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Transcript

  • 1. Scientific Method
  • 2. What is Science?
    • Observation, identification, description, and explanation of phenomena (occurrences in the world around us)
    • Latin root for the word science is scientia meaning knowledge
    • Through study of science
      • Ask Questions
      • Develop Hypothesis (educated guesses)
      • Design and Carry out Experiments
      • Gain a Better Understanding of the Universe
  • 3. Scientific Method
    • Procedure for studying nature
    • Consists of several steps
      • Make an observation
      • Ask questions
      • Form the hypothesis
      • Set up an experiment
      • Collect the data
      • Draw a conclusion
      • Make a prediction
  • 4. Making Observations and Defining the Problem
    • Observations are made by using the five senses (sight, touch, smell, sound, and taste) to obtain information
    • Making observations may lead to identifying problems
  • 5. Asking Questions
    • By asking questions we can search for logical explanations of what we observe and find ways to solve problems
  • 6. Sample Experiment
    • Asked to observe marine snail behavior in an aquarium
    • Tank contains several snails at one end and a mussel (food) at the other end
    • Observe snails climbing the aquarium and swarming all over the food
    • What is the problem?
  • 7. Forming the Hypothesis
    • After observing and asking questions we can form an opinion about how or why something happens
    • Hypothesis – statement that gives the best possible response to the question
      • Based on already known facts
      • Educated Guess
  • 8. Setting Up the Experiment
    • Should give accurate and measureable results
    • Should be designed to collect information
    • Goal is to prove or disprove a hypothesis
    • Set up to examine only one condition (variable) at a time to give meaningful data
  • 9. Sample Experiment
    • Materials:
      • Aquarium
      • Food
      • Seawater
      • Graduated cylinder
      • Snails
      • Metric ruler
  • 10. Sample Experiment
  • 11. Sample Experiment
  • 12. Experimental Variables
    • Independent Variable – factor that is changed or manipulated during an experiment in order to determine the effect of the change
    • Dependent Variable – the factor that the experimenter is measuring or counting
      • Changes in response to the independent variable
    • Control Variable – all other factors in an experiment
      • Things that the investigator attempts to control
      • Goal is to keep them the same for all samples
  • 13. Experimental Groups
    • Control Group
    • Variable (Experimental) Groups
  • 14. Collecting Data
    • Gathered from observations and measurements taken during an experiment
    • Qualitative Data – information that cannot be assigned a numerical value
      • Usually collected using the five senses
    • Quantitative Data - anything that can be expressed as a number or quantified
      • Include lengths, weights, masses, volumes, time, anything expressed as a number
    • Observations must be recorded
  • 15. Organizing Data
  • 16. Organizing Data
  • 17. Draw Conclusion
    • Based on data
    • Support hypothesis
    • Snails move faster in the presence of food