Open Digital Badges
current view / future possibilities

Jim Buckingham
January 2014
Open Digital Badges
current view / future possibilities

Jim (James) Buckingham
Technologist / Instructor
Zayed University...
Open Digital Badges
current view / future possibilities

Outline
What you know already about
• badges
• digital badges
• o...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
“Sheriff’s” Badge
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
“First Aid” Badge
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
“Military” Badges
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
“Special” Badges
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
Recognize these?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
Scout “Merit” Badges
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
Recognize these?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
“Skill” Badges - Royal Canadian Army Trades(1953 - 1968)
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
“Skill” Badges
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
“Skill” Badges
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges

... so what does a badge show?
• rank (status) military & police)
• co...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges

... so how do you earn a badge?
earned for doing something
earned by e...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• badges

... so how is evidence assessed?
assessed by standards
by whose standa...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?

http://www.hastac.org/digital...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?

http://www.hastac.org/digital...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?

http://www.hastac.org/digital...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?

http://www.hastac.org/digital...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so what is a digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

..so how do you earn a digital badge?
earned for doing somethi...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• digital badges

... so how is evidence assessed?
assessed by standards
whose s...
Open Digital Badges - what you know about
• open digital badges

... so what is an open digital badge?
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges

Mozilla Open Badges - introduction
http://youtu.be/_051...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges

Mozilla Open Badges - introduction
http://youtu.be/_051...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges

Mozilla Open Badges - introduction
Free and open:
Mozil...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges

Mozilla Open Badges - introduction
Transferable:
Collec...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges

Mozilla Open Badges - introduction
Stackable:
Whether t...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges

Mozilla Open Badges - introduction
Evidence-based:
Open...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work

.. in the world of work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work

The Current Problem?
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work

The Possible Solution?
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work

helping to address
the “skills gap” in
man...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Manufacturing Institute (USA) addresses the...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Manufacturing Institute (USA) addresses the...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Bill Clinton speaking on
Digital Badges: Un...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in work
Bill Clinton speaking on
Digital Badges: Un...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in

education

.. in the world of education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in

education

Passport by Purdue University: Digit...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in

education

Passport by Purdue University: Digit...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in education

(Canada)

https://collaborate.uwaterl...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in education

(Canada)
...... embracing the ideal o...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in education

(Canada)
Digital badges could capture...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in education

(USA)

http://gaming.psu.edu/gamificat...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in education

(USA)
And a number of factors are pav...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
• open digital badges .... in education

(USA)
And with the support of technol...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
PD
• open digital badges .... in education

.. in the world of PD

http://gami...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
PD
• open digital badges .... in education

http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
PD
• open digital badges .... in education

.. but the problem with this is it...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
PD
• open digital badges .... in education

credly.com

http://www.trainingmag...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
PD
• open digital badges .... in education

credly.com

http://www.trainingmag...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
PD
• open digital badges .... in education

http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education

.. just how do badges w...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education

Key Questions
• How do ...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education

http://gaming.psu.edu/g...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
how they work
• open digital badges .... in education
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
possible applications “here”
application
• open digital badges .... in educati...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
possible applications “here”
• open digital badges .... in education

While th...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
current criticism
• open digital badges .... in education

... criticism?

htt...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
current criticism
• open digital badges .... in education

Key Question
• What...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
current criticism
• open digital badges .... in education

A type of extrinsic...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
current criticism
• open digital badges .... in education

Badges reward tasks...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
current criticism
• open digital badges .... in education

Performance is not ...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
current criticism
• open digital badges .... in education
My purpose?
To provi...
Open Digital Badges - what you want to know
Partial References
• open digital badges .... in education
Blackboard Learn Qu...
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EVO - Open Digital Badges - Jan 2014

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Introduction to digital badges & "open" digital badges. Focus on the value proposition of badges for today's young graduate, worker, employer, and life long learner.

