2012 04-19 liga terezin- idan ofer

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Ofer Idan, Ashqelon, Israel, wrote about LIGA TEREZIN, Peter Erben's life and more topics, for Holocaust Memorial Day 2012

Ofer Idan, Ashqelon, Israel, wrote about LIGA TEREZIN, Peter Erben's life and more topics, for Holocaust Memorial Day 2012

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  • 1. Idan.ofer@gmail.com1
  • 2. HANS MUNK, THE PAINTERIn the crowd, among the watchers, there was also A SPECIAL MUSEUM:a painter who was a jewish guard. Only in the lateeighties, one of his paintings made its way to the MEIR SHAMIR IN THE MOSHAVA MUZEUMhands of PETER EISENBERG, a player in thatmatch who survived. In the same match, thegermans shot a propaganda film. Peter, Thesurvivor, was in Petach Tikva in the opening ofthe museum. Amazingly, the painting and theremains of the film show the same moments inthe game. Watch for yourselves.THE LEFT BACKPETER WAS AN ATHLET LONG BEFORE THE WAR.THATS WHY HE JOINED ONE OF THE GROUPS INTEREZIN. IN THE FILM YOU CAN SEE HIM RUNNINGAFTER THE BALL, WITH BANDANA ON HIS HEAD. INASHKELON TODAY HE IS KNOWN AS PETER ERBEN.ONE OF THE LAST FOOTBALL PLAYERS WHO ARE ON FEBRUARY 6TH, 2012, MEIR SHAMIR DEDICATEDSTILL ALIVE TODAY FROM TEREZIN. HIS PRIVATE VIP SUITE IN "HAMOSHAVA STADIUM" IN PETACH TIKVA AS A SPECIAL MUSEUM FORINSTEAD OF WRITING ABOUT THE TEREZIN GHETTO. HE DID IT IN ORDER TO HONORHOLLOCAUST AND 6,000,000 VICTIMS, I AND REMEMBER THE JEWISH FOOTBALL LEAGUEDECIDED TO WRITE ABOUT GHETTO IN TEREZIN, WHICH WAS MEANT TO BE A SHOW-OFFTHERESIENSTADT. A RESULT OF WHAT FOR THE WORLD. I WAS TOUCHED BY MEIRS GESTURE. THIS SPECIAL BULLETIN IS MY ANSWERI SAW IN THE NEW STADIUM IN P.T. TO HIS DEED.THE PAINTINGS ON FIRST AND LASTPAGES WERE DRAWN BY PRISONERSIN TEREZIN. THE MISSING FILMTHE FALL OF WARSAW GHETTO THE NAZIS DECIDED TO MAKE A MOVIE ABOUT THETHE ANNUAL MEMORIAL DAY FOR THE VIVID LIFE IN TEREZIN. ONLYHOLLOCAUST IN ISRAEL IS THE DATE SHORT PARTS WEREWHEN THE SIEGE STARTED IN DISCOVERED. MOST OF THE PEOPLE SHOWN IN THEWARSAw, TOWARD THE END OF THE MOVIE WERE KILLED,HEROIC UPRISING AGAINST THE NAZIS. INCLUDING THE DIRECTORKIBBUTZ YAD MORDECHAY WAS WHO NEVER HAD A CHANCENAMAED AFTER THE LEADER – TO SEE IT EDITTED. IN THEMORDECHAY ANILEVICH. NEW MUSEUM YOU CAN SEE 3.5 MINUTES OF THATTHIS IS THE DAY I ISSUE THIS SPECIAL MATCH. ALSO IN BEITBULLETIN. TEREZIN. 2
