Everyday patterns in lifelong learners to build personal learning ecologies


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This article presents the results from a questionnaire filled out by 147 lifelong learners. The primary aim of the questionnaire is to analyse learning practices of adults, and to recognize patterns of lifelong learners in order to support them with technology. These patterns capture the context in which lifelong learners are more willing to learn, that is, the day of the week, duration, location, activity being performed, type of device being used, way to interact with their devices and how these aspects can affect when an adult student takes the initiative to learn. Moreover, this article examines previous publications on surveys, questionnaires and information collected with the same objective, to corroborate and contrast the findings. The contribution of this paper is identifying and describing patterns in which lifelong learners are more willing to build personal learning ecologies when supported by mobile devices.

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Everyday patterns in lifelong learners to build personal learning ecologies

  1. 1. Everyday patterns in lifelong learners to build personal learning ecologies Bernardo Tabuenca, Stefaan Ternier and Marcus Specht 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning October 2012, Helsinki (Finland) Open University of the Netherlands page 1
  2. 2. Contents   Problem definition •  Patterns based on type of Aim of the research learning activity Aim of this survey •  Patterns based on contents Working definitions •  Behaviour checking The experiment notifications •  Method •  Linking locations, activities in physical spaces •  Demographics Conclusions •  Lifelong learning References •  Type of mobile device •  Motivation •  Patterns based on type of devicepage 2
  3. 3. Problem definition The involvement of adults in lifelong learning activities in Europe has been decreasing between 2005 and 2010 (Eurostat, 2011). Lifelong learners are confronted with a broad range of activities they have to manage everyday: •  Learning •  Working •  Everyday life throughout the day Lifelong learning contexts: •  Traditional formal programs •  Non-formal education •  Informal learning •  Job trainingpage 3
  4. 4. Problem definition Wong L-H (2010) Identified ten seams by which learning experiences are disrupted: •  No support of informal and formal learning activities •  No support for learning activities across locations, devices and environoments. •  Lack of support for ubiquitous knowledge access. •  No suppport for multiple learning tasks and switching between them •  Linking learning activities with everyday life activities and the physical world objectspage 4
  5. 5. Aim of my research Development of integrated personal learning ecologies for efficient lifelong learning support. This research is focused on the combined and simultaneous use of several devices and information channels: 1.  Devices need to be aware about the other devices and interfaces that are present in the same setting. 2.  An underlying educational design needs to be defined in a way that it can make use of multiple interfaces or information channels. 3.  Interfaces must get appropriately integrated in order to facilitate seamless interaction in a personal learning ecology.page 5
  6. 6. Aim  of  this  survey   •  Identify patterns in which lifelong learners are more willing to build personal learning ecologies. •  Analyse learning practices in adults. Day of the week Duration Location Activity being performed Type of device being used Way to interact with mobile devices •  Contrast our results with previous publicationspage 6
  7. 7. Working  defini6ons  Learning “Taking the initiative to learn something actively. It can be related to work, current studies or self-fulfilment”Learning activity (Vavoula & Sharples 2002) “The distinct acts that the person carries out during reading, discussing, listening and making notes”Mobile device “regular phone, smartphone, tablet, multimedia player and laptop when used not always in the same place”Personal Learning Ecology “integrated information technology devices and objects that are present in the physical environment of learners and couples these devices and objects with learning activities”page 7
  8. 8. Method Topics of the questions: •  4 about demographicsAn introduction section was •  3 about mobile usage patternsincluded in order to explain theaim of the questionnaire and •  2 about how timing and content are relatedworking definitions •  7 questions linking activities, locations, and ways ofThe questionnaire is composed interaction with mobile devicesby 21 items: •  1 identifying difficulties when•  5 multiple choice questions learning with mobile devices,•  6 single select questions •  3 about motivation,•  9 matrix selection questions •  1 how familiar are they with•  1 open answer question the concept of lifelong learning Are we sharing the data? Yes!page 8 http://hdl.handle.net/1820/4296
