clarify the reincarnating process in accordance with Buddhism? Actually, Buddhism sees in the rebirth process but not in the reincarnating process. This is because there is no permanent grasping of soul or body during the rebirth process. It means even though the mentioned cycle of process is repeated, every cycle is different from one another, just like the saying, ‘It looks like me, sounds like me, but it is still not me.’ In other words, there are linkages between the past, present and future of an individual but there is no trans-migrating process taking place. A clear example would be how the genetic lineage works for generations. Let us look at the following illustration on how rebirth takes place in accordance with Buddhism: -
  29. 29. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 29 15.1 The Coffee in a Cup Let’s say Coffee Original is one of the special brewed drinks: - 300ml hot liquid water 70% coffee powder 100% Coffee Original in cup Jumbo 30% condensed milk Supposedly, the cup Jumbo has broken apart by accident and the content has splattered around i.e. 30% onto the table, 40% onto the floor, 5% onto the wall, 10% onto the drain, 5% vaporised into thin air, 10% remained in the broken cup. A cleaner took up a rag and wiped off the remaining liquid coffee in sequential order starting from the table, the floor and then the wall. In a repeated gesture, the cleaner squeezed off the wet rag and the remaining coffee liquid flowed into three separate cups i.e. Cup 1 80% already filled with tea liquid mixture. Cup 2 90% already filled with mocha liquid mixture. Cup 3 55% already filled with mineral water. Let’s say 300ml of properties is a benchmark for a qualified special brewed drink. The cleaner then filled up the respective cup rooms with liquids deriving from the rag that are by and large the remaining of Coffee Original deriving from the table, the floor and the wall. In this case, the respective 300ml of liquids in Cup 1, Cup 2 and Cup 3 is dependent on the Coffee Original before a new special brewed drink is made possible. However, this does not mean that Coffee Original is the only dependent source or ingredient. Respectively, Cup 1, Cup 2 and Cup 3 would need to depend upon many other sustaining factors as well such as the already partially filled liquids and new cups before qualifying
  30. 30. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 30 as special brewed drinks. As a conclusion, the new liquid mixture arising in Cup 1, Cup 2 and Cup 3 is neither identical to, nor entirely different from, the old coffee liquid, but forms part of a causal continuum or stream with it. There is a conditioned relationship between one liquid and the next; it is not identical but neither is it completely distinct. The beauty of nature is that it allows all sorts of activities taking place such as aggregation, segregation, evolution, mutation, assimilation, etc. As a consequence, every existence would not be totally the same or different from each other. We are all closely inter-depending, inter-waving and inter-relating with one another since the dawn of time in a very comprehensive and complicated network of existence – just like the Christian believes that all mankind derived from Adam and Eve. Lastly, one should not confuse the ‘non- self’ with ‘no-self’ and the‘non-eternal soul’ with ‘no-soul.’ Buddhism sees in the existence of self or soul but only in a manner of non-ownership or impermanency i.e. there is an influx of self or soul but not the one-off static kind of self or soul. 16.0 What is the purpose of Buddhism? Where is God in Buddhism? Why Buddhism? What is Buddhism? Buddhism is merely a great philosophy that imparts knowledge on seeing the reality of things and happenings in our daily lives. Historical facts have shown that Prince Siddartha Gautama became the Buddha out of his vast compassion and wisdom to see through the vicious cycle of life and to end the suffering of it. And the Buddha means the ‘Awakened One’ i.e. one who sees through the ultimate reality of things and happenings. Perhaps, what Buddhism lacks is the emphasis on the dependence of God. But this doesn’t mean that the Buddha has denied the existence of God. In Buddhism, God is viewed in a different perspective as compared with the other religions. As you may know, according to Buddhism, there are 31 planes of existence in the nature and the deities (the namesake of God) are placed at a higher level of existence than the human realm. Of course, the Buddha did recognise that deities have an important role in the spiritual development of individuals. Deities could help individuals in many ways but still, deities are not permanent and subject to the conditional influences as
  31. 31. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 31 well. At the end of the day, the Buddha has seen through that ‘dependence’ is part of the key sources of dukkha and to eradicate it, one has to let go the dependence in total aspects. Therefore, Buddhism is an alternative method to seek solace and liberation for an individual who needs it. Buddhism may not be acceptable to individuals who can’t make do without the dependent aspects in life. As again, there is no right or wrong element here, but simply a personal choice. 17.0 What does Buddhism believe in? Buddhism believes in, literally, nothing. Yes, nothing! Buddhism merely involves in seeing, knowing and letting go of things or happenings. In other words, Buddhism upholds direct experience and recognition but not the faith system. Perhaps, one has heard the phrase, ‘To see is to believe.’ When one is seeing it, one truly sees it. No one could shake it. A blind belief without seeing on things would only bind one with more curiosities and disputes. We can illustrate the above principle in a class of Mathematics. Supposedly, a new formula was put forward to the class, ‘Should the students adopt with attitudes of understanding on how the formula derive?’ or ‘Should the students adopt with attitudes of simply memorising the formula without any understanding on how such formula derive?’ A wise student would definitely choose the former method because by understanding well the origin of such formula, one could lighten the burden of memorising the formula blindly. This is also how the path to enlightenment works – diminish the ‘bear with’ factor and enhance the ‘let go’ factor. Undeniably, the Buddha has always emphasised the importance for one to utilise wisdom in all thoughts and actions. This is what he meant by wholesome thoughts or acts. The Buddha has never laid commandments that one should think or do this; never think or do that, etc. If one continues to adopt this sort of mentality, one would simply adopt the principle of ‘blind faith’ which is much on the contrary to Buddhism. Likewise, it would be wholesome for parents to expose their children with both the good and bad influences together. Any acts of depriving the children from exposing to the bad influences would only create distorted view or perception in the real society
