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DEPARTMANT OF ELT
YDIO 703 APPROACHES AND
METHODS IN LANGUAGE TEACHING
Submitted to Assist. Prof. Dr. Özlem KAŞLIOĞLU
Submitted by Buket DEMİRBÜKEN
Fall 2013, İstanbul
Theory of Language
Theory of Learning
The syllabus & Design
Teaching & Learning Activities
Learner & Teacher Roles
The origins of Communicative Language
Teaching ( CLT) dates back the late 1960s.
In the mid-1960s Audiolingualism was
Situational Language Teaching was popular at
that time but it was felt as inadequate.
There was a seek for more humanistic
teaching and one in which interactive ,
communicative side of language is
In 1971 unit-credit system was developed as
it fits the aims of European Common Market.
Notional Syllabus was documented by Wilkins
The work of Council of Europe, writings of
Wilkins ,Widowson and other British linguists
expanded the theoretical bases for a
communicative or functional approach.
CLT passed through three phases;
a syllabus that is compatible with
the notion of communicative competence
procedures identifying learners’
kinds of classroom activities as the
basis of a communicative methodology
The CLT derives from a theory of language as
The aim of language is to develop a
‘communicative competence’ ( Hymes,1972)
Hymes contrasts Chomsky’s theory of
competence. Hymes’s theory of
communicative competence was a definition
of what a speaker needs to know in order to
be communicatively competent in speech
Whether ( and to what degree) sth is formally
Whether ( and to what degree)sth is feasible in
virtue of the means of implementation avaliable
Whether ( and to what degree)sth is appropriate
in relation to a context in which it is used and
Whether ( and to what degree) sth is infact done ,
actually performed , and what its doing entails.
Canale and Swain identified four dimensions
of communicative competence;
CLT has a rich and eclectic theoretical base.
Language is a system for expression of
The primary function of language is to allow
interaction and communication
The structure of language reflects its
functional and communicative uses
The primary units of language are not merely
its grammatical and structural features , but
categories of functional and communicative
meaning as exemplified in discourse.
Underlying elements of CLT;
( Littlewood 1981, Johnson 1982)
These are conditions needed to promote
second language learning.
Skill-learning model Johnson and Littlewood
It is compatible with CLT. According to this
theory, the acquisition of communicative
competence in a language is an example of
skill development. It involves both cognitive
and behavioral aspect.
Piepho (1981) discusses the main objectives of
CLT that shape the classes;
An integrative and content level
A linguistic and instrumental level
An affective level of interpersonal
relationships and conduct
A level of individual learning needs
A general educational level of extra-linguistic
Curriculum or instructional objectives for a
particular course would reflect specific
aspects of communicative competence
according to the learner’s proficiency level
and communicative needs.
There is an on-going syllabus design in the
The Council of Europe expanded and
developed Notional syllabus of Wilkins into a
syllabus that describes the foreign language
courses for European adults.
There are some proposals and models for
syllabus design of CLT.
structure plus function
functional spiral around a
Jupp and Hodlin(1975)
Some have argued the idea of abolishing the
syllabus altogether and making it learner
specific which is personal and learners are
fully aware of their own learning, pace, path
Others favor the model proposed by Brumfit
that favors a grammatically based syllabus
around which notions, functions and
communicative activities are grouped.
Classroom activities are designed to focus on
completing tasks that base on negotiation of
information and information sharing.
Group works, task-work, simulations, role
plays, information gap activities…
Three kinds of materials are used in CLT;
Text-based: a typical lesson consists of a
Task-based: exercise handbooks, cue
booklets,pair communication practice
Realias: authentic, from-life materials
from magazines, newspapers,graphic, maps
and visual sources
Negotiator –between the self, the learning
process and the object of learningCooperative
Interact with each other and the teacher
Express their needs
Facilitate the communication process
Independent participant within the learningteaching group.
Organizer of sources and as a resource
A guide within the classroom procedures and
Group process manager(debriefing, assisting,
pointing out alternatives)
The CLT teachers have the responsibility of
determining and responding students’ needs.
One to one sessions
Needs assessment instrument
I want to study English because;
Teaching points are introduced in dialogue
form, grammatical items are isolated for
controlled practice and freer activities are
Pair and group work is suggested to
encourage students to use and practice
functions and forms.
Students interact with each other more
The teacher should have good monitoring
There is too much focus on oral skills at the
expense of reading and writing.
There is not enough emphasis on the
correction of pronounciation and grammar
It is difficult to produce truly ‘authentic
context’ for language use
Students may be reluctant to participate in
communicative activities or they may show
CLT focuses on communication and fluency
more than accuracy. It may cause weaker
students to give up.