  • 3. STORY OF A PHOTO FROM THERESIENSTADT GHETTO BY ODED BREDAI WANT TO TELL YOU ABOUT A LONG SPECIAL JOURNEY I HAVE MADE, IN ORDER TO FIND THESOURCE OF THIS PICTURE. I HAD A VISITOR FROM CHILE WHO CLAIMED THAT THE MAN, WITH THEWHITE SHIRT, WAS PAVEL BREDA, THE BROTHER OF MY FATHER. THE OLD PIECE OF NEWSPAPERWAS A SURPRISE. LET ALONE A SHOCK: WHO CAN BELIEVE THAT JEWS WERE PLAYING FOOTBALLIN A GHETTO??? WAS IT A SUMMER CAMP?IN JUNE 1944, THE NAZIS DECIDED THEY HAD TO SHOW THE WORLD THAT ALL THE RUMUORSABOUT CONCENTRATION CAMPS WERE ONLY PROPAGANDA OF THE ALLIED COUNTRIES AND THEJEWS. THEY PREPARED TEREZIN FOR THE VISIT OF THE RED CROSS AND 2 MONTH LATER FOR THEFILM, WHICH WAS DIRECTED BY THE JEWISH DIRECTOR KURT GERRON, WHO WAS SENT TOAUSCHWITZ, RIGHT AFTER THE FILMING.IN THE FILM, THEY SHOWED THE JEWS IN TEREZIN. PROPERLY DRESSED, SPENDING TIME INCOFFEE SHOPS, THEATERS, LIBRARIES, CONCERTS ETC. BEFORE FILMING, THEY REDUCED THEPOPULATION BY SENDING PEOPLE "TO THE EAST", MEANINGLY: EXTERMINATION.SURPRISINGLY, LIGA TEREZIN EXISTED 3 YEARS, WITH 12 GROUPS. IN THE COURTYARD CALLED"DRESDEN". IT WAS ORGANIZED BY THE LEGENDARY FREDY HIRSCH WHO WAS SUPPOSED TO BEPART OF THE GERMAN OLYMPIC TEAM, IN 1936. HE WAS KICKED OUT, OF COURSE. IN "YADVASHEM", IN JERUSALEM, THERE IS A SPECIAL MEMORIAL EXHIBIT IN HIS HONOR.IN LIGA TEREZIN, THERE WERE PLAYING GROUPS WITH NAMES CONNECTED TO THEIR WORKINGPLACES: THE COOKS, THE BUTCHERS, CLOTHS WAREHOUSE ETC. SOME GROUPS HAD NAMES OFFORMER TRADITIONAL JEWISH TEAMS LIKE "MACCABI", "HAGIBOR" AND EVEN "HAKOACH VIENNA".ON THE NEXT PAGE YOU CAN SEE A LEAGUE-TABLE FOR EXAMPLE: 3
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  • 5. IT WAS HARD TO BELIEVE THAT IT WAS MY UNCLE IN THE PICTURE. HIS LAST PHOTO I KNEW WASFROM 1939, WHEN HE WAS 15 YEARS OLD. WE ALL KNOW HOW WE CHANGE FROM 15 TO 20, THEAGE HE WAS WHEN HE WAS IN GHETTO THERESIENSTADT. BUT, CAN YOU REALLY IDENTIFY AMEMBER OF YOUR FAMILY? IS IT NOT ONLY A WISH OF YOUR HEART? WE ALL REMEMBER THEFAMOUS PHOTO OF THE JEWISH CHILD, WITH HIS ARMS IN THE AIR IN THE GHETTO, FACINGGERMAN RIFLES. 9 DIFFERENT PEOPLE IDENTIFIED THEMSELVES IN THAT PHOTO AS THAT CHILD.FOR MANY YEARS, THERE WAS NO ANSWER TO MY QUESTION. MEANWHILE, THE MOVIE WASSHOWN IN "PILLAR OF FIRE" [AMUD HAESH] AND WE WERE ABLE TO SEE THE PLAYERS FOR FEWSECONDS IN THE MATCH IN TEREZIN. I KEPT THIS SHORT VIDEO ON MY PC FOR YEARS, OFCOURSE.IN 2005, THERE WAS A STORY IN ISRAEL CHANNAL 5, ABOUT LIGA TEREZIN. THEN I REALIZED THATTHERE IS A PLAYER ALIVE FROM THE SAME TEAM, PETER ERBEN FROM ASHKELON, I WENT TO SEEHIM. PETER CONFIRMED THE STORY OF MY UNCLE, ASKING ME TO READ HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHICBOOK "IN MY OWN PATH". THERE, ON