  32. 32. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 32 (unwholesome acts). Subsequently, upon the exposure of both the good and bad influences, parents could encourage their children to use their wisdom to lead a more meaningful life in the real and complicated society (wholesome acts). In short, the Buddha has laid emphasis that one should look in all angles of things or matters and then apply one's wisdom in the decision making. The Buddha has merely left behind guidelines for one to pursue with and it would be meaningless for one to read and tag along the contents of the discourses or suttas on Buddhism blindly without applying any wisdom. No doubt the available discourses or suttas did play an important role in keeping the essence of Buddhism, but how many of the so-called Buddhists nowadays have gained full enlightenment by mere reading or reciting it? The key point here is not merely about the mastering of theoretical knowledge on Buddhism but instead, more on the practicality and the direct experience of it. Preaching Dhamma is not about quoting this or that from various sources on Buddhism. These available discourses or suttas were merely tools for one’s Dhamma practices. And the tools would remain as the tools and it would not turn a person into an enlightened being if the application is without wisdom. Also, the Buddha has recommended the establishment of the Sangha community so that any followers could interact and support each other while pursuing the guidelines of Dhamma. The Buddha has not established the various sects or schools of Buddhism as what we could see nowadays. Once again, Buddhism is never about beliefs. Instead, it is all about direct experience and recognition. Seeing the Dhamma is seeing the Buddha – it is seeing and knowing the ultimate reality of things and happenings and not to get entangle with it. So the choice in the way of life is yours ultimately. Live a life wholesomely at all times! Be freed, be liberated, be neutralised! ‘The Buddha did not teach ‘Buddhism’; He taught the Dhamma.’ ~ Satya Narayan Goenka ~
  33. 33. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 33 18.0 What are Enlightenment, Awakening and Nibbāna? Nibbāna is a phenomenon beyond all conventional phenomena. Conventional phenomenon is subject to the conditional influences – in a continuous and constantly changing state of affairs. A phenomenon of nibbāna would arise when there is a non-existence of the conditional phenomena i.e. a completely neutralised state of affairs. There is no mind, no thinking, no becoming, no changing, no evolution, no clinging, no wanting, and no impermanency in nibbāna. Moreover, nibbāna is not about desire for nothing. In the first place, there is no desire to begin with. Therefore, desire could not be the cause for nothing and one of the basic footsteps to achieve enlightenment and reach nibbāna is to practise ‘letting go.’ Letting go is not the same as giving up hope - a frustrated expression. Not to hope is not to become, not to become is not to cling and suffer. So the choice is yours ultimately – to hope and suffer or not to hope and not to suffer. There is no right or wrong choice but simply wholesome or unwholesome choice. Wholesome would mean seeing things as they truly are and in totality of perspectives; unwholesome would mean seeing things as they delusively are and in non-totality of perspectives. As such, it is entirely a personal aspiration for one to be awakened or otherwise. In Buddhism, there are no commandments to be found, no hierarchical ranking between followers, etc. Any sort of authoritative claims based on personal gratifications are purely egocentric in nature and devoted followers must not put in their faith blindly on anything; come what may. And it is worrisome to see and hear nowadays that many of the so-called Buddhists are mere sutta collectors or interpreters. In the first place, Buddhism is never about what the Buddha has said or not said personally. We have to examine, ‘What is the real meaning of the Buddha?’ It is literally translated as the ‘Awakened One.’ But, what is one awakening to? It is awakening to the ultimate reality of things or happenings and the cessation of it. Now, when we mention the Buddha's saying, are we only referring to Siddartha Gautama alone? How about all the other beings that have had achieved enlightenment along the thousands of years? For general understanding, Siddartha Gautama is a Shakyamuni Buddha (a Samma-sam-buddha), but the Buddha may not necessarily be Siddartha Gautama alone. Buddha is merely a
  34. 34. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 34 title just like presidency. Presidents may come and go over the years in an organisation or a country but the presidency remains unshaken. And the next question would be, ‘Who wrote all the suttas? When was it written?’ Definitely, Buddhism is not only about the suttas per se but also the other missing links. On this pretext, the Buddha is wise to mention that in order to appreciate the essence of Dhamma, do not believe what he said until one investigates and sees it. This principle is essential to uphold and sustain so that the original essence of Dhamma could remain intact and surpassing time. In other words, there is no place for blind faith in Buddhism. Let us be awakened and not be hampered by the belief boundaries. Nature belongs to the nature; not to any particular religions or beliefs. Liberate ourselves from any hindrances and be enlightened. Apply your wisdom and you would find the true answers to it. The door is open and you need to walk in the path by yourself; someone could only shine the light or show the way in. One should always apply wisdom in all thoughts or actions and never be too fascinated or obsessed with what was written and mentioned in the discourses, suttas, or any sorts of supernatural claims, etc. ‘To see it, know it and let go – no need to grasp it – this is how one practises, ‘Seeing things as they really are.’ See only with eyes and mind, don’t get into any involvement - more importantly, let go the self and the ego factors. Be freed, be liberated, be neutralised!’ ~ Buddhitakso ~
  35. 35. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 35 19.0 What is suffering? The word ‘suffering’ seems to appear in every corner of Buddhism. And generally, one would tend to associate suffering with pain, anxiety, agony, sadness, dissatisfaction and all sorts of negativity in one’s lifetime. Unfortunately, this is not the case in the eyes of the Buddha. In the Buddhist context, the dependent nature is known as samsāra. Samsāra literally means ‘continuous flow’- referring to a repeating cycle of birth, life, death and re- birth. When there is samsāra arising, dukkha would arise concurrently. And the meaning of dukkha or suffering would be to ‘bear with’ in the Buddhist context. Any circumstances that would involve one to continue with; to persevere with; to soldier on with; to carry on with; to undertake with; to go through with would mean suffering. Literally, it is not correct for one to put much attention onto the conditions of pain, anxiety, agony, dissatisfaction, joyfulness or happiness - for these conditions merely reflected as the consequences of dukkha arising. To ‘bear with’ is to suffer and the antonym of it is to ‘let go.’ So stop submitting oneself to the conditional circumstances and one would be freed, be liberated and be neutralised! Let us cure the cause, not the symptoms! 20.0 What is Heaven? What is Hell? For general understanding, heaven or hell is not a plane of existence waiting for any exclusive memberships. Instead, it is the so-called member that has made up the chance for the heaven or hell plane to arise. Just like inhabitant is a necessary prerequisite for any villages to exist; without it, the village would be impossible. Therefore, heaven or hell is not a plane of existence to be found ‘up-there’ or ‘down-there’ yearning for the so-called rightful elements. In fact, heaven or hell is simply next to your mind, your eyes, your ears, your prevailing consciousness, your subtle consciousness, etc. When a person is lying dead, the three basic elements i.e. energy, matter and space would separate from each other. Precisely, both the elements of prevailing and subtle consciousnesses would depart the body. However, only the elements of subtle consciousness would sustain in a liberated condition and stay behind in a so-called soul or spirit form but not the elements of prevailing
