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Instructional Design for Competence-based Learning
 

Instructional Design for Competence-based Learning

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Sharing at Institute of Adult Learning, Singapore, Instructional Design Special Interest Group on 21 Sept 2012.

Sharing at Institute of Adult Learning, Singapore, Instructional Design Special Interest Group on 21 Sept 2012.

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  • This slide will be shown before session starts. Participants will be requested to do this activity when they register. Participants who do not know any models will indicate “Nil”.[Resources – Need to provide A4 size paper at each table]
  • ResourcesA4 paperPens or pencilsFlipchart paperMarkersMasking tape or Blu tack
  • Need CS from WDA to design an example
  • Notes to instructor:Explain the guidelines for sequencing learning chunks to facilitate effective competence acquisition.

Instructional Design for Competence-based Learning Instructional Design for Competence-based Learning Presentation Transcript

  • Sharing at Adult Education Network Special Interest Group (Instructional Design) Instructional Design forCompetence-based Learning Tang Buay Choo buaytang@gmail.com
  • 2Agenda Overview of Instructional Design • What is instructional Design? • ADDIE Instructional Design Model Nature of competence & its implication for instructional design Situate, sequence, scaffold & support Learning • Authentic & Integrated acquisition of competence • Cognitive Load Theory © 2012
  • 3What is instructional design? • What?…systematic development of instructional specifications, and supporting learning materials • How?…applying learning and instructional theories or research • Why?….to ensure the quality of instruction • Process includes… – analysis of learning needs and goals – design of a instructional activities to meet those needs – development of instructional materials and delivery systems – Implementation of learning activities – evaluation of effectiveness of learning activities Pre-session Activity Recall….Which instructional design (ID) models do you know? Write…List 2 to 3 ID models you know on a piece of paper. Write big enough for the class to see. You will be requested to show the class when the session starts. © 2012 Strategy: Entry Slip
  • 4Instructional Design Models – which do you know? Pre-session Activity – cont’d • Recall….Which instructional design (ID) models do you know? • Write…List the ID models you know on a piece of paper. Write big enough for the class to see. • Show….Upon signal from the facilitator, hold your paper up and show the class the ID models you know. Strategy: Polling © 2012
  • 5Instructional Design Models – some examples • ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate) • Hannifan and Peck • Dick and Carey Model • Knirk and Gustafson • Kemp, Morrison, and Ross • Rapid Prototyping • Gerlach and Ely Design Model • SAM (Successive Approximation Model) © 2012
  • 6Instructional Design Models – some examples • ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate) • Hannifan and Peck • Dick and Carey Model widely adopted • Knirk and Gustafson Popular as a quick, lower cost alternative to the traditional ID process • Kemp, Morrison, and Ross • Rapid Prototyping • Gerlach and Ely Design Model • SAM (Successive Approximation Model) © 2012
  • 7Instructional Design Model – ADDIE ANALYSIS • Analyse job/task/skills/knowledge/learner characteristics, leading to the specification of competencies and training objectives DESIGN • Determine training approach; • Select instructional strategies, media, technology, leading to the specification of instructional activities DEVELOPMENT •Develop lesson plans, instructional materials, media, exercises and tests IMPLEMENTATION • Setup/prepare facilities, • Conduct training EVALUATION • Assess learning • Conduct Student Feedback • Evaluate Outcomes/Student Feedback • Improve programme and training © 2012
  • 8Instructional Design Model – ADDIE Analyse Implement Evaluate Design Develop © 2012
  • 9Instructional Design Model – ADDIE Analyse - Where we are now and where do we want to go? Analyse Key Questions for Analysis • What are the “needs”? • Can they be addressed by instructions? • Who are the learners? • How best can technology be leveraged? • What are the competences? What are the knowledge? © 2012
  • 10Instructional Design Model – ADDIE Design - How to promote learning? Design Key Questions for Design • What are the learning outcomes? • How can these be achieved? • How can the learners be engaged? • © 2012
  • 11Instructional Design Model – ADDIE Develop - Translate the design into learning products Develop Key Questions for Development • What learning materials and/or resources can support learning? • What are effective design and development tools? © 2012
  • 12Instructional Design Model – ADDIE Implement - Prepare, deliver and manage Implement Key Questions for Implementation • Is there buy-in from stakeholders? • What are the infrastructure/facilities requirements? • How best to organise the training? • How to prepare trainers? © 2012
  • 13Instructional Design Model – ADDIE Evaluate - Determine effectiveness & outcomes of the training Evaluate Key Questions for Evaluation • What is effective training? • How do we find out the effectiveness of the training design, materials and delivery? • What are the desired outcomes of the training? • How can we find out whether the desired outcomes were attained? © 2012