PAGE 65, PETER TELLS ABOUT THE GAME WHICH WASFILMED, ABOUT THE TEAMS, AND I FROZE: PETER AND MY UNCLE – PAVEL BREDA - WEREDEFENDING THE GAUL TOGETHER. THE CIRCLE WAS CLOSED. I FINALLY FOUND MY UNCLE, NOMORE NO LESS – IN MY FAVORITE HOBBY - FOOTBALL.IF YOU WANT TO KNOW WHAT HAPPENED TO MY UNCLE, THE DETAILS ARE WELL DOCUMENTED. HEWAS TRANSPORTED TO AUSCHWITZ IN TRANSPORT EL-72 ON 29.9.1944. THE MATCH IN TEREZINWAS PROBABLY THE LAST HE EVER TOOK PART IN. THE SHOW WAS OVER. ON 8.5.1945 19,000SURVIVORS IN TEREZIN WERE LIBERATED, REMAINS OF 160,000 WHO PASSED THROUGH.MY FATHER, MOSHE, CAME FROM BRNO, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, WITH "ALIYAT HANOAR", IN JANUARY1940. HE JOINED THE BRITISH ARMY AND FOUGHT IN EUROPE. LATER, HE TOOK PART IN THE WAROF INDEPENDENCE, SERVING 26 YEARS MORE IN THE IDF. HE ALWAYS TOOK ME WITH HIM TOWATCH FOOTBALL MATCHES. WHERE I WAS INFECTED WITH THIS HOBBY.I DEDICATE THIS ARTICLE TO MY UNCLE, ON THE MEMORIAL DAY, TO MY UNCLE PAVEL BREDAWHOM I HAVE NEVER KNOWN. ODED BREDA DIRECTOR OF BEIT TEREZIN PETER AND ODED 6/2/2012 5
  • 6. THE MAN WHO SURVIVED 5 CAMPSHE ONLY ASKED ME TO JOIN HIM TO THECEREMONY. WE DID NOT KNOW WHAT WASWAITING FOR US. IN ASHKELON HE IS AWELL KNOWN CONTRACTOR. STRONG ANDOPTIMISTIC. IN THERESIENSTADT,AUSCHWITZ, BIRKENAU, MAUTHAUSEN ANDGUSEN HE WAS ONLY A NUMBER: B 11033. PETER PLAYING IN TEREZINSINCE THAT WAR HIS NAME IS PETER ERBEN. HANS MUNKS DRAWINGHE SURVIVED TEREZIN THANKS TO FREDY DRAWING FROM TEREZINHIRSCH WHO GAVE HIM A JOB IN THEGHETTO. FREDIE DIDNT MAKE IT, PETER PETER DID NOT KNOW THAT HANSDID. THE FOOTBALL WAS ANOTHER WAY MUNK DREW THE PICTURE YOUOF SURVIVING. IN AUSCHWITZ, HIS SEE ON THE RIGHT. MUNK GAVEOCCUPATIONAL TRAINING SAVED HIM. IT HIS WORK TO HIS WIFE AND WASWAS THE SAME IN MAUTHAUSEN. PETER SENT TO AUSCHWITZ. HIS SON GOTBELIEVES IT WAS SIMPLY LUCK. IT ALL AND HID IT IN THE ATTICK, NOT KNOWING WHAT HE HID. AS AAFTER THE WAR, PETER MET EVA LEWIT. SUCCESSFUL PILOTE HE NEVER 62/2/02/THE LAST TIME THEY MET WAS WEN SHE GAVE IT TIME AND THOUGHT. INWAS 12. NOW HE TOOK HER FROM THE THE EIGHTIES HE DECIDED TOORPHANAGE WHERE SHE WAS STAYING. CHECK THE TREASURE. HE CALLEDNEVER SEPERATED AGAIN. THEY GOT PETER AND GAVE HIM THE PICTURE. THIS PICTURE IS THEMARRIED IN PARIS, CAME TO ISRAEL AND COVER OF PETERS BOOK. YOUTHEY LIVE IN ASHKELON SINCE 1951. CAN SEE THE SAME MOMENT OF PETER WITH EHUD ULMERTPETER WROTE 2 BOOKS ABOUT HIS LIFE. THE GAME IN THE NAZI FILM.THE FIRST IS ABOUT HIS LIFE IN EUROPEAND THE SECOND ABOUT HIS NEW LIFE. IN THE MOSHAVA STADIUM ON