  36. 36. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 36 consciousness. The switch for the elements of prevailing consciousness would be turned off and it would not carry on beyond the grave. And it is the characteristics of the elements of subtle consciousness that would determine the next plane of existence for the so-called souls or spirits. Therefore, one should not miss the chance of moulding the subtle mind consciousness correctly before kicking the bucket! For instance, it is correct to say that good begets good, evil begets evil. When one pays to live a hell-like condition in the present lifetime, one would be repaid in the next phase of existence as in hell plane. Just as sow apple seeds, reap apple fruits; sow orange seeds, reap orange fruits or Action 1 conjures up Reaction 1; Action 2 conjures up Reaction 2. The elements of subtle consciousness would retain the so-called ‘hellish’ information that would carry on and surpassing the demise period of time. The ‘hellish’ retention could only be weakened through conscientious goodwill prayers or persuasions being performed by third parties (transference of merit). Therefore, please be mindful on the nature of circumstances that you are exposed to or associated with during your lifetime. And if possible, it is beneficial to create a heaven-like ambience at all times; more importantly during the closing chapter of your present lifetime. This is because where you would end up to in the next phase of existence is very much dependent on the retained information in your subtle conscious mind, be it heaven-like or hell- like. As a conclusion, the fate in your subsequent life is very much dependent on the characteristics of your subtle mind consciousness. It is the architect for the heaven or the hell realm. Mould it well at all times and if possible, one should achieve enlightenment to eradicate the suffering of it.
  37. 37. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 37 21.0 Who am I? Am I the mind? Am I the body? Or, am I the five body senses? To the Master, I am a Servant, To the Teacher, I am a Student, To the Buddha, I am Empty. So who am I, actually? Am I the flesh and blood? Am I the soul? Am I the consciousness? Who am I, really? Frankly speaking, what we used to claim such as the ‘I’ or ‘you’ or ‘we’ is merely an expression for our minds to comprehend on day-to-day communication with another individual. However, this expression does not grant us with an unchanging or a permanent ownership of our minds and bodies. The ‘I’ or ‘you’ or ‘we’ (five khandhas) is purely part of the becoming processes in the dependent nature. Both our minds and bodies would constantly orientate and evolve in accordance with the subjected conditions. The physical body is shaped up as an appearance due to the existence of matter and it is basically concerted, aggregated or concentrated or wrapped energy. In other words, appearance is merely a momentary outcome of the process of aggregation that varies according to the subjected conditions. For example, ice, water and steam are different appearances deriving from the orientation of H2O properties under the influence of the external conditions. In other words, it is the orientation of H2O properties that has taken place to conjure up the momentary outcome of it. As for the mind, it is also originated from the process of aggregation that conjures up the elements of memory and consciousness and varies under the influence of conditional phenomena. So how could we properly describe ourselves? The right way to express ourselves is, ‘I am what I am.’ ‘If you think this is what I am, then I am’ and ‘If you see that is what I am, then I am.’ The phenomena that arise are very much related to the consciousness that perceives them. Phenomenon exists as this or that is dependent on the observers. It is just like describing the same elephant by different blind men – one blind man may say an elephant looks like a tree trunk; another blind man would say an elephant looks like a snake.
  38. 38. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 38 And this is how we explicate the presence in the waves of dependent phenomena having clouded our minds from discerning the reality of circumstances. But what constitutes an ultimate reality then? An ultimate reality exists beyond mind and beyond concepts and words in the sense that it is beyond our usual ways of perceiving things. Language and conception only imply that things exist in distinct manners i.e. wise person, dumb person, saint, devil, etc. - in such well-defined and independent categories. Perceiving ultimate reality is seeing that things do not exist in these fantasised, impossible ways, in black and white categories. In other words, an ultimate reality is such label-less, bound-less, stereotype- less, colour-less, beginning-less, end-less and for the ease of our expression, we could summarise it as the ‘deepest fact about things.’ An enlightened mind is able to discern the deepest fact about things in crystal clear and without hesitation after getting rid of the waves of dependent phenomena. So when we talk about Buddhism, it is all about transforming an ignorant state of the mind into a realised one – a process of enlightenment. To begin with, one would need to set in a right mentality or determination. One has to see all things as they really are, to liberate from it and to be enlightened. Have boundless compassion and loving kindness along the way. This would be an everlasting remedy to the rising of dukkha that was recommended by the wise Buddha. A fully awakened state of mind does not require labeling, colouring, stereotyping, beginning, ending, etc. All subjects and objects are in completely neutralised state of affairs - when this arising, that arises; when this ceasing, that ceases. 22.0 What are Phenomena and Existence? Phenomena appear to arise or are perceived by our senses to arise in and of themselves, but they are not. All phenomena, including emptiness, are dependent-arising. Emptiness, however, did correspond to both the inherent existence and the dependent arising due to its universal qualities. Thus phenomena do not exist inherently as this or that from their own sides, unrelated to the consciousness that perceives them. Phenomena exist as this or that - are dependent on the observers.
