Cognitive Theory Activities like thinking and remembering seem like a behavior Learner is viewed as an information processor People are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli People are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn
Allan Paivio (1925-) Information presented in visual and verbal form enhances recall and recognition Dual coding theory: assumes that people process information in two distinct ways Processing of images Processing of language Dual coding identifies three sub processes Representational: verbal or nonverbal representations are directly influenced Referential: verbal system is activated by nonverbal communication (or vise-versa) Associative: both text-based systems and graphic representations can trigger mental associations
Robert Gagne (1916-2002) The development of skills on a building-block principle Five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes. Nine events of instruction: 1. Gain attention of the learners 2. Inform learners of the objectives 3. Stimulate recall of prior learning 4. Present the stimulus or lesson 5. Provide learning guidance and instruction 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance retention and transfer
Howard Gardner (1943-) Theory of multiple intelligences Intelligence: ability to gain knowledge, apply knowledge, manipulate one’s environment and think abstractly. Eight different intelligences: Linguistic-verbal Logical-mathematical Spatial-visual Body-kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Instructional methods should include a variety of activities
Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) Classified learning into three domains: cognitive, affective and psychomotor Cognitive domain: student’s intellectual level Affective domain: student’s emotions, interests, attitude and awareness Psychomotor domain: student’s motor skills and physical abilities Bloom’s Taxonomy: levels designed to increase a student’s comprehension
Classroom ImplicationsTeacher Students Careful planning of lessons Paying attention Variety of internal (attention, motivation and Recall of prior learning recall) and external (timing and Can state what has been place) conditions learned Instructional methods should Can discriminate between appeal to different intelligences facts, can identify colors, and Variety of assessment methods can follow directions Create instructional plans based All students can learn given on state standards, learning the correct conditions objectives and learning theories
How I would apply this theory Cater lessons plans to students’ different intelligences Examples: Hands on activities Songs Group work Posters Use images and audio together to increase recall Examples: Showing an image as a say a new word in Spanish
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