So much information, so many ideas, and how do I add this on top of what I ’m already doing?!!! What does it mean?!!!!! We’ve heard two different perspectives on what this means. Now, let’s turn our attention to the classroom.
Take a look at the topics depicted in this 21 st Century Word Wall, courtesy of Wordle. Imagine yourself in the role of classroom teacher. If you are currently classroom teacher, then your mind doesn ’t have far to travel. If you’ve been one, then recapture that perspective for the moment. If You’ve never been a classroom teacher, now’s your time to play one in cyberspace. As you view this artistically textual representation of 21 st century teaching and learning, and you consider the teacher ’s role to address these issues in the classroom, how does it make you feel? Type your thoughts in the chat window.
We ’ve just discussed how the charge of addressing 21 st century skills makes us feel. There are three sources of information on 21 st Century Skills seen here. These three definitions point to the same goal: that being ICT literate is much more than just having good technology skills. It is learning core subjects with application of these learning skills and communication tools. This respects what we know about technology integration from the TPACK model.
So, let ’s explore what we already know about this topic through “A tale of two classrooms.” Take a moment to study these two classrooms. There are criticisms of today’s educational system, saying that there has been little change in the act of teaching and learning since the image you see depicted on the left. But a simple glance at the image on the right indicates otherwise. http://www.21stcenturyschools.com/What_is_21st_Century_Education.htm Time-based Outcome-based Focus: memorization of discrete facts Focus: what students Know, Can Do and Are Like after all the details are forgotten. Lessons focus on the lower level of Bloom ’s Taxonomy – knowledge, comprehension and application. Learning is designed on upper levels of Blooms ’ – synthesis, analysis and evaluation (and include lower levels as curriculum is designed down from the top.) Textbook-driven Research-driven Passive learning Active Learning Learners work in isolation – classroom within 4 walls Learners work collaboratively with classmates and others around the world – the Global Classroom Teacher-centered: teacher is center of attention and provider of information Student-centered: teacher is facilitator/coach Little to no student freedom Great deal of student freedom “ Discipline problems – educators do not trust students and vice versa. No student motivation. No “discipline problems” – students and teaches have mutually respectful relationship as co-learners; students are highly motivated. Fragmented curriculum Integrated and Interdisciplinary curriculum Grades averaged Grades based on what was learned Low expectations High expectations – “If it isn’t good it isn’t done.” We expect, and ensure, that all students succeed in learning at high levels. Some may go higher – we get out of their way to let them do that. Teacher is judge. No one else sees student work. Self, Peer and Other assessments. Public audience, authentic assessments. Curriculum/School is irrelevant and meaningless to the students. Curriculum is connected to students ’ interests, experiences, talents and the real world. Print is the primary vehicle of learning and assessment. Performances, projects and multiple forms of media are used for learning and assessment Diversity in students is ignored. Curriculum and instruction address student diversity Literacy is the 3 R ’s – reading, writing and math Multiple literacies of the 21 st century – aligned to living and working in a globalized new millennium. Factory model, based upon the needs of employers for the Industrial Age of the 19th century. Scientific management. Global model, based upon the needs of a globalized, high-tech society. Driven by the NCLB and standardized testing mania. Standardized testing has its place. Education is not driven by the NCLB and standardized testing mania.
Sadly, the paradigm for teaching and learning depicted by the black and white image from the previous slide still exists. Now don ’t misunderstand what I’m saying about that perspective: Sometimes, it is very appropriate to create an environment where students are required to listen to a lecture and take notes. The concern we all have is when that happens ALL THE TIME, hence the quote here.
So – to being our exploration of 21 st century skills, let ’s identify what you already know about them. For this part of our journey today, let’s imagine that we have returned to that classroom, and we have the opportunity to alter history. We’ve travelled back in time thanks to some awesome open source software and hardware. Our mission, as educators from the future, is to revamp the perspective on this classroom as described here, using a 21 st century perspective that we possess as time travelers from the future.
It ’s clear that you already possess great insight into the 21 st century classroom. But how do you make sense of all of the information available to us? Where does one begin? How can you distill the vast sources of information, coming from every direction? For the rest of our time together, I want to share with you the results of my distillation process for making sense of 21 st century teaching and learning. No matter your current professional skills, knowledge or disposition, I would like to take some time with you to help make sense of it all, while retaining the potency of intent of this distillation process.
Use information and communication technologies to support more active approaches to student learning Support learning activities that extend outside face-to-face sessions Assist students in being better prepared for face-to-face sessions Images: http://www.masternewmedia.org/images/web_conferencing_main-300.jpg – web conference http://www.geo.msu.edu/qlrg/GEO408students.JPG - collaboration http://www.math.hope.edu/REU/classroom.jpg - better prepared for face-to-face
The cognitivist paradigm essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). A response to behaviorism, people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking. Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective. (Gloria Gery)An electronic performance support system can also be described as any computer software program or component that improves employee performance by reducing the complexity or number of steps required to perform a task, providing the performance information an employee needs to perform a task, or providing a decision support system that enables an employee to identify the action that is appropriate for a particular set of conditions.