  39. 39. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 39 Now, we need to look at the definition of existence. What exists is defined as that which can be known. If it cannot be known by the mind, then it does not exist. And conventionally, things can exist as in fallacy or in reality. But in the ultimate reality, things do not exist in the ways that concepts and language imply they do. Things would only exist as in deepest facts i.e. it is beyond mind and beyond concepts and words in the sense that it is beyond our usual ways of perceiving things. Language and conception only imply that things exist as in conventional reality i.e. distinct manners such as wise person, dumb person, saint, devil, etc. - in such well-defined and independent categories. And perceiving ultimate reality is seeing that things do not exist in these fantasised, impossible ways, in black and white categories. 23.0 What is Emptiness? Everything that exists is empty because there is no essence to anything and nothing has ever existed in its own quality – nothing is permanent and unchanging. All objects exist conditionally without an eternal essence. They only exist in relation to each other as appearances that in turn vary as per the perceptions of the beholders. Energy is the underlying element for all the existences and it is dependent on the conditional phenomena. And a phenomenon is thing that appears to or is perceived by senses and therefore, it is empty as well. At the end of the day, we could summarise that emptiness is the beginning for all existences. Every existence is empty and emptiness is in every existence. 24.0 Emptiness Everywhere So how does emptiness derive and why is it crucial for one to ponder at? From direct experience, we know that humans and things cause pleasure and pain, and that they can help and harm. Therefore, phenomena certainly do exist but the question is how? They do not exist in their own quality but only have an existence dependent upon many factors, including a consciousness that conceptualises them.
  40. 40. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 40 But in what way is consciousness mistaken? Because all phenomena appear to exist in their own quality, all of our ordinary perceptions are mistaken. We have taken in a wrong sense that living beings, things and phenomena appear to exist in and of themselves. It seems that phenomena could be established in their own right or quality, and from the object’s side upon conceptualising our consciousness. Unfortunately, with this false mode, we are hindering ourselves from recognising the discrepancy between appearance and reality. Nevertheless, one could conduct a self-training session to develop wisdom and eliminate one’s ignorance on the ultimate truth. Upon seeking through in- depth analysis, one could find inherent existence of whatever object one is considering — oneself, another person, one’s body, one’s mind, or anything else is completely lacking. For example, when you examine an object such as car, its inherent existence is negated, but what is left is a body dependent on an engine, seats, lamps, window glasses, tires, gases, etc. In other words, what is left after the analysis is a dependently existent phenomenon. Thus it is not that you come to understand that the object or phenomenon does not exist but rather, you find that its inherent existence is unfounded. This is the ultimate discovery about the orientation of nature. Nature is a system of existence fully occupied with factors that would rise and fall dependently. At the end of the day, dualism of the subject and object, and the appearance of multiplicity arises out of our ignorance on the true nature would vanish once emptiness is realised. We could then differentiate the way things are perceived to exist and the way things really exist. ‘The truth arises in you. You are the truth; you create truths and not someone else out there.’ ~ Buddhitakso ~
  41. 41. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 41 25.0 Emptiness and Existence Emptiness is a necessary prerequisite for any objects to exist; without it, the object would be impossible. Upon in-depth analysis, we could discover that emptiness corresponds to two distinct scenarios: 1. It corresponds to the inherent existence (due to unchanging nature) that all conventional phenomena lack. 2. It corresponds to the dependent arising (a conditional phenomenon) i.e. subject to the same lack of inherent existence as every other object or phenomenon. This is referred to as the emptiness of emptiness. The above is a rather strange paradox but still logical because emptiness is a universal or an infinite phenomenon. Therefore, it is evident that object could arise out of emptiness due to the second scenario clarified above and it is the ambience for the origination of existence. As a summary, the emptiness of phenomena is both the cause and consequence of the dependent nature of phenomena. It is comparable to scientific term of singularity and also the inherent quality of existence. Emptiness is considered the ultimate truth because it inherently exists exactly as it is perceived when it is perceived directly by an enlightened mind. And discovering the ultimate truth is the key to overcoming the ignorant state of the mind. 26.0 Reflection of Emptiness When we talk about seeing into emptiness, we talk about the progressive realisation of the mind on the reality of things. Therefore, emptiness can be realised into stages as below: - Stage 1 Elementary Realisation  All things and phenomena are lack of core essence.  Nothing is unchanging and permanent.  Everything is inter-related.