THE RIGHT YOU CAN ALSO SEEHIS WIFE, EVA, WROTE A BOOK OF HER 2 OF THE GUESTS WHO CAME TOOWN ABOUT THE "DEATH MARCH" IN THE CEREMONY IN PETACH TIKVA.WHICH SHE TOOK PART. SHE IS THE LAST ALL THE PEOPLE THERE WERESURVIVOR OF THAT MARCH AND SHE IS PROUD TO MEET A PLAYER WHOMINVITED TO LECTURE ABOUT IT ALL OVER THEY SEE IN THE FILM ANDTHE WORLD. SURVIVED – PETER ERBEN.EVA AND PETER HAVE THREE CHILDREN, THE COMBINATION OF A MODERN 62/2/02/DANIELA, ALON AN AMIR. NINE STADIUM AND A MEMORIALGRANDCHILDREN AND TEN GREAT MUSEUM FOR LIGA TEREZIN IS SO UNIQUE, SO I DECIDED TO TELL PETER AND FAMILY AT WORKGRANDCHILDREN. YOU ALL ABOUT IT. OFER IDAN ASHKELON 6 TH APRIL 19 . 2012
  • 7. MISTAKESOME PEOPLE THINK THAT TEREZIN WAS A RECREATION SUMMER DEATH NUMBERSCAMP. WHAT A MISTAKE. THE RESIDENTS NEVER KNEW THEY WEREWAITING FOR EAST-TRANSPORTS. CULTURAL ACTIVITIES WERE A DURING 3.5 YEARS, 163,200 PRISONERS INHABITTEDREFUGE FROM THE EMPTINESS AND THE NAZIS PREFERED IT THATWAY, RATHER THAN UPRISING WHICH NEVER CAME. THE LONG TEREZIN. IT WAS A TRANSFER STATION FORARTIFICIAL SILENCE WAS CUT FROM TIME TO TIME. THE VISIT OF THE EXTERMINATION AND THE RESIDENTS KNEW NOTHINGRED CROSS PRODUCED TOUGH REPORT. THE GERMANS PREPARED ABOUT IT. THEY WERE BROUGHT FROM BOHEMIA,A NEW VISIT. THIS TIME, THE TRACK OF THE VISIT WAS THOROUGHLYCHOSEN, NO ONE WAS ALLOWED TO TALK TO THE VISITORS. COFFEE MORAVIA, GERMANY, AUSTRIA, HOLLAND, DENMARK,SHOPS AND THEATERS WERE PART OF THE TOUR. A WELL DIRECTED SLOVAKIA, HUNGARY AND MORE PLACES.AND REFINED SHOW. THE PRODUCTION OF THE FILM WAS DECIDEDUPON ONLY BEFORE THE END OF THE WAR. THE PUBLIC AND 88,129 RESIDENTS WERE SENT TO DIE IN THE EAST BETWEENPLAYERS WERE DIRECTED HOW TO ACT ALL WAY LONG. YOU CAN 9.1.1942 AND 28.10.1944, INCLUDING THE FOOTBALLSEE PART OF PERSONAL EVIDENCE DOWN THIS PAGE. TEAMS. 35,217 RESIDENTS DIED IN TEREZIN FROM SICKNESS OR FATIGUE. ONLY 4,136 SURVIVORS REMAINED FROM THIS CAMP. KICKOFF THEATER IN THERESIENSTADTON OCTOBER 22ND. 2012, THERE WAS A A SPECIAL DAY WAS DEDICATED TO THE ARTS OF THE THEATER IN TEREZINMEMORIAL LEAGUE TOURNEMENT IN ISRAEL. IN YAD VASHEM, ON MARCH 15.3.2012.GUESTS ARRIVED FROM ENGLAND AND THE DAY WAS DIRECTED BY DR. BELLA GUTERMAN, THE HEAD OF THEARGENTINA ALSO. SPECIAL SHIRTS WERE INTRNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH OF HOLOCAUST IN YADPRINTED FOR THE OCCASION, WITH THE VASHEM.ORIGINAL NAMES OF TEAMS FROMTHERESIENSTADT. PART OF THEM – THE CZECH AMBASSDOR WAS A GUEST OF HONOR AND MANY SCHOLARSCHILDRENS LEAGUE, BECAUSE THEY ALSO AND WRITERS SPOKE ABOUT DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE THEATER INHAD THEIR TEAMS THERE. TEREZIN.PETER ERBEN WAS HONORED WITH THEKICKOFF. HIS NAME WAS PRINTED ON THESHIRT HE WAS GIVEN. WITH THE NAME OFHIS OLD GROUP.THE GAME WAS ORGANIZED BY MACCABIWHICH WAS ALSO REPRESENTED IN TEREZIN.GUESTS ON THAT DAY SAY THAT OF ALL THEIRVISITS TO ISRAEL AND MUSEUMS, THIS WASTHE MOST EXCITING. THE KICKOFF 7
