Learning theory


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Learning theory

  1. 1. By K.M.
  2. 2. Cognitive Theory Activities like thinking and remembering seem like a behavior Learner is viewed as an information processor People are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli People are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn
  3. 3. Allan Paivio (1925-) Information presented in visual and verbal form enhances recall and recognition Dual coding theory: assumes that people process information in two distinct ways  Processing of images  Processing of language Dual coding identifies three sub processes  Representational: verbal or nonverbal representations are directly influenced  Referential: verbal system is activated by nonverbal communication (or vise-versa)  Associative: both text-based systems and graphic representations can trigger mental associations
  4. 4. Robert Gagne (1916-2002) The development of skills on a building-block principle Five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes. Nine events of instruction: 1. Gain attention of the learners 2. Inform learners of the objectives 3. Stimulate recall of prior learning 4. Present the stimulus or lesson 5. Provide learning guidance and instruction 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance retention and transfer
  5. 5. Gagne’s Taxonomy
  6. 6. Nine Events of Instruction
  7. 7. Howard Gardner (1943-) Theory of multiple intelligences Intelligence: ability to gain knowledge, apply knowledge, manipulate one’s environment and think abstractly. Eight different intelligences:  Linguistic-verbal  Logical-mathematical  Spatial-visual  Body-kinesthetic  Musical  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Naturalist Instructional methods should include a variety of activities
  8. 8. Multiple Intelligences
  9. 9. Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) Classified learning into three domains: cognitive, affective and psychomotor  Cognitive domain: student’s intellectual level  Affective domain: student’s emotions, interests, attitude and awareness  Psychomotor domain: student’s motor skills and physical abilities Bloom’s Taxonomy: levels designed to increase a student’s comprehension
  10. 10. Bloom’s Taxonomy
  11. 11. Classroom ImplicationsTeacher Students Careful planning of lessons  Paying attention Variety of internal (attention, motivation and  Recall of prior learning recall) and external (timing and  Can state what has been place) conditions learned Instructional methods should  Can discriminate between appeal to different intelligences facts, can identify colors, and Variety of assessment methods can follow directions Create instructional plans based  All students can learn given on state standards, learning the correct conditions objectives and learning theories
  12. 12. How I would apply this theory Cater lessons plans to students’ different intelligences  Examples:  Hands on activities  Songs  Group work  Posters Use images and audio together to increase recall  Examples:  Showing an image as a say a new word in Spanish
  13. 13. Credits "Cognitive Theories." Cognitive Theories of Learning. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/cognitive.htm>. "Cognitivism." Learning Theories. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.learning- theories.com/cognitivism.html>. "Erin R. Gunters Portfolio." Glossary. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://arcmit01.uncw.edu/erg1602/Glossary.html>. Gunter, Glenda A., and Randolph E. Gunter. "Learning Theories and Educational Research." Teachers Discovering Computers Integrating Technology in a Connected World. By Gary B. Shelly. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 261-66. Print. "I Am the Eternal Student but I Am Not Alone Expand Your Horizons!!!" I Am the Eternal Studentbut I Am Not Alone. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://greeneyezwinkin2.wordpress.com/2012/01/22/dr-howard-gardner-on-multiple- intelligences/>. "Nine Events of Instruction (Gagne)." Nine Events of Instruction (Gagne). N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://insdsg619-f09.wikispaces.com/Nine Events of Instruction (Gagne)>. "Where Grace and Strength Collide." Toseealambatschool: Blooms Taxonomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://vaganovaagrippina.tumblr.com/post/14221502634/toseealambatschool-blooms- taxonomy>.