  42. 42. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 42 Stage 2 Intermediary Realisation  Ability to differentiate the way things are perceived to exist and the way things really exist.  Only seeing without believing. Stage 3 Advance Realisation  No dualism of the subject and object, and no appearance of multiplicity.  All things and phenomena rise and fall within a singular condition.  Only uniformity exists. Stage 4 Ultimate Realisation  All dependent arising are completely blown off or extinguished.  No string attached, and nothing is left remaining.  Infinite, unchanging, permanent, and unconditional.  Exists beyond all conventional phenomena. The ultimate realisation of emptiness by the mind would mean a phase of perfect intermediation being accomplished by the mind. A perfect intermediation would mean a comprehensive absence of any or all units under consideration. It is also known as a complete neutralisation of conditional phenomena. But an absence of any or all units under consideration is not equivalent to nothingness of any or all units under consideration. 27.0 Birth and Rebirth For general understanding, rebirth does not mean trans-migration. An individual soul does not migrate from a physical body into another one. No, it just won’t fit at all. Every individual or thing that exists would not be the same - it could only be in a similar condition e.g. twins are similar but never the same individuals. Every individual is unique respectively and no individuals would be the same even though they do share some sort of the same genes before time. On this pretext, you may have heard in various stories whereby a spirit or ghost has the ability to possess into the body of an individual but it never
  43. 43. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 43 absolutely overtakes the soul of the possessed individual. This is because one cannot simply exchange the soul at one’s whim and fancy. Even individuals with the most powerful magic charm could not perform this feat. Also, you have heard of the organ transplant cases, whereby the new recipients need to take immunosuppressive drugs to treat any transplant rejections – live long. In Buddhism, rebirth refers to evolving consciousness or stream of consciousness of a person (upon death) and the new consciousness arising in the same person (in the new person) is neither identical to, nor entirely different from, the old consciousness, but forms part of a causal continuum or stream with it. The basic cause for this persistent re-arising of personality is the abiding of consciousness in ignorance; when ignorance is uprooted, rebirth ceases. For example, a flame is transferred from one candle to another, or a fire spreads from one field to another. In the same way that it depends on the original fire, there is a conditioned relationship between one life and the next; they are not identical but neither are they completely distinct. And it is possible for rebirth to take place from a single source into different identities at any various point of time, just like how the genetic lineage works for generations. This is how we explain the destiny of being siblings, being life partners, being close friends in one’s lifetime. Somehow or somewhere before time, the so-called relevant individuals are inherited from the similar sources of predecessor. Thus in the present lifetime one has the opportunity to meet and know with the relevant beings and not the other non-relevant beings. Inevitably, under the natural law of attraction, anything that belongs to the same ancestry would somehow attract with each other, no matter how far or near distance and how long or short time period. So by now, one would know what the phrase, ‘Destiny is made in Heaven; Man looks for his other half; We shared with a common chemistry’, would mean in the general context. Generally, most individuals could not recall their respective past lives because they have inherited much assimilated element-dots deriving from myriad of predecessors. However, some individuals did remember vividly on their past lives and could relate it well in their present lives. A higher density of any particular element-dot inheritance would mean a higher retention of genetic information that determines the particular pool of behaviour of a predecessor.
  44. 44. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 44 Let us look at the following illustrations: - Illustration 1 Key: - Force of Ignorance Prevailing Conscious Mind Dependent phenomenon Force of Awakening Subtle Conscious Mind The Mind of a living being The Mind of a departing being The Subtle Conscious Mind is The force of Ignorance has outdone released into fragments the force of Awakening o 回 光 返 照 A final burst of energy before death
  45. 45. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 45 Key: - Subtle Conscious Mind of Individual A Subtle Conscious Mind of Individual B Subtle Conscious Mind of Individual C Subtle Conscious Mind of Individual D Fragments of liberated Subtle Conscious Mind of different Individuals under an Imbalanced phenomenon The Subtle Conscious Mind of different Individuals The Mind of a new being derived congregating under a Balanced phenomenon from different predecessors
  46. 46. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 46 Illustration 2 Key: - E = Energy M = Matter Generation 1 Individual A Individual B Individual C E1-1 E1-2 E1-3 E1-4 E2-1 E2-2 E2-3 E3-1 E3-2 E3-3 E1-5 E1-6 E1-7 E2-4 E2-5 E2-6 E3-4 E3-5 M1-1 M1-2 M1-3 M1-4 M2-1 M2-2 M2-3 M2-4 M3-1 M3-2 M-3-3 M1-5 M1-6 M1-7 M2-5 M2-6 M3-4 M3-5 Disintegrating process E1-1 E1-4 E1-3 E1-7 E2-1 E2-2 E2-4 E2-6 E3-1 E3-2 E3-4 E1-5 E1-6 E1-2 M1-1 M1-2 M2-2 M2-3 M2-4 M3-1 M3-2 M3-4 M3-5 M1-7 M1-4 M1-5 M2-5 M2-6 E2-5 M1-6 M1-3 E2-3 M2-1 M-3-3 E3-3 E3-5
  47. 47. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 47 Some lapse of time after the disintegrating process M1-2 M1-3 M1-4 M1-5 M2-2 M2-3 M2-4 M2-5 M2-6 M3-1 M3-2 M3-4 M3-5  E1-2-1 E1-3-1 E1-4-1 E1-5-1  E2-2-1 E2-3-1 E2-4-1 E2-5-1 E2-6-1  E3-1-1 E3-2-1 E3-4-1 E3-5-1 M1-6 M1-3  E1-6-1 E1-3-1 M2-1  E2-1-1 M3-3  E3-3-1 E1-2-1 E1-6 E1-5-1 E2-1-1 E2-4 E2-6-1 E3-1 E3-2-1 E3-5-1 E3-5  M1-2-1 M1-6-1 M1-5-1  M2-1-1 M2-4-1 M2-6-1  M3-1-1 M3-2-1 M3-5-2 M3-5-1 New integrating process Generation 2 Individual A1 Individual B1 Individual C1 E2-4 E1-1 E1-2 E2-1 E1-3-1 E1-6 E2-2 E2-3 E3-4 E2-5 E2-6 M-2-4-1 M1-2-1 M1-5-1 M2-6-1 M1-3 M3-5-1 M3-2-1 M3-5-2 M3-1-1 Remarks: - Individual A, Individual B and Individual C are three respective individuals living in separate locations in Generation 1. Individual A1 and Individual B1 are husband and wife in Generation 2. Individual C1 is good friend of Individual A1 and Individual B1 in Generation 2. Type of person - Individual A1 is a perfectly normal or healthy type, Individual B1 is a hyperactive type or supernatural type, Individual C1 is a weak or defective type. The law of kamma applies in determining the above rebirth conditions.
