Print based media production


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Print based media production

  1. 1. Print Based Media Production<br />Techniques and Technology<br />
  2. 2. Digital Printing <br />Machines from different manufacturers make a wide range of models - from fast laser printers to complex offset presses. Digital technologies used in these systems allow printing directly from the file, eliminating time-consuming irradiation plates, sheets, calibration and printing machines. Digital technologies are dominant in terms of running speed of production, flexibility and economical printing full-colour works in small editions. Experienced Printing Company offers a collection of work within a few hours after delivery of the order, speed of execution depends only on how it is very difficult finishing work. Because the image is created directly on the drum of the machine, you can make changes in the last minute. Electronic create an image on a drum can also print variable data printing on subsequent pages, sharing a particular piece of text or images is called personalization.<br />Digital printing is a modern printing technology for small-circulation publications, unusual and personalized production in a very short time. The most common technique is to offset printing. It is used to print a high volume publications (brochures, leaflets, newspapers, posters). From the classic offset it differs in that does not require complicated and expensive prepress. Hence there is no start-up costs, and it is thanks to this technique, we print a small outlay.<br />
  3. 3. Desktop publishing DTP<br />DPT is a term for all activities related primarily to the preparation of materials on the computer, which will later be replicated for printing methods. Less words, this term meant to prepare computer for printing. In this sense, this term covers not only the design phase, namely the creation of images in computer programs (and shape) of pages of publications, but also the management of group work, and even refers to computer control devices used in this process, so that machines such as Plate setter printing.<br />Historically, preparation for printing wad called "prepress" or "preparatory process“ basically included the composition of the manual and assembly (in the editing room), completed the preparation of materials for the printing of image setters.With time, the concept of DTP began to refer also to prepare a paper for publication in electronic (digital) way.<br />DTP process begins with introduction to computer text and image. Individual graphic elements are then individually treated, and the text is applied to the correction.Next is a fundamental part of the process, ie the pattern of all these elements of the completed project pages of publications, including the smoothing of information for the printer and bookbinder. At this stage, work can also display information about the image of the entire premium (imposition).The final operation is a store computer data in the form of a postscript file or (more often) a PDF file. The DTP can also manage the workflow in the printing and prepress printing control devices, as well as the printing press.<br />It is important that the DTP is concerned not only the image itself, but also the shape of the substrate, so that this term also applies to open areas of design such as packaging and other forms of die-cut paper, cardboard or such shapes cut from foil.<br />
  4. 4. Inkjet<br />Colour inkjet printer has several colours of ink. Each colour has a separate government head nozzles. Mainly used for colour printing is required set of three primary colours: cyan - blue tint, yellow, magenta - red (pink) shade, which creates a suitable mosaic on paper with different droplet sizes, which give the illusion for the human eye, uniformity and proper colour. The smaller drops of ink the printer can print, the greater range of colours and shades that the human eye can interpret. It is therefore important that the smallest droplet size of the printer can print and what type of ink used during printing. Printers, depending on the mode of ink can be divided into Drop-On-Demand (DOD) and Continuous-Ink-Jet (CIJ). DOD technology is a core technology of home and office printers, due to the high print quality, multicolour printing, low ink consumption, the simplicity of not requiring additional ink solvent. The disadvantage is the narrow range of permissible material under the print (mainly paper), has required a very small distance between the print head and the ground, and there is no change in the type of ink. The CIJ technology is mainly used in industrial printers due to a very high flexibility in terms of distance from the head of product, type of substrate and the possibility of selecting the type of ink, depending on conditions, type of substrate and demand. The disadvantage is, in turn, poor print quality and productivity, significant size and weight of the printer, a significant price and demand for additional solvent. CIJ printers are almost always have only one chip for ink (one colour).<br />Inkjet printer; the printer uses for printing ink, and more correctly ink (dye or pigment), by firing tiny droplets of colorant microscopic nozzles in the printhead made passes over an printed elements. <br />Getting information on how to print using the listed properties are from 1976, but the first modern inkjet printer was founded in 1988, produced by already known from other digital devices Hewlett-Packard Corporation. It was a DeskJet printer line. Since then, the inkjet printer has undergone significant evolutionary changes. <br />There are many different types of inkjet printers, differ not only in construction and method of printing, but also to the application.<br />
  5. 5. Laser printing<br />Laser printing is using a type of printer that operate a laser printing process. Laser printers have a very high print quality and print under the influence of water does not melt. Laser printer prints on paper by placing the toner particles. The principle of laser printers is very similar to that of photocopiers and consists of several stages:<br /><ul><li>Preparation of the shaft
  6. 6. Irradiation
  7. 7. Call
  8. 8. Transfer
  9. 9. Fixation
  10. 10. Cleaning</li></ul>Due to its numerous advantages of laser printing is an extremely popular form of transfer of documents on paper. It allows you to print documents directly from your computer, which includes the possibility of rapid changes in the application of the printed copy of the trial. Laser printing also allows you to quickly and cost-effective printing of any effort, and easy to reprint the desired text. <br />