  • 8. AMONG THE RESIDENTS OF THERESIENSTADT THERE WAS ALSO JACOV TZUR FROM KIBBUTZ NAAN. TODAY HE IS THE CHAIRMAN OF THE ASSOSSIATION OF SURVIVORS FROM THE LABOR CONCENTRATION CAMPS IN RAVENSBRüCK AND SACHSENHAUSEN. HE ALSO ATTENDED THE FOOTBALL GAME ON THAT DAY, IN TEREZIN. LIKE PETER, JACOV SURVIVED FEW CAMPS AND IMMIGRATED TO ISRAEL. HIS ARTICLE IS BROUGHT HERE WITH MUCH APPRECIATION AND NEEDS NO FURTHER EXPLANATION ABOUT THE NAZI POLICY BEHIND THE HORROR: ESTABLISHING FAMILIES CAMP FOR JEWS FROM TEREZIN IN BIRKENAUTHE THIRD REICH WAS AN UNREASONABLE PHENOMENON AND A FAMILY CAMP, IN THE AUSCHWITZ INFERNO,WAS UN BELIEVABLE. WHEN THE NAZIS WON THE REGIM IN GERMANY, IN 1933, OPRESSION OF THE JEWSSTARTED AND INCREASED STEP BY STEP. ON JANUARY 30TH. HITLER SAID IN THE REICHSTAG THAT IF THEINTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL JEWERY SUCCEEDS AGAIN TO INVOLVE THE WORLDS NATIONS IN A NEW WORLDWAR, THE RESULT WOULD BE THE EXTERMINATION OF THE JEWISH RACE IN EUROPE.AFTER THE DECLARATION OF WAR BY BRITAIN AND FRANCE, ON SEPTEMBER 3RD. 1939, THE HIGHEST SSCOMMANDER, REINHARD HEYDRICH, SENT A TELEGRAM TO THE COMMANDERS OF THE SECURITY POLICE,INCLUDING GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE POLICY CONCERNING JEWS IN OCCUPIED TERRITORIES:SECRECY MUST BE KEPT ABOUT THE FINAL PLAN. WE MUST DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE FINAL GAUL, WHICHMAY TAKE TIME, AND THE STAGES TOWARDS THAT GAUL, WHICH WILL BE ACHIEVED GRADUALLY.1.FIRST STEP – TO GATHER ALL JEWS IN BIG CITIES. MUST BE DONE QUICKLY.2.IN EVERY JEWISH COMMUNITY A LOCAL COUNCIL MUST BE SET FROM RABBIES AND LOCAL PUBLIC FIGURES.IN JUNE 1941, AFTER INVADING RUSSIAN TERRITORIES, GERMANS STARTED KILLING THE JEWS THEY MET. ITWAS ALSO DECIDED TO EXILE THE JEWS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE. KILLING WAS NOT SPOKEN YET, UNLIKE THERUSSIAN JEWS. THEY DECIDED TO START WITH JEWS FROM GERMANY AND THE PROTECTORAT, NAMELY –FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA, TO THE NEW TERRITORIES OF GERMANY IN POLAND. THUS, THEY COULD PLANSENDING THEM FURTHER TO THE EAST IN THE FOLLOWING SPRING.IN ADDITION TO ALL HIS TITLES, HEYDRICH GOT THE