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EVO - Open Digital Badges - Jan 2014

  1. 1. Open Digital Badges current view / future possibilities Jim Buckingham January 2014
  2. 2. Open Digital Badges current view / future possibilities Jim (James) Buckingham Technologist / Instructor Zayed University Abu Dhabi, UAE @buckinsand http://www.linkedin.com/in/jamesbuckingham Jim Buckingham January 2014
  3. 3. Open Digital Badges current view / future possibilities Outline What you know already about • badges • digital badges • open digital badges (????) What you want to know about • open digital badges • how they work • .... in work • .... in education • possible applications “here” • current criticism • .... in PD
  4. 4. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges “Sheriff’s” Badge
  5. 5. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges “First Aid” Badge
  6. 6. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges “Military” Badges
  7. 7. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges “Special” Badges
  8. 8. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges Recognize these?
  9. 9. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges Scout “Merit” Badges
  10. 10. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges Recognize these?
  11. 11. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges “Skill” Badges - Royal Canadian Army Trades(1953 - 1968)
  12. 12. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges “Skill” Badges
  13. 13. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges “Skill” Badges
  14. 14. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges
  15. 15. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges ... so what does a badge show? • rank (status) military & police) • competency (skill) First Aid & Scouts ( • affiliation (community) Knitters Scouts • special interest / accomplishment (community) • reputation / recognition (community)
  16. 16. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges ... so how do you earn a badge? earned for doing something earned by evidencing what you did to be earned = your evidence is assessed
  17. 17. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • badges ... so how is evidence assessed? assessed by standards by whose standards?
  18. 18. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  19. 19. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge? http://www.hastac.org/digital-badges http://www.macfound.org/programs/digital-badges/
  20. 20. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  21. 21. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  22. 22. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  23. 23. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  24. 24. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge? http://www.hastac.org/digital-badges http://www.macfound.org/programs/digital-badges/
  25. 25. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge? http://www.hastac.org/digital-badges http://www.macfound.org/programs/digital-badges/
  26. 26. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge? http://www.hastac.org/digital-badges http://www.macfound.org/programs/digital-badges/
  27. 27. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  28. 28. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  29. 29. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  30. 30. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so what is a digital badge?
  31. 31. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ..so how do you earn a digital badge? earned for doing something earned by evidencing what you did to be earned = your evidence is assessed
  32. 32. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • digital badges ... so how is evidence assessed? assessed by standards whose standards?
  33. 33. Open Digital Badges - what you know about • open digital badges ... so what is an open digital badge?
  34. 34. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges
  35. 35. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges Mozilla Open Badges - introduction http://youtu.be/_051cGs6n8w duration - 3:35 min Key Questions • What problems are Open Digital Badges being presented as a solution for? • Do you think OD Badges are relevant to you as a teacher, parent, life long learner? Why or why not?
  36. 36. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges Mozilla Open Badges - introduction http://youtu.be/_051cGs6n8w duration - 3:35 min Reflect on these questions now • What problems are Open Digital Badges being presented as a solution for? • Do you think OD Badges are relevant to you as a teacher, parent, life long learner? Why or why not?
  37. 37. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges Mozilla Open Badges - introduction Free and open: Mozilla Open Badges is not proprietary. It’s free software and an open technical standard any organization can use to create, issue and verify digital badges.
  38. 38. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges Mozilla Open Badges - introduction Transferable: Collect badges from multiple sources, online and off, into a single backpack. Then display your skills and achievements on social networking profiles, job sites, websites and more.
  39. 39. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges Mozilla Open Badges - introduction Stackable: Whether they’re issued by one organization or many, badges can build upon each other and be stacked to tell the full story of your skills and achievements.
  40. 40. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges Mozilla Open Badges - introduction Evidence-based: Open Badges are information-rich. Each badge has important metadata which is hardcoded into the badge image file itself that links back to the issuer, criteria and verifying evidence.
  41. 41. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work .. in the world of work
  42. 42. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work The Current Problem?
  43. 43. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  44. 44. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  45. 45. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  46. 46. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  47. 47. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  48. 48. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work The Possible Solution?