  48. 48. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 48 In the above illustration, supposedly Individual A is an ardent pianist then the new being would somehow be naturally talented toward the play of piano or something with similarity. This is how we explain the natural talented skills we always uncovered from young children and it is the same case scenario for the phobic conditions in any particular individuals. Ultimately, it is the wonder of nature that everyone would not be totally the same or totally different from each other. According to Christianity, it is believed that human beings begin with Adam and Eve and this saying may hold its truth literally. 28.0 Transformation from Ignorance into Realisation The Buddha nature exists within all beings or things. It is only a matter of time before one could make the discovery of this so-called the black hole of emptiness. Let us survey into the following illustrations: - The Black hole of Emptiness p 1 p 2 p 3 p 13 p 12 p 4 p 11 p 5 p 10 p 9 p 8 p 6 p 7 NIBBĀNA Singularity & Uniformity SAMSĀRA Duality & Multiplicity Duality & Multiplicity Dependent rising Imbalanced condition NO MIND Independent & Permanent MIND Dependent falling Point B Point A Balanced condition
  49. 49. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 49 Key: - Point A / Point B = subject / object = phenomenon of duality mind path of awakening p phenomenon energy matter space The Deepest fact about Things Key: - The Mind of Individual Dependent nature of Phenomenon The Black hole of Emptiness The Deepest fact about Things
  50. 50. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 50 The Progressing state of the Mind Listed below is a comparison between an ignorant and an awakened state of the mind as well as the potential movement of the mind toward a state of enlightenment: - 1. Mind A is comparatively stronger and more agile than Mind B. Mind A Mind B 2. Mind C is more ignorant than Mind D. Mind C Mind D 3. Mind E is in tranquil and realised conditions. Mind E (Enlightened Mind)
  51. 51. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 51 4. The presence in the waves of dependent phenomena has clouded the mind from discerning the deepest fact about things in crystal clear and without hesitation. Presence in the Waves of Absence in the Waves of Dependent phenomena Dependent phenomena 5. The absence in the waves of dependent phenomena enables the mind to discern the deepest fact about things in crystal clear and without hesitation. 6. In the absence of waves arising, the entire dependent nature of phenomenon would die out and fade away gradually, thus leaving behind the mind fully exposed to the deepest fact about things. This circumstance enables the mind to discern the deepest fact about things in a complete state of realisation without a layer of the dependent phenomenon gets in the way. Disappearance of the The Mind is fully exposed to the Dependent phenomenon Deepest fact about Things
  52. 52. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 52 7. Under a complete realised circumstance, the mind would be absorbed into the black hole of emptiness. The Mind is disappearing into The eternal bliss of Nibbāna the Black hole of Emptiness 8. Ultimately, there is no mind remaining in the infinite, unchanging, permanent and unconditional state of nibbāna i.e. the ambience for an eternal bliss. 29.0 Existence of the Mind Mind is defined as memory, remembrance, way of thinking, feeling, wishing, opinion, intention or purpose. Key: - M = mind S = subject O = object p = phenomenon Subject-object relationship MSA MOBMOC MOD MOE pAC pAD pAE pAB
  53. 53. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 53 Conventional truth Duality or multiplicity would arise in the presence of the mind. This is because there is a subject pondering on the object or matter - phenomenon arises. The subject is mainly the mind. Phenomenon is thing that appears to or is perceived by senses. In other words, phenomenon is thing that appears to or is perceived by the mind senses. When there is a mind arising, the phenomenon would arise. When there is a phenomenon arising, the dependent nature would arise. In other words, the mind is closely related to the phenomenon, and the phenomenon is closely related to the dependent nature - just like shadow follows the body. This is what the conventional reality is all about. 30.0 Mind in the Dependent nature Mind is the forerunner of all states. The presence in the waves of dependent phenomena has clouded the mind from discerning the reality of circumstances i.e. ignorance arises. And with ignorance blindfolding the mind since the dawn of time, suffering arises and continues to arise in the dependent nature i.e. with the rise of perceptions, conceptions, labels, boundaries, names, activities, shapes, relations, descriptions, stereotyping, beginning, ending, etc. Beginning of the Dependent nature Ending of the Dependent nature  Rise in the Cause or Effect  Cessation in the Cause or Effect Cause Effect Cause is Effect, Effect is Cause The principle in effect: - When the mind arising, the dependent nature arises, When the mind ceasing, the dependent nature ceases.