NOMINATION OF THE COMMISSIONAIR ON 27.9.1941[REPLACING HIM] IN FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA. HE WANTED TO EXILE ALL THE CZECH JEWS IN FEW WEEKS.FIRST – 5,000 PEOPLE FROM PRAGE TO LODGE. HIGH GERMAN OFFICIALS REFUSED TO GET MORE. THESOLUTION FOR A NEW PLACE WAS THERESIENSTADT. ABOUT WHICH THEY SPOKE BEFORE WITH ADOLPHEICHMAN [ON OCTOBER 23RD.] AS A POSSIBLE LODGE FOR THE ELDERLY JEWS FROM GERMANY AND AUSTRIA,AND FOR THOSE WHO HAD SPECIAL CONTACTS.BEFORE THE FIRST JEW ARRIVED IN TEREZIN, IN NOVEMBER 1941, THE GERMAN INSTITUTES DECIDED THATTHIS GHETTO WAS NOT MEANT FOR JEWS ONLY. IT WAS ALSO A TRANSIT STATION FOR THOSE WHO ARE SENTTO THE EAST. THERE WAS OBJECTION IN GERMANY TO EXILE JEWS WHO WERE MARRIED TO ARIANS ANDTHEIR FAMILIES. THE ARMY OBJECTED DEPORTATION OF WAR VETERANS AND HEROS FROM WW1. THERE WASALSO FEAR FROM DISAPPEARANCE OF DIFFERENT FAMOUS PEOPLE, PEOPLE WHO HAD CONNECTIONS WITHTHE REGIM ETC. THE PUBLIC DID NOT BELIEVE NOR THE STORY ABOUT JEWS BEING SENT TO THE EAST TOWORK , NEITHER THE STORY ABOUT SENDING OLD PEOPLE AND CHILDREN.THERE WAS A NEED TO SHOW THE PEOPLE THE "TRUTH". THE GERMANS NEEDED TO USEDECEPTION, FRAUD, CAMOUFLAGE AND DISINFORMATION ABOUT THE DESTINATIONS OF ALL JEWISHTRANSPORTS. THE GHETTO IN THERESIENSTADT WAS EXACTLY WHAT THEY USED FOR IT. 8
  • 9. TO THIS GHETTO THEY TRANSFERED OLD JEWS AND OLD WAR DECORATED VETERANS. IN WANNSEECONFERENCE, IN JANUARY 1942, HEYDRICH ANNOUNCED THAT IN THIS WAY THEY WILL AVOIDUNNECESSARY INTERFERING. THIS WAS A KEY SENTENCE TO COVER EXTERMINATING BY EVACUATING. FORMOST OLD GERMAN JEWS, TEREZIN WAS JUST A SHORT TRANSIT. HEYDRICH WAS KILLED BY CZECHPARATROORERS IN MAY 1942 AND HEINRICH HIMMLER STARTED SHOWING INTERES IN TEREZIN. EVERYTRASPORT FROM TEREZIN TO THE EAST HAD TO BE SPECIALLY SIGNED BY HIMMLER.IN HIS TRIAL, IN JERUSALEM, ADOLF EICHMAN DESCRIBED HIMMLERS RELATION TO TEREZIN VERY CLOSE TOHIS HEART. THE DECEPTION WENT ON, TILL THE END OF THE WAR, APRIL 21 ST. 1945!THE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS, NORBERT MASUR, VISITED THE HEAD OF THR SS INHIS HEADQUARTERS IN NORTH GERMANY. HIMMLER LIED TO HIM BY SAYING THAT HIS WISH WAS THAT ALLCAMPS WOULD BE LIKE TEREZIN. THIS CAMP WAS ESTABLISHED BY ME AND MY FRIEND HEYDRICH HE SAID.ON FEBRUARY 1ST. 1943, KALTENBRUNER WAS NOMINATED AS THE CHIEF OF THE SECURITY POLICE OF THETHIRD REICH, AS A SUCCESSOR OF HEYDRICH. ON THAT DAY HE WROTE A LONG MEMO TO HIMMLERDETAILING THE SITUATION IN TEREZIN. HE REQUESTED TO ALLOW THE EVACUATION OF 5,000 JEWS TOAUSCHWITZ. THE ANSWER WAS SENT ON