  11. 11. Screen Print<br />Print Screenis one of the special keys found on a standard keyboard, among others the PC. Originally, the Print Screen key caused a hardware interrupt number 5, which support DOS printing caused the printer connected to LPT1 screenshot in text mode. Newer programs usually handle this key in a similar way, often adding to the functionality, for example, to support graphics modes. Nowadays, the importance of this key is different. Under Microsoft Windows systems will push the record in the system clipboard contents of the screen, which can then be pasted into any graphics program such as Microsoft Paint. The shot does not always show the cursor.In Microsoft Windows and many Linux Alt limits its activity to the area occupied by the active window (ex: box or browser window).<br />
  12. 12. Hand etching<br />Squeezed into a recess etched plate ink is transferred under the pressure of the intaglio print on paper. This technique is similar to techniques such as hand engraving, but it allows the exercise of delicate drawings, and more complex shapes, because the image has a much smaller force to carry the image. Detailed etching drawing is gain also due to blurring of the edges, which is not something you can do while engraving. Etching, printmaking technique concave. It consists of embodiment of a metal printing figure obtained by digestion. Copper or zinc plate is covered with acid-insoluble etchings varnish and then a drawing can be made on it by the steel needle, exposing the metal surface. By immersing the plate in acid etching the deep drawing is appearing on a plate. In order to deepen the lines in the dark parts of the drawing, process is repeated several times. After the final digestion and removal of the varnish, the plate is rubbed and the printing ink stops only in the etched cavities.<br />This technique was used in earlier years for creating the books and images for them. However in a present time there are few people interested in this old method, but they ordering the painting just for their own requirements. <br />Water waste and temperature of the process is very low. Therefore the functioning cost of the etching system will be notably cheaper than the chromic acid etching system. Also as the chemicals for the etching system are available in different companies and are sold in bulk, the cost is getting lower and lower. However it is still not a cheap business and for sure it is requiring a lot of work. <br />
  13. 13. Lithography mechanical letterpress<br />Letterpress printing is a relief printing technique in which paper is pressed against the printing form. With this method, you can now get unprecedented results, which give the prints a unique character. From the fifteenth to the mid-twentieth century, most printed matter was obtained just by using this method, however, with the spread of more efficient techniques, printing has become the two-dimensional only.<br />Letterpress is one of the techniques of relief printing inks using typographic, which belong to the category of paints greasy. Paint applied to the convex form is printed directly transferred to the substrate. When the typographic forms of printing ink is transferred to the offset and only gum rubber on the substrate, then we are dealing with typooffset sometimes called dry offset. Typography is one of the oldest printing techniques: before the introduction of Gutenberg's movable typing was performed, and for his woodcuts were made by printing.The use of letterpress in general the marginal accomplished by the development of other printing techniques.<br />
  14. 14. Wood Cut<br />Woodcut: drawing is done directly on the smooth surface of brick or imposed upon it layer of soil. Then, metallic chisels, or knives selected background picture (which is not printing on the print will remain white), on the block but remains convex figure, which will be part of stopping the printing ink.Prepared form is coated with paint (often black), and manually directly reflected in the pages of the paper give a figure on a white background. Because of the way of cutting wood in the performance of the drawing along or across the grain is distinguished by, respectively, woodcut, split, (executed in a soft wood such as apple, walnut, pear, where the background is selected depth along the grain), and transverse woodcut(performed in a hard wood such as boxwood or cherry, allowing for cutting across the grain), invented in the late eighteenth century by English Art T. Bewick.Woodcut Cross has gained great popularity, because - in addition to durability allowing for more prints - allowing cutting in different directions allowed to obtain a precise figure, different strokes and subtle tones.<br />The main centres of development of the woodcut were Germany, the Netherlands, France and Italy Venice and Florence. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was superseded by the woodcut graphic art metal (etching, engraving) and also due to the relative ease of performance popularized in folk art, which survived until the twentieth century. In the late eighteenth century in connection with the invention of woodcuts cross, giving new opportunities, there has been renewed interest in wood engraving technique<br />
  15. 15. Gravure<br />Variety of industrial gravure printing is used for printing high costs; especially color of illustrated magazines and packaging. The form is printed here with the engraved cylinder or a mechanical technique made the address image, paint accumulates in the concave depressions made (inkwells). Chase (cylinder) is dipped in the inkwell of the paint. During the rotation of the excess paint is collected (using a knife collector - so called. squeegee) to the non-printing area before the substrate contacts the cylinder and take the ink from the recesses. The substrate on which to bounce the printed image is pressed into the cylinder by pressman. Rotogravure cylinders are made of copper or steel cylinders are. The latter is used for printing banknotes, postage stamps and prints for office.<br />
  16. 16. Intaglio<br />Intaglio printing very long remained the most perfect and most widely used technique for printing. Apply in it the hard and resistant metal plates, which recessed lines shown on a paper.The plate is covered with ink and then carefully wiped so that ink remains only in the grooves carved in metal.Under pressure from a powerful press the paper pulls the ink from the wells. In this technique, you also need to remember about changing parties: an arrow pointing to the right of the plate after reflection on the paper will be returned to the left and pointing left, after reflection on the paper will be returned to the right.<br />
  17. 17. Linocut<br />Linocut, printmaking technique; the print made with this technique - used since the latenineteenth century, similar to engraving lengthwise. As a portion of the disc is used linoleum. Drawing a linoleum cut with scissors, chisels, etc., and then after covering the paint does not cut the convex part of the print is done. With the softness of the material cut is usually quite broad. Linocuts can be diverse in nature - from the contrasting black and white surface of the small linear elements. Linocuts can be applied also to multi-colorsprints, as well as large format prints.<br />