  54. 54. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 54 Dependent nature is a classification being performed by the mind. Without the mind, there is no classification of the dependent nature. Therefore, both the mind and the dependent nature are inter-dependent of each other. There is no separate case of cause, no separate case of effect. Both the mind and the dependent nature are cause and effect at the same time. In fact, cause and effect are two aspects of the same thing, both reflected in a different time of events. This is because reality does not exist in a linear orientation - therefore, there is no real first cause, no real first effect. Cause and effect are inter-depending, inter-waving and inter-relating with one another - this is how the conventional reality works. At the end of the day, there is only rising or falling of phenomenon in the dependent nature. 31.0 Emptiness of the Mind Right now, why is there duality or multiplicity in the dependent nature? It is because there is mind arising. Why is there mind arising in the dependent nature? It is because there are elements of energy. Why are there elements of energy in the dependent nature? It is because there is emptiness. Why is there emptiness in the dependent nature? It is because there is emptiness of emptiness. In other words, the emptiness of phenomena is both the cause and consequence of the dependent nature of phenomena. Emptiness of phenomena exists in the way it appears in direct perception and without the need to reference of any other entity. It is completely defined by its own nature. In other words, emptiness of phenomena is an inherent existence that is uncaused. It is indestructible and eternal. It is unchanging when viewed externally and cannot undergo any internal changes of state. It has no constituent parts and nothing can be thrown out or removed from it. Nothing can be added to it and no change in the external conditions can affect it. As a summary, we could see that emptiness exists in all conditional phenomena. Without emptiness, the potential movement of the mind from non- enlightenment toward a state of enlightenment would not be possible – that is to say if the mind itself existed inherently. The emptiness of inherent existence of the mind is called the Buddha nature.
  55. 55. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 55 32.0 Non-existence of the Mind No Subject-object relationship Ultimate truth No duality or multiplicity would arise in the non-existence of the mind. This is because there is no subject to ponder on the object or matter. When there is no mind arising, no phenomenon would arise. When there is no phenomenon arising, no dependent nature would arise. When there is no dependent nature, there would be no perception, no conception, no label, no boundary, no name, no activity, no shape, no relation, no description, no stereotyping, no beginning, no ending, etc. An ultimate reality is a truth that exists beyond mind and beyond concepts and words in the sense that it is beyond our usual ways of perceiving things. Language and conception only imply that things exist in distinct manners i.e. wise person, dumb person, saint, devil, etc. - in such well-defined and independent categories. Perceiving ultimate reality is seeing that things do not exist in these fantasised, impossible ways, in black and white categories. In the absence of the mind, things would appear as in the deepest facts per se i.e. no label, no boundary, no name, no activity, no shape, no description, etc. This is because there is no existence in relative to each other as appearances. An enlightened mind is able to discern the deepest fact about things in crystal clear and without hesitation after getting rid of the waves of dependent phenomena. The ultimate truth does not require any labels for its revelations MOBMOC MOD MOE MSA
  56. 56. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 56 and therefore, one has to let go and blow away the mindset that is associated with the ‘-ism’ or ‘-ology’, for it is a system of stereotyping or pre- conditioning. Liberation is the only right potion to the ultimate truth discovery. 33.0 Conditions of the Mind The mind comprises with two terms i.e. prevailing consciousness and subtle consciousness. Both of these terms would interact differently under the circumstances described as below: - 33.1 Asleep When one is asleep, the prevailing conscious mind would fall into slumber at the same time. Basically, prevailing conscious mind is closely related to the physical body. This means there would be a biological clock being attached within it i.e. there would be duration for staying awake and for resting. However, there is another term of mind i.e. the subtle conscious mind that has no biological clock in it. Subtle conscious mind is somehow independent from the physical body. This is because when the physical body is being ‘switch- off’ temporarily, the subtle conscious mind still works unpretentiously. For example, we could still have visions in our dreams even with our physical eyes closed while asleep. And dreams are succession of images, thoughts, or emotions passing through the mind during sleep. In other words, we could say that subtle mind consciousness is like VCR – recording analog audio and analog video from broadcast television so that the images and sound can be played back at a more convenient time. 33.2 Near-death Experience (NDE) Perhaps, one has heard of many reported incidences related to near-death, out-of-body experience and the tunnel of light vision. How could we explain these phenomena?
  57. 57. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 57 Append below, please find the illustrations that could clarify the above scenario: - Key: - Prevailing Conscious Mind Subtle Conscious Mind The Clear Light Dependent phenomenon The Mind of a living being Key : - Prevailing Conscious Mind in dormant Subtle Conscious Mind in active The Clear Light Observation by Subtle Conscious Mind Dependent phenomenon The Mind of a being in NDE During the circumstance of near-death, the two terms of the mind are separated from each other i.e. the prevailing conscious mind would be in a dormant condition but the subtle conscious mind remains in an active
  58. 58. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 58 condition. In other words, the subtle mind consciousness plays an active role in relating the out-of-body experience and the tunnel of light vision. The clear light is actually the Buddha nature within all beings. 33.3 Enlightenment During the circumstance of enlightenment, the two terms of the mind would separate from each other – the prevailing conscious mind would play in a dominant role, whereas, the subtle conscious mind would remain in a submissive condition. Key: - Prevailing Conscious Mind Subtle Conscious Mind The Clear Light Dependent phenomenon The Mind of a non-enlightened being Key : - Subtle Conscious Mind The Clear Light / The Black hole of Emptiness Observation by Prevailing Conscious Mind Dependent phenomenon The Mind of an enlightened being The role of prevailing conscious mind is like a mind-in-command i.e. a kind of mind that can lead, take charge, concentrate, make decision and convey action.