FEBRUARY 16TH.:THE REICHSFüHRER SS DOES NOT WISH TO TRANSPORT JEWS FROM TEREZIN BECAUSE THIS MAY EFFECT THEPOLICY, THAT JEWS IN ELDERLYS GHETTO THERESIENSTADT MAY LIVE AND DIE PEACEFULLY. DURING THENEXT SEVEN MONTHS NO TRANSPORTS LEFT TEREZIN FOR THE EAST. MEANWHILE, EXTERMINATION IN THEEAST WENT ON WITHOUT INTERFERENCE. TEREZIN AND THE FAMILIES CAMP IN BIRKENAU – LATER –FULLFILLED THE ROLL OF COMOUFLAGE, DECEPTION, FRAUD AND DISINFORMATION.THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS WAS ONE OF THE FEW ORGANISATIONS WHICH HAD ACCESS TO GERMANOCCUPIED TERRITORIES, INCLUDING THEIR ALLIES. THEY ACHIEVED IMPORTANT INFORMATION AND HADSOME INFLUENCE ON GERMANY. THIS BECAME STRONGER IN FEBRUARY 1943, AFTER FAILURES INSTALINGRAD AND NORTH AFRICA. MANY GERMAN PRISONERS WERE CAPTIVATED BY THE ALLIES.THE SECRETARY OF THE JEWISH DEPARTMENT IN THE GERMAN FOREIGN OFFICE WROTE THAT THE RED CROSSMUST NOT SEARCH FOR JEWS OR TRANSFER INFORMATION ABOUT THEM.THE GERMAN LEADERSHIP CAME UP WITH AN IDEA TO PREPARE TEREZIN FOR VISITS OF THE RED CROSS. THEYUNDERSTOOD THAT THE STORY OF ELDERLYS GHETTO WAS NOT GOOD ENOUGH TO COVER ALL THE KILLINGSIN EASTERN EUROPE.IN JUNE 1943, THE SS FIRST SUGGESTED TO THE RED CROSS A VISIT TO TEREZIN. TO SEE HOW THEY TREAT THEJEWS IN HUMAN WAYS. THE VISIT TOOK PLACE ON 28.6.1943 AND THE REPORT WAS HORRIBLE. EICHMANWAS THE TOUR-GUIDE. BOMBING THE GERMAN CITIES BETWEEN JULY 25 TH. AND AUGUST 3RD. AFFECTED THEGHETTO IN TEREZIN. 40,000 PEOPLE WERE KILLED IN HAMBURG AND A SIMILAR NUMBER WERE INJURED. FEWGERMAN WOMEN, WHO WERE CHRISTIAN BUT HAD CHILDREN OF JEWISH FATHERS WHO WERE IN TEREZIN,ESCAPED TO TEREZIN, HOPING TO JOIN THE FATHERS. THE GATES WERE LOCKED AND THEY BELIEVED THAT THEALLIES WOULD NOT BOMB THIS GHETTO. IN BERLIN, [WHICH ALREADY SUFFERED SOME BOMBING], THEREWAS FEAR THAT MASSIVE BOMBING WAS ABOUT TO COME, LIKE IN HAMBURG. FOR THIS REASON, THE NAZISSTARTED MOVING THEIR CENTRAL ARCHIVES, OF THE SECURITY OF THE REICH, TO TEREZIN. THEY ORDERED TOCLEAR IMMEDIATELY 3 BARRACKS IN 36 HOURS AND TO SQUEEZE INSIDE THE GHETTO 6,422 JEWS. THAT WASWHY THE GHETTOS SPACE WAS DIMINISHED.KALTENBRUNER AND SS OFFICIALS, WHO ASKED, BETWEEN DECEMBER 1942 AND FEBRUARY 1943, FORSPECIAL PERMISSION TO RENEW THE TRANSPORTS FROM TEREZIN, REWNEWED THEIR REQUEST. THEYSHOWED THE DANGER OF PLAGUE AWAITING IN THE GHETTO DUE TO THE DENSITY, AND ADDED THAT INSUCH SITUATION THERE IS NO PLACE FOR NEW TOURS OF VISITORS. NOW HIMMLER AGREED TO EVACUATE5,000 JEWS, ADDING AN ORDER FOR SPECIAL RECEPTION OF THIS GROUP IN BIRKENAU, ANOUNCING INTEREZIN THAT THIS WAS A SPECIAL TRANSPORT FOR WORK. INDEED, WHEN THIS TRANSPORT ARRIVED IN BIRKENAU, 0N 8.9.1943, WITH 5,007 PEOPLE, EICHMAN WASTHERE TO SEE THAT HIMMLERS ORDER IS FULLFILLED. MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE PUT TOGETHER INTHE SAME CAMP. EICHMAN PROVIDED POSTCARDS WHICH WERE GIVEN TO ALL THE NEW RESIDENTS TO 9