  49. 49. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  50. 50. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  51. 51. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  52. 52. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  53. 53. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work helping to address the “skills gap” in manufacturing with ...
  54. 54. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work Manufacturing Institute (USA) addresses the Skills Gap http://youtu.be/-zRcNP5HTcg duration - 2:36 min Key Questions • What skills gap is the Manufacturing Institute referring to? • Why is there a skills gap? • How are Open Digital Badges going to address this? Manufacturing Institute. (2013). The Manufacturing Institute Addresses the Skills Gap. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=-zRcNP5HTcg
  55. 55. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  56. 56. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work
  57. 57. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work Manufacturing Institute (USA) addresses the Skills Gap http://youtu.be/-zRcNP5HTcg duration - 2:36 min Reflect on these questions now • What skills gap is the Manufacturing Institute referring to? • Why is there a skills gap? • How are Open Digital Badges going to address this?
  58. 58. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work Bill Clinton speaking on Digital Badges: Unlocking Two Million Better Futures Clinton Global Initiatives - America 2013 21 June 2013 http://youtu.be/1Qq7emqbzcA duration - 1:23 min Key Question • What problems are Open Digital Badges being presented as a solution for here? Digital Badges: Unlocking Two Million Better Futures - CGI America 2013. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=1Qq7emqbzcA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
  59. 59. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in work Bill Clinton speaking on Digital Badges: Unlocking Two Million Better Futures Clinton Global Initiatives - America 2013 21 June 2013 http://youtu.be/1Qq7emqbzcA duration - 1:23 min Reflect on this Question now • What problems are Open Digital Badges being presented as a solution for here?
  60. 60. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education .. in the world of education
  61. 61. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education Passport by Purdue University: Digital Badges for Learning http://youtu.be/O41-BWJ_VE0 duration - 0:51 min Key Questions • How has Purdue University opted to use Open Digital badges? • Why might Purdue University be choosing to this option? Passport by Purdue University: Digital Badges for Learning. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O41-BWJ_VE0
  62. 62. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education Passport by Purdue University: Digital Badges for Learning http://youtu.be/O41-BWJ_VE0 duration - 0:51 min Reflect on these questions now • How has Purdue University opted to use Open Digital badges? • Why might Purdue University be choosing to this option? Passport by Purdue University: Digital Badges for Learning. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O41-BWJ_VE0
  63. 63. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education (Canada) https://collaborate.uwaterloo.ca/connect-it/node/314
  64. 64. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education (Canada) ...... embracing the ideal of the “T-shaped” graduate, who combines deep “vertical” knowledge in a particular domain with a broad set of “horizontal” (knowledge) skills: teamwork, communications, facility with data and technology, an appreciation of diverse cultures, advanced literacy skills, and so on.” https://collaborate.uwaterloo.ca/connect-it/node/314
  65. 65. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education (Canada) Digital badges could capture the horizontal knowledge and skills acquired during (cooperative) learning experiences that are otherwise difficult to represent in a resume or university degree. https://collaborate.uwaterloo.ca/connect-it/node/314
  66. 66. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education (USA) http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  67. 67. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education (USA) And a number of factors are paving the way for the rise of the badge. Financial pressures are encouraging more and more academic institutions to take a long hard look at their programs to make sure that students are learning what they say there are. Those same financial pressures are affecting our students, pushing people to look for opportunities to learn without crushing their savings or incurring extensive debt http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  68. 68. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know • open digital badges .... in education (USA) And with the support of technology, that means a new era of learning through MOOCs and open educational resources, or the less formal YouTube videos, podcasts, or communities of practice. Add in gamification, the rise of learning analytics, and students perpetually looking for opportunities to and you’ve created a climate in need of exactly what the digital badges bring to the table. What do individuals know? This is the question badges are here to solve. http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  69. 69. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know PD • open digital badges .... in education .. in the world of PD http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  70. 70. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know PD • open digital badges .... in education http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  71. 71. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know PD • open digital badges .... in education .. but the problem with this is it is NOT open. http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  72. 72. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know PD • open digital badges .... in education credly.com http://www.trainingmag.com/credentials/?ID=38080
  73. 73. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know PD • open digital badges .... in education credly.com http://www.trainingmag.com/credentials/?ID=38080