  59. 59. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 59 An enlightened mind can be described as a prevailing conscious mind with liberation from the thoughts i.e. instead of being the thoughts; the perspective is shifted to watching the thoughts churned out by subtle conscious mind. In other words, it means the prevailing conscious mind would make observation without identifying with the thoughts – the subtle conscious mind. This liberation from thought identification to thought observation is called the experience of the Buddha nature. During the process of observation, the awakened prevailing conscious mind could also discern with the so-called memory fragments of the previous lives subdued within the subtle conscious mind. This is because within the elements of subtle consciousness one would discover the elements of subtle memory. Within the elements of subtle memory one would discover the elements of subtle information. In other words, the awakened prevailing conscious mind could see through the ‘seed treasures’ of kamma accumulated from the retained subtle information throughout the series of one’s past lives in crystal clear and without hesitation. Besides seeing through the past life events, an awakened mind could also foresee into the future events. In a layman term, it is named as a de-ja vu experience or some kind of time travelling to the future condition. This is because an awakened mind is highly luminous and vigilant to any development of circumstances and surpassing time. And from direct experience, time travelling to the future condition is plausible and could be evidently proven. Append below would be the highlights pertaining to several of my future visions or de-ja vu experiences that have taken place: - The sinking of a boat in Johore, Malaysia. – April 29, 2009 The death of Michael Jackson. – June 25, 2009 The political situation in Malaysia revealed by Wikileaks. – December 15, 2010
  60. 60. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 60 The simultaneous big floods in several countries. – January 12, 2011 The death of Osama bin Laden. – May 1, 2011 For the event details, please refer to http://forum.ipoh.com.my/showthread.php?t=9241 In Buddhism, it is mentioned that only a human can attain enlightenment as a fully enlightened Buddha. This is because humans are just one type of sentient being with both the prevailing and the subtle conscious mind stream that can find balance between happiness and suffering via the meditating processes. Basically, there are two types of meditation in Buddhism. One is samatha and the other is vipassanā meditation. Samatha meditation is to calm or tranquil the mind by means of concentration. Whereas, vipassanā meditation is to mould the mind into seeing all things as they really are – an insight into the true nature of reality. The main focus of vipassanā meditation is to attain pure awareness via mindfulness. Vipassanā is often preceded by samatha but nonetheless, both types are inter-dependable throughout the practices in order to achieve favourable results in meditation. Upon entering deeply into a meditative state (in full concentration), the prevailing mind consciousness would separate from the subtle mind consciousness. The main reason for engaging samatha meditation is to calm or tranquil the wilderness of the subtle mind consciousness. Thereafter, the prevailing conscious mind enters a state of pure observation (mindful) without identification on the flow of thoughts conjured up by the subtle conscious mind until pure awareness is attained. Moreover, when one has gained enlightenment while sustaining with a living body, the mind would still exist but with a paradigm shift into seeing all the things or happenings in the ultimate perspectives without delusion or hesitation. The mind has not gained with a complete liberation yet and this circumstance is also known as cessation with remainder. The ultimate liberation or cessation without remainder can only be achieved without sustaining a living body i.e. the passing into parinibbāna. During one last time of disintegrating process, the subtle mind consciousness would be absorbed into the black hole of emptiness and then followed by the prevailing mind
  61. 61. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 61 consciousness. In the absence of the mind, the dependent phenomenon would die out concurrently. Ultimately, there is no mind remaining in the infinite, unchanging, permanent and unconditional state of nibbāna and this is the ambience for an eternal bliss. 34.0 What are Awareness, Consciousness and Mind? Awareness is a ground condition that ‘supports’ consciousness. The nature of awareness is effulgence and it is in a not-knowing state before the appearance of object. Consciousness, on the other hand, is appearance of objects in the mind. When awareness touches on objects, consciousness would arise simultaneously. Consciousness is naturally looking outward to objects and it is flitting all the time. In addition, consciousness is synergy i.e. energy that expands through cooperation. Synergy is a key to the geometric expansion of consciousness and thus the arising of its two terms i.e. prevailing consciousness and subtle consciousness. On the other hand, mind is a pattern of consciousness which is born from awareness. In fact, mind is known as consciousness in individuality. Therefore, the origin of individuality is the same as the origin of the mind. Mind is something more objective and involves clear discrimination – differentiates and understands the characteristics of objects. One utilises mind to understand things because mind understands the manipulation of consciousness. 35.0 Category of Consciousness In Buddhism, the mind-stream is referring to the stream of consciousness. So to understand our minds, we need to understand our consciousness. Basically, there are two terms of the mind i.e. prevailing consciousness and subtle consciousness. And precisely, consciousness can be categorised into four layers i.e. mind consciousness, sense consciousness, store consciousness and manas consciousness.
  62. 62. Copyright © 2012-2015 Buddhitakso 62 35.1 Mind Consciousness It is regarded as the ‘working’ consciousness or the mind-in-command i.e. the kind of mind that can lead, take charge, concentrate, make decision and convey action. In other words, it is a prevailing conscious mind that makes judgments and plans. Basically, prevailing conscious mind is closely related to the physical body or more specifically, the brain. This means there would be a biological clock being attached within it i.e. there would be duration for staying awake and for resting. Without the brain, there would be no prevailing mind consciousness in existence. Therefore, brain is a necessary prerequisite for any mind consciousness to exist; without it, the mind consciousness would be impossible. 35.2 Sense Consciousness It is a subtle consciousness that is derived from our five senses i.e. sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. Sense consciousness is sometimes called the ‘gate’, and always engages with three elements – the sense organ, the sense object and the experience of what we are seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or touching. In other words, physical body is a necessary prerequisite for any sense consciousness to exist; without it, the sense consciousness would be impossible. 35.3 Store Consciousness It is also known as subtle conscious mind that is somehow independent from the physical body. Store consciousness would act like a museum whereby one could discern with the elements of memory and information. This is because within the elements of subtle consciousness one would discover the elements of subtle memory. Within the elements of subtle memory one would discover the elements of subtle information. In other words, it is a place whereby one could see through the ‘seed treasures’ of kamma accumulated from the retained subtle information throughout the series of one’s past lives. Store consciousness is responsible for the birth and rebirth conditions of individuals. When a person is lying dead, all the elements of consciousness would leave the body. However, only the store consciousness would sustain in

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