Teaching and learning activities fall into four areas: Dissemination Discussion Discovery Demonstration
Traditional classroom materials/resources Classroom based audio-tape resources (language laboratories);Auditorium multimedia visual resources (movie projectors, slideshows, VCRs); Textual resources: textbooks, exercise books (although these are obviously the mainstay of traditional school educational resources, they are actually a neglected and under-valued potential component of e-learning-based blended learning); Home-learning resources (video recordings, audio recordings) Blackboard and whiteboard resources, including high-tech "printing whiteboards" and "online whiteboards"; Demonstration resources, including "museum exhibits", "laboratory experiments", live theatre, historic re-enactment, hands-on workshops, role-playing, etc; Non-instructional education resources, such as examination, quizzes, invigilation, test-grading, etc.
Identify learning goals Make pedagogical decisions about those goals Orchestrate learning activities Create and align assessments Identify tools and resources, including technology
Dan Kelo This table reflects prominent ideas of how young people are using technology today. It was created to draw attention to the distinction between technology use by today ’s learners versus that of digital immigrants. But we all know that you must own these devices and/or have access to them to use them in these ways. We know that not all students own these devices, and even those who do may not use them in the same way. Again, this table was created to draw attention to differences in technology use. [Advance to display warning.] My fear is that with all the hype around the concept of digital natives, we may have lost sight of the fact that some of our students are more “native” than others.
Bobby Exploring technology is like using the dictionary to look up a word and getting lost in new words. It's continuing learning and letting them explore Brown (1997) suggests that for effective instruction of people who think differently than we do, we must be able to step outside of our personal experiences and into the world of the learner. We must be able to engage the learner to make a commitment to learn. To do this with digital minds we do not necessarily have to involve devices (though it helps). What we do have to do is to accept some of their life experiences.
In general, the fusion of the three Rs (reading, writing and mathematics) and four Cs (critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration and creativity and innovation – also connect, communicate, collaborate, and create See hard-copy document from P21 website: MILE Guide – See “Pubications” from Tools and Resources menu
That membership is age-based, i.e., Digital Natives were born after 1981 versus Digital Immigrants who were born presumably before that date That Natives possess broader technical skills and knowledge than previous generations That Natives possess depth of knowledge within any given technical area That Natives are good at multi-tasking That Digital Immigrants are not as adept with technology use as Here are some of the expectations of today ’s learners. Note that we call them “Today’s Learners” rather than “Digital Natives”… Driven by popular culture and peer osmosis Rapidity: They want it now All about instant gratification Participate and act rather than sit and listen Prefer random access Demand high availability Uncomfortable with boundaries Expect to be able to remix Expect to be allowed to multitask Expectations are driven by popular culture and peer osmosis: thus more universal among members of pre-1981 set than technological familiarity. In other words, there is no "skill acquisition" period with respect to expectations, or any effort required. Much of this comes from Prensky's original article, and here I believe he is largely correct. Culturally-infused ideas Rapidity: They want it now, and have a short attention span, though their attention spans are much longer for games and activities that they want to engage in They prefer random access to information, (like hypertext) rather than serial/sequential They thrive on instant gratification and immediate rewards Involvement: They expect to be able to participate and act rather than sit and listen They demand high availability: They have a low tolerance for downtime Uncomfortable with boundaries such as copyright law
Cannot assume that school knowledge transfers outside Those adept with new technologies discover new ways of using them Prior knowledge affects transfer Cannot assume that transfer is occurring between domains Evidence of transfer between technical realms We cannot assume that just because today's learners are actively using smartphones, etc., that knowledge learned in school will transfer to the use of these devices unless the devices are employed in the classroom Learners who are adept at using new technologies can discover unique and different ways of using them Prior knowledge affects transfer, and expectations We cannot assume that transfer is occurring between skills gained by learning and performing common technical tasks and other domains However, there is evidence of transfer of understanding between technical realms In the discussion below we explore key characteristics of learning and transfer that have important implications for education: Initial learning is necessary for transfer, and a considerable amount is known about the kinds of learning experiences that support transfer. Knowledge that is overly contextualized can reduce transfer; abstract representations of knowledge can help promote transfer. Transfer is best viewed as an active, dynamic process rather than a passive end-product of a particular set of learning experiences. All new learning involves transfer based on previous learning, and this fact has important implications for the design of instruction that helps students learn. However, many of these studies failed to assess the degree to which LOGO was learned in the first place (see Klahr and Carver, 1988; Littlefield et al., 1988). When initial learning was assessed, it was found that students often had not learned enough about LOGO to provide a basis for transfer. Subsequent studies began to pay more attention to student learning, and they did find transfer to related tasks (Klahr and Carver, 1988; Littlefield et al., 1988). Other research studies have shown that additional qualities of initial learning affect transfer and are reviewed next.