  • 10. WRITE HOME, WHERE EVER THAT MIGHT BE, IN ALL GERMAN OCCUPIED TERRITORIES. ESPECIALLY TOTEREZIN. THE ADDRESS WAS WORKING CAMP, BIRKENAU… PEOPLE WERE PROMISED THAT THEY WOULD BEALLOWED TO RECEIVE PARCELS IN THE MAIL, A PROMISE WHICH WAS KEPT TO THE LETTER.ESTABLISHING FAMILIES CAMP AND MAIL SERVICES SERVED 3 GAULS:- THE RECIEVERS OF THE MAIL BELIEVED THAT THE SENDERS WERE IN A WORKING CAMP IN GERMANY,NOT IN POLAND OR AUSCHWITZ.-EVERYONE BELIEVED THE GERMAN AND CZECH JEWS WERE SENT FOR WORK, NOTHING ELSE.-THEY SUCCEEDED TO DECIEVE THE JEWS IN EUROPE, ESPECIALLY THOSE IN TEREZIN, IN 1943.IN DECEMBER 1943, 5,003 NEW RESIDENTS WERE SENT TO CAMP BIIb IN BIRKENAU FROM TEREZIN. ON7.3.1944, ALMOST ALL THE PEOPLE FROM THE TRANSPORT OF SEPTEMBER WERE MOVED TO CAMP BIIa NEARBY. THE DEPUTY COMMANDER CHOSE 40 MEN FROM CAMP BIId, WHO WERE KNOWN TO BE CRUEL, ANDMARCHED THEM TO CAMP BIIa. BEFORE 21.00H THE PRISONERS WERE FORCED INTO TRUCKS AND TO THEGAS CHAMBERS. IN MAY 1944 7,500 NEW PRISONERS WERE BROUGHT TO CAMP BIIb IN BIRKENAU.ALTOGETHER, 17,500 JEWS WERE SENT FROM TEREZIN TO BIRKENAU. AFTER THE VISIT OF THE RED CROSS, THENAZIS DID NOT NEED TO KEEP THE FAMILIES CAMP IN AUSCHWITZ. 3,500 PRISONERS SURVIVED THELIQUIDATION OF THE CAMP ON 13.7.1944. TILL THE END OF THE WAR, ABOUT 60% OF THEM DIED IN OTHERCAMPS OR DEATH PARADES. ONLY 1,400 SURVIVED TO SEE THE LIBERATION, IN MAY 1945. HELP NEEDED RECENTLY, A CZECH TV TEAM VISITED ISRAEL. FOR FURTHER DOCUMENTATION THEY NEED ARCHITECTS, ARTISTS, PHILOSOPERS, MDS ETC. WHO LIVED IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA DURING WWII AND LIVE IN ISRAEL TODAY PLEASE SEND DETAILS TO: PETER ERBEN P.O.BOX 5018 ASHKELON AS YOU UNDERSTAND, THE HOLOCAUST IS IMPORTANT TO ME. MY GRANDPARENTS – ELSE AND PAUL KUZMINSKI ‫הי"ד‬ FROM BERLIN – WERE MURDERED IN AUSCHWITZ. [photo on the right]. I RECIEVED MANY LETTERS TO MY E-MAIL BOX, TELLING ME THAT THE HOLOCAUST STUDIES WERE TAKEN OUT FROM THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN ENGLAND. I COULD NOT ACCEPT IT SIMPLY OR BELIEVE. SO I WROTE TO ENGLAND. THE ANSWER IS RIGHT HERE, ON THE NEXT PAGE. USE IT IF NECESSARY: 11
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  • 12. R REMEMBER!12