  • 14Instructional Design for Competence-based learning Key purpose To facilitate learner acquisition of competence Activity: What is a competence? • Think… On your own think about – What is the definition of competence? – What are the elements of competence? • Write… Write your views on a piece of paper • Show… Upon signal from the facilitate, show your views to your group members • Discuss and negotiate… Within your group, discuss and come to a consensus on the definition and elements of a competence • Share… Present your group’s view on a flipchart. You can use any format, text, pictures, diagrams…. Strategy: Show Down © 2012
  • 15Nature of competence Competence vs Professional Action Competence Methodological Knowledge competence Technical Social competence competence Attitude Skills Personal competence Ability to perform workplace task vs Ability to perform task at the workplace © 2012
  • 16Nature of competence - Important considerationsfor competence-based instructional design1. Workplace context frames task -> Learning should be authentic Professional Action Competence2. Workplace standards determines“Ability” -> Assessment should be authentic Methodological competence3. T M S P are applied holistically inan integrated manner to perform thetask at workplace -> Learning and Assessment should be Technical Social holistic/integrated. competence competence4. Integrated application of severalCompetence Elements is required -> Appropriate sequence of learning &scaffolds needed to promote systematic Personalacquisition and integration competence - > Learning materials should supportdevelopment of mental model for integratedapplication Ability to perform task at the workplace © 2012
  • 17Nature of competence - Important considerationsfor competence-based instructional design1. Workplace context frames task -> Learning should be authentic Professional Action Competence2. Workplace standards determines“Ability” -> Assessment should be authentic Methodological Situate Learning competence3. T M S P are applied holistically inan integrated manner to perform thetask at workplace -> Learning and Assessment should be Technical Social holistic/integrated. competence competence4. Integrated application of several SequenceCompetence Elements is required -> Appropriate sequence of learning & Personal Scaffoldscaffolds needed to promote systematicacquisition and integration competence Support - > Learning materials should supportdevelopment of mental model for integratedapplication Ability to perform task at the workplace © 2012
  • Analyse SITUATE LEARNING
  • 19Situate Learning Purpose • Provide authentic context for learning in terms of task performed at workplace • Set the stage for determining the – content (which Competence Units/Elements) – relationship between CU/CE hence nature of integrated application of CU/CE – MSP – relationship between T M S P hence the nature of integrated application of T M S P • Guide the design of learning activities/contexts to promote systematic acquisition of competence and develop cognitive flexibility to handle varying workplace situations An Example © 2012
  • 20Situate Learning – Identifying authentic workplace task – Determining content, M S P and the relationships – Designing authentic contexts Keep a look out for future sessions © 2012
  • 21 Questions?© 2012
  • Design Learning Structure IDENTIFY & SEQUENCE LEARNING CHUNKS
  • 23Structuring Learning – Sequence learning chunks Guidelines:  Logical sequence, and/or  Simple to complex  Provide students with varied exposures How to: • Identify learning chunks • Sequence learning chunks Keep a look out for future sessions © 2012
  • Design Learning Activities/ Develop Learning Materials SCAFFOLD & SUPPORT
  • 25Scaffold & Support Learning • Design learning activities to - facilitate learners processing, organising & retention of content - encourage learners to take ownership of their own learning • Design learning resources (e.g. instructional presentation, notes, activity sheets) that support learning How? – 2 suggestions Apply Cognitive Load Theory Promote Assessment for/as Learning © 2012
  • Scaffold & Support Learning 26– Applying Cognitive Load Theory Main ideas • Working memory is limited while long term memory is not • Learning is about changes in the schematic structures of long term memory or increased automation • Well organised and highly connected schemas aids – retrieval of prior knowledge; and – processing of new information. • For effective schema acquisition (or learning) to occur, instruction should be designed to reduce the working memory load. © 2012
  • Scaffold & Support Learning 27– Applying Cognitive Load Theory What is cognitive load? • Cognitive load is the load in the working memory needed to process and encode the new information to enhance the schematic structures in the long term memory • 3 types of cognitive load – Intrinsic – Extraneous – Germane Objectives of instructional design - reduce extraneous load - increase germane load © 2012 More to be covered in future SIG sessions
  • 28Scaffold & Support Learning– Applying Cognitive Load Theory • On your own – Study the 2 examples assigned to your group • In your group – Discuss • Which example better applied cognitive load theory? Why? You may want to refer to the following articles: http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/cognitive-load.html http://dixieching.wordpress.com/2010/02/28/cognitive-load-theory-learning- difficulty-and-instructional-design-sweller/ http://www.southalabama.edu/oll/mobile/theory_workbook/cognitive_load_t heory.htm – Be prepared to share your group’s view with the class Strategy: Groupwork © 2012
  • 29Scaffold & Support Learning– Applying Cognitive Load Theory • Post session discussion – Share 1 instance you have applied cognitive load theory • Briefly describe the instance, and • How you have applied cognitive load theory? – Comment on others application – Share your views on the relevance of cognitive load theory in designing quality learning activities and/or learning materials © 2012
  • 30 Questions?© 2012
  • 31 Thank you© 2012