  74. 74. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know PD • open digital badges .... in education http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  75. 75. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education .. just how do badges work? http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  76. 76. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education Key Questions • How do Digital Open Badges work? • What makes up a Digital Open Badges system? http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  77. 77. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  78. 78. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  79. 79. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  80. 80. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  81. 81. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  82. 82. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  83. 83. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  84. 84. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  85. 85. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  86. 86. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know how they work • open digital badges .... in education
  87. 87. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know possible applications “here” application • open digital badges .... in education Digital badges could capture the horizontal knowledge and skills acquired during (cooperative) learning experiences that are otherwise difficult to represent in a resume or university degree. recognize outreach activities recognize volunteer efforts counter siloing encourage informal / self directed learning
  88. 88. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know possible applications “here” • open digital badges .... in education While the student audience seems like the most practical users of such a feature, imagine the impact digital badges could have for staff. Digital badges could be used to represent the training, skills and abilities staff possess in a variety of areas. Instead of being ‘that web guy’ or ‘that developer person’, badges could be used to help depict a more holistic view of an individual. We start to learn a little more about a person and where their passions, interests and skills lay outside of their specific job description Professional Development
  89. 89. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know current criticism • open digital badges .... in education ... criticism? http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  90. 90. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know current criticism • open digital badges .... in education Key Question • What are the critics saying? http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  91. 91. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know current criticism • open digital badges .... in education A type of extrinsic motivator that competes with an individual's intrinsic motivation for accomplishment and mastery Gives out rewards for things that individuals or students should already be doing; take away the badge.. and the desired behaviour disappears Over reliance on extrinsic motivation http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  92. 92. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know current criticism • open digital badges .... in education Badges reward tasks that are not inherently interesting to badge recipients because they are created to promote behavior that aligns with the goals of the badge issuer and not necessarily the badge recipient (Dave Cormier) Not student centered or driven http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  93. 93. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know current criticism • open digital badges .... in education Performance is not directly observed so there could be some difficulty in making sure that the badge is awarded to the person who completed the assignment Validity / Security http://gaming.psu.edu/gamification/digital-badges/
  94. 94. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know current criticism • open digital badges .... in education My purpose? To provide you with a quick introduction to Digital Open Badges and the potential being seen in them by various groups both within and outside education. Thank you
  95. 95. Open Digital Badges - what you want to know Partial References • open digital badges .... in education Blackboard Learn Quick Hit Video -- Achievements. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wr6DKgx4sH8&feature=youtube_gdata_player dwallace. (2013, July 10). Digital Badges: tracking our “horizontal” skills. University of Waterloo | Groups | uWaterloo Connect IT. Retrieved from https:// collaborate.uwaterloo.ca/connect-it/node/314 Edmodo. (n.d.). Edmodo. Retrieved December 14, 2013, from https://support.edmodo.com/home Educational Gaming Commons. (n.d.). Educational Gaming Commons. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://gaming.psu.edu/ Foursquare - How to get the Barista (Starbucks) Badge? (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2013, from index.html Khan Academy. (n.d.). Badges | Khan Academy. Khan Academy. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from https://www.khanacademy.org/badges MacArthur Foundation. (2013). Digital Badges. MacArthur Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.macfound.org/programs/digital-badges/ Manufacturing Institute. (2013). Skills Certification System. Manufacturing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.themanufacturinginstitute.org/Skills-Certification/ Skills-Certification-System.aspx Mozilla. (n.d.). Mozilla Backpack. Mozilla. Retrieved from http://backpack.openbadges.org MozillaWiki. (n.d.). Badge/Issuers. MozillaWiki. Retrieved from https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges/Issuers Opensource.com. (n.d.). Points and badges. opensource.com. Retrieved from http://opensource.com/points-and-badges Passport by Purdue University: Digital Badges for Learning. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O41BWJ_VE0&feature=youtube_gdata_player Put your training to work for you. (2012). Badges for VETS. Retrieved from https://badgesforvets.org/badges.html Resnick, M. (2012, February 27). Still a Badge Skeptic. HASTAC. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from http://www.hastac.org/blogs/mres/2012/02/27/still-badgeskeptic SLANZA. (2013, July 21). Badges created by SLANZA. badg.us. Retrieved from http://badg.us/en-US/profiles/profile/slanzawiki Training Magazine. (2013). Training Magazine Digital Credential. Training. Retrieved from http://www.trainingmag.com/credentials/?ID=38080 TripAdvisor begins handing out badges to reviewers. (n.d.). Tnooz. Retrieved December 14, 2013, from http://www.tnooz.com/article/tripadvisor-begins-handing-outbadges-to-reviewers/ What Is A Badge? (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgLLq7ybDtc&feature=youtube_gdata_player

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