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Communiticative Language Teaching


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  • 2. Background  Theory of Language  Theory of Learning  The syllabus & Design  Teaching & Learning Activities  Learner & Teacher Roles  Procedures  Critics 
  • 3.     The origins of Communicative Language Teaching ( CLT) dates back the late 1960s. In the mid-1960s Audiolingualism was rejected. Situational Language Teaching was popular at that time but it was felt as inadequate. There was a seek for more humanistic teaching and one in which interactive , communicative side of language is prioritized.
  • 4.    In 1971 unit-credit system was developed as it fits the aims of European Common Market. Notional Syllabus was documented by Wilkins in 1972. The work of Council of Europe, writings of Wilkins ,Widowson and other British linguists expanded the theoretical bases for a communicative or functional approach.
  • 5.     CLT passed through three phases; First a syllabus that is compatible with the notion of communicative competence Second procedures identifying learners’ needs Third kinds of classroom activities as the basis of a communicative methodology
  • 6.    The CLT derives from a theory of language as communication. The aim of language is to develop a ‘communicative competence’ ( Hymes,1972) Hymes contrasts Chomsky’s theory of competence. Hymes’s theory of communicative competence was a definition of what a speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in speech community.
  • 7.     Whether ( and to what degree) sth is formally possible Whether ( and to what degree)sth is feasible in virtue of the means of implementation avaliable Whether ( and to what degree)sth is appropriate in relation to a context in which it is used and evaluated Whether ( and to what degree) sth is infact done , actually performed , and what its doing entails.
  • 8.      Canale and Swain identified four dimensions of communicative competence; Grammatical competence Sociolinguistic competence Discourse competence Strategic competence
  • 9. CLT has a rich and eclectic theoretical base. Some characteristics;  Language is a system for expression of meaning  The primary function of language is to allow interaction and communication  The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses  The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features , but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse. 
  • 10.     Underlying elements of CLT; Communicative principle Task principle Meaningfulness principle ( Littlewood 1981, Johnson 1982) These are conditions needed to promote second language learning.
  • 11.  Skill-learning model Johnson and Littlewood (1984) It is compatible with CLT. According to this theory, the acquisition of communicative competence in a language is an example of skill development. It involves both cognitive and behavioral aspect.
  • 12. Piepho (1981) discusses the main objectives of CLT that shape the classes;      An integrative and content level A linguistic and instrumental level An affective level of interpersonal relationships and conduct A level of individual learning needs A general educational level of extra-linguistic goals
  • 13.  Curriculum or instructional objectives for a particular course would reflect specific aspects of communicative competence according to the learner’s proficiency level and communicative needs.
  • 14.    There is an on-going syllabus design in the CLT. The Council of Europe expanded and developed Notional syllabus of Wilkins into a syllabus that describes the foreign language courses for European adults. There are some proposals and models for syllabus design of CLT.
  • 15. Type Reference structure plus function Wilkins (1976) functional spiral around a structural core Brumfit(1980) structural,functional, instrumental Allen (1980) functional Jupp and Hodlin(1975) notional Wilkins (1979) interactional Widdowson (1979) Task-based Prabhu (1983) Learner -generated Candlin (1976),Stanchina&Riley(1978
  • 16.   Some have argued the idea of abolishing the syllabus altogether and making it learner specific which is personal and learners are fully aware of their own learning, pace, path and resources. Others favor the model proposed by Brumfit that favors a grammatically based syllabus around which notions, functions and communicative activities are grouped.
  • 17.   Classroom activities are designed to focus on completing tasks that base on negotiation of information and information sharing. Group works, task-work, simulations, role plays, information gap activities…
  • 18. Three kinds of materials are used in CLT;   Text-based: a typical lesson consists of a theme. Task-based: exercise handbooks, cue cards,student-interaction practice booklets,pair communication practice materials,  Realias: authentic, from-life materials from magazines, newspapers,graphic, maps and visual sources
  • 19.     Negotiator –between the self, the learning process and the object of learningCooperative Interact with each other and the teacher Express their needs
  • 20.        Facilitate the communication process Independent participant within the learningteaching group. Organizer of sources and as a resource A guide within the classroom procedures and activities Counselor Group process manager(debriefing, assisting, pointing out alternatives) Need Analyst
  • 21.    The CLT teachers have the responsibility of determining and responding students’ needs. One to one sessions Needs assessment instrument I want to study English because; ….
  • 22.   Teaching points are introduced in dialogue form, grammatical items are isolated for controlled practice and freer activities are provided. Pair and group work is suggested to encourage students to use and practice functions and forms.
  • 23.     Precommunicative Activities Communicative Activities Littlewood (1981:86) Structural Activities Quasi-communicative activities Functional communicative activities Social interaction activities
  • 24.  Appropriateness  Message Focus  Psycholinguistic Processing  Risk Taking  Free Practice
  • 25.      Students interact with each other more The teacher should have good monitoring abilities There is too much focus on oral skills at the expense of reading and writing. There is not enough emphasis on the correction of pronounciation and grammar errors. It is difficult to produce truly ‘authentic context’ for language use
  • 26.   Students may be reluctant to participate in communicative activities or they may show resistance. CLT focuses on communication and fluency more than accuracy. It may cause weaker students to give up.