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  1. 1. Law of Employment  Law of Employment
  2. 2. Employment law Employment law • Contractual agreement of employment Contractual agreement of employment • Vicarious liability i i li bili • Health and safety at work
  3. 3. Contract of service Contract of service • Employee p y – An individual who has entered into or works under a  contract of employment • Contract of employment Contract of employment – A contract of service – Express or implied p p – Oral or in writing • Ferguson v John Dawan & Partner 1976 • Massey v Crown Life Assurance 1978    Pg 184
  4. 4. Employment and self employment Employment and self‐employment Page 188 – 189, UK. What are the differences between  g , employed and self‐employed In Singapore,  ‐ Employer contributes CPF to employee’s CPF account ‐ If If you are self‐employed, you may need to  contribute  lf l d dt t ib t CPF to your own account in order you can renew  license for your business y ‐ CPF money may be used for buying property ‐ Members can withdraw at the age of 55
  5. 5. Contract of service Contract of service • Contract of service Contract of service – Between employer and employee • Contract for service Contract for service – Between employer and independent contractor 
  6. 6. Employee s duties Employee’s duties • Fundamental duty of faithful service to employer y p y • Not to disclose trade secrete • Reasonably competence to do his job • Obedience to employer’s instruction • Duty to account for all money and property • Reasonable care and skill in the performance of  his work • The contract is a personal one employee can’t The contract is a personal one, employee can t  delegate his duties to someone else without  consent from employer                      Pg 192
  7. 7. Employer s duties Employer’s duties • Pay remuneration to employees remuneration to employees • Indemnify the employee against expenses and  losses incurred in the course of employment losses incurred in the course of employment • Provide health and safety at work • To provide work Pg 192
  8. 8. Employer s statutory Employer’s statutory duties • Pay • Time of work • Maternity leave Maternity leave • Work‐life balance • Health and safety H lth d f t • Working time Pg 193
  9. 9. Discuss • Explain the liability applicable to Explain the liability applicable to  – Employee – Employer
  10. 10. Termination of contract Termination of contract • Termination by notice Termination by – Period of notice • Statutory requirement; or • Contractual agreement • In Singapore – Common practice • One month notice for confirmed staff • 24 h 24 hours for staff under probationary  f ff d b i Pg 203
  11. 11. Types of termination Types of termination • Summary dismissal Su a y d s ssa – Termination without notice by employer when staff  committed serious breach of contract • Constructive dismissal – Termination without notice by employee when  employer committed a breach of contract employer committed a breach of contract • Wrongful dismissal – E g Shorter notice period E.g. Shorter notice period • Unfair dismissal – E g Terminate an employee who is pregnant E.g. Terminate an employee who is pregnant  
  12. 12. Vicarious liability • When an employee commits a tort, the employer may  be jointly liable with him under the principle of  vicarious liability • To make the employer liable for a tort of the employee, To make the employer liable for a tort of the employee,  it is necessary that: – There is a relationship between them of employer and  employees; and employees; and – The employee’s tort is committed in the course of his  employment • Employee remains liable as a joint tortfeasor Employee remains liable as a joint tortfeasor – and has an obligation to indemnify his employer  Pg 230
  13. 13. Health and Health and safety • Health and Safety At Work Act 1974 Health and Safety At Work Act 1974 – Securing the health, safety and welfare of persons  at work at work – Protect persons against risks to health and safety – Control explosive or highly flammable or Control explosive or highly flammable or  dangerous substances, prevent unlawful  p possession and use of such substances   Pg 251 g • Health and Safety regulations     Pg 254
  14. 14. General duties of employers   Pg 252 General duties of employers ‐ Pg 252 • Safe and without risks to health at plant and systems of  works • Safe and absence of risks to health in the use, handling,  storage and transport  storage and transport • Provide information, instruction, training and  supervision necessary to ensure safety and without  risks to health risks to health • Maintain places of work, and access to and from places  – ensure safe and without risks to health • Working environment is safe and without risks, has  adequate facilities and arrangements for employee  welfare at work
  15. 15. General duties of employees  Pg 253 General duties of employees – Pg 253 • To take reasonable care for the health and To take reasonable care for the health and  safety of himself and other persons who might  be affected by his acts or omissions at work be affected by his acts or omissions at work • C Co‐operate with employer to enable statutory  ih l bl duty or requirements (Related to health and  safety) to be performed or complied with f ) b f d li d i h
  16. 16. Duty of employees – Pg 253 of employees  Pg 253 • Employee has duty to three groups of people has duty to three groups of people – Himself – Oth Other people affected by his acts l ff t d b hi t – Hi employer His l
  17. 17. Health and Safety at Work Regulations Health and Safety at Work Regulations • Classification of hazards information and Classification of hazards, information and  packaging regulations 1999 • The confined space regulations 1997 The confined space regulations 1997 • The control of substances hazardous to health  regulations 1999 l i 1999 • …… • ….. Page 255 Page 255
  18. 18. Discuss • Assignment 2 Claim 2 Assignment 2 , Claim 2
  19. 19. • Explain liability (Duties) applicable to p y( ) pp – a staff? – an employer • Wh i i i What is vicarious liability?  li bili ? • What are the liabilities to the employer in the  health and safety of his employees? health and safety of his employees? • What legal action can the employee take against  employer based on information given in the  case?    • Relate to case