Ecosystem problem-solving (5 th grade science) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/3451 Vietnam waterways: Ecology and conservation (6-8 Interdisciplinary unit) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4222 Post-EOG Activities: Student Products (7th Grade Mathematics) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/3006 Opening a Hispanic Restaurant (9-12 Second Languages) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/2811 Turning the Century (9-12 Social Studies) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/3758
This John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Report is a redaction of the argument in our book-in-progress, currently titled The Future of Thinking: Learning Institutions in a Digital Age. That book, to be published in 2010, is merely the concrete (paper and online) manifestation and culmination of a long, complex process that brought together dozens of collaborators, face to face and virtually. The focus of all of this intense interchange was the shape and future of learning institutions.
He has also been described in the Financial Times as the "world's most famous futurologist".
Digital transition8.28.12 final
Empowering Digital Transitions in Schools Presented by Bobby Hobgood, Ed.D. Research Associate, The Friday Institute Community Manager, EpicEd.org Monday, August 27, 2012
August is Connected Educator Month Check out all the activities at http://connectededucators.org Follow the hashtag #CE12 Follow @edWebnet on Twitter for info on all of our events!
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Empowering Digital Transition in SchoolsBobby Hobgood, Ed.D.Research AssociateThe Friday Institute for Educational InnovationCommunity Manager – epiced.org
The watching skills curriculum Traditionally.. “Children go to school to watch teachers work.”
Learning makeoverTime-based Outcome-based Fragmented Integrated and curriculum interdisciplinary curriculumFocus: Memorization Print as primaryof discrete facts form of learning and assessmentLesson focus mostly Teacher as judge –on lower-level no one else seesBloom’s student workTextbook driven Grades are averagedPassive learning Diversity in students is ignoredLearners work in Curriculum isisolation within 4 irrelevant &walls meaningless to studentsTeacher-centered Literacies in 3 R’sLittle student agency Driven by NCLB and
Learning makeoverTime-based Outcome-based Fragmented Integrated and curriculum interdisciplinary curriculumFocus: Memorization Focus: What students Print as primary form Performance, projects,of discrete facts know, can do, and are of learning and and media used for like when details are assessment learning and assessment forgottenLesson focus mostly Learning designed Teacher as judge – Self, peer and otheron lower-level across Bloom’s no one else sees assessments – audienceBloom’s student work expands to othersTextbook driven Research-driven Grades are averaged Grades based on what was learnedPassive learning Students responsible for Diversity in students Curriculum capitalizes on their learning is ignored student diversityLearners work in Learners collaborate with Curriculum is Curriculum connected toisolation within 4 others locally and irrelevant & student interest,walls globally meaningless to experiences, talents, and students backgroundTeacher-centered Student-centered Literacies in 3 R’s Multiple literaciesLittle student agency Tremendous amount of Driven by NCLB and While observed, does freedom standardized tests not limit learning
Distillation. . . of information Distance from Bobby’s childhood home = 3.5 mi Image courtesy of Google Maps
Brace yourself: This is not new16th century 1911Italian Stanford Ed School Deanarchitectural says adapt to real life and 1918 1950’seducation student needs Project Method Life Adjustment Movement 18 century 1916 1920’s-30’s 1980’s engineering education Report - Students Activity Movement Outcome-based in France should “learn by Education doing”
Major aims of blended learningImage sources:http://www.masternewmedia.org/images/web_conferencing_main-300.jpg – web conferencehttp://www.geo.msu.edu/qlrg/GEO408students.JPG - collaborationhttp://www.math.hope.edu/REU/classroom.jpg - better prepared for face-to-face
A blending oflearning theories Source: http://knowledgenet.com/pdf/Blended%20Learning%20Design_1028.PDF
Decision Componentsfor Blended Learning What do I know about my learners? What learning What do I want activity would learners to be be best able to do? accomplished by which delivery method? Decision Components Are there What other issues any barriers to unique to this technology-based context should I delivery? consider? Is the organization ready and supportive of blended options? Image source: http://www.psice.com/featured/blended-learning.html 31
A library of implementation guides, resources, toolsand instructional materials featuresExemplar videos, podcasts, and virtual visitsto ubiquitous computing environmentsAn ongoing Calendar of Events of synchronous andasynchronous presentations and discussionsOngoing discussions among community subgroups, e.g.,discussions by district leaders on developing implementationplansProfessional networking opportunities to both connect withand mentor community membersLeadership opportunities for community members tolearn and lead in the community
Ask a colleague for recommendationsIdentify one person/organization to followBegin with a single social media toolContribute after you’ve read a number of postsLocate an online community of practice
Collaborate and tweak resources to deepen your knowledge, skills, and dispositionshttp://www.lkl.ac.uk/ltu/files/TechnoTaster/Collaboration%20Tools/Collaboration%20Tools.jpg
Technology, we insist, is not whatconstitutes the revolutionary nature of thisexciting moment.It is, rather, the potential for shared andinteractive learning that Tim Berners-Leeand other pioneers of the Internet built intoits structure, its organization, its model ofgovernance and sustainability.
The illiterates of the 21st century will not bethose who cannot read and writebutthose who cannot learn, unlearn, andrelearn.