  9. 9. Survey  demographics   100   100   90   86   90   80   80   70   70   61   60   60  #  lifelong  learners   #  lifelong  learners   50   50   50   43   40   40   30   30   27   20   20   14   13   10   10   0   0   0   Male   Female   <25   25-­‐34   35-­‐44   45-­‐54   55-­‐65   >65   Gender   Age  
  10. 10. Survey  demographics   100   99   %  lifelong  learners;  N=147   90   80   70  #  lifelong  learners   60   Computer  sciences   50   48   22%   27%   Engineering   Natural  sciences   40   2%   HumaniFes   5%   Business   30   8%   16%   Law   20   Medicine   11   10%   10%   10   Other   3   1   0   0   Profesional  Status   Profesional  domain  
  11. 11. Lifelong  learning  “All learning activity undertaken throughout life, with theaim of improving knowledge, skills and competenceswithin a personal, civic, social and/or employment-relatedperspective” European comission (2011) Do  you  consider  yourself  a  lifelong  learner?   100   90   78.3   80   70   60   50   40   30   21.7   20   10   0   No   Yes  
  12. 12. Type  of  mobile  device  The presence of mobile devices in lifelong learners’ dailyactivities is a fact:•  70.06% of the respondents use portable computers every day•  56.46% of the respondents use smartphones every day•  17.68% of the respondents use tablets on daily basis
  13. 13. Mo6va6on  to  learn  during  the  day   100   90   80  %  lifelong  learners;  n=147   70   60   50   40   30   20   10   0   00h  -­‐  06h   06h  -­‐  08h   08h  -­‐  10h   10h  -­‐  12h   12h  -­‐  16h   16h  -­‐  20h   20h  -­‐  00h  
  14. 14. Mo6va6on  to  learn  during  the  day   Smartphone  users   100   90   80  %  lifelong  learners;  n=147   70   60   50   40   30   20   10   0   00h  -­‐  06h   06h  -­‐  08h   08h  -­‐  10h   10h  -­‐  12h   12h  -­‐  16h   16h  -­‐  20h   20h  -­‐  00h   Lifelong  learners  that  do  not  use  smartphone  every  day   Lifelong  learners  that  use  smartphone  everyday  
  15. 15. Mo6va6on  to  learn  during  the  day   Tablet  users   100   90   80  %  lifelong  learners;  n=147   70   60   50   40   30   20   10   0   00h  -­‐  06h   06h  -­‐  08h   08h  -­‐  10h   10h  -­‐  12h   12h  -­‐  16h   16h  -­‐  20h   20h  -­‐  00h   Lifelonglearners  that  do  not  use  tablets   Lifelong  learners  that  use  tablets  
  16. 16. PaOerns  based  on  type  of    device  Hourly  device  usage  across  the  day   Eoff,  B.  D.  (2011)  
  17. 17. PaOerns  based  on  type  of    device  Daily  device  usage  across  the  week   Eoff,  B.  D.  (2011)  
  18. 18. Usage  of  smartphones  during  the  week   100   90   80  %  lifelong  learners;  n=147   70   60   50   40   30   20   10   0   Monday   Tuesday   Wednesday   Thursday   Friday   Saturday   Sunday   Non    smartphone  users   Smartphone  users   Tabuenca  B.,  Ternier  S.  and  Specht  M.  (2012)  
  19. 19. PaOerns  based  on  type  of  learning  ac6vity   100   90   80   70   Gaming  #  lifelong  learners   60   50   Listen   40   Read   30   Watch  videos   20   Write   10   0   0  mins   1  min   5  mins   30  mins   60  mins   More  than   60  mins  
  20. 20. PaOerns  based  on  type  of    content   Arbitron  M.  (2012)  
  21. 21. Behaviour  checking  no6fica6ons  Lopende  tekst    •  en  opsommingen    
  22. 22. Linking  loca6ons,  ac6vi6es  and  interac6ons  with   mobile  technologies  
  23. 23. Linking  loca6ons,  ac6vi6es  and  interac6ons  with  mobile   technologies.  Preferences  regarding  genders.  
  24. 24. Discussion  and  conclusions  1.  Portable  computers  are  the  most  used  type  of  device.    2.  Individuals  that  own  a  smartphone  reported  to  be   more  constantly  moFvated  to  learn  during  the  day  than   non-­‐smartphone  users.  3.  Individuals  that  own  smartphone  use  them  constantly   during  the  whole  week.  The  rest  of  the  individuals   reported  lower  usage  during  working  days  and  an   increase  during  the  weekends.  4.  “Listening”  is  the  most  compaFble  learning  acFvity   when  performing  other  tasks  at  the  same  Fme.  It  is  also   the  one  where  adults  spend  more  Fme  and  in  longer   Fme-­‐slots.  
  25. 25. Discussion  and  conclusions  5.  There  are  two  different  behaviours  when  adults  check  their   mobile  phone  for  a  new  SMS,  missed  call,  email  or  any  other   noFficaFon.  There  is  a  group  that  only  checks  incoming   noFficaFons  when  the  device  warns  them  with  an  alert.  There  is   another  group  that  check  it  conFnuously.    6.  There  is  an  associaFon  between  the  learning  acFvity  being   performed  (reading,  listening,  wriFng,  or  watching)  and  the   concrete  locaFon  where  it  takes  place.  7.  Learning  acFviFes  are  mainly  performed  when  adults  are  with   their  legs  stopped.   •  The  “reading”  and  “wriFng”  learning  acFviFes  mostly  take  place  being   sat  (sofa,  desk,  train,  bus  and  toilet)  or  lying  on  somewhere  (bed).     •  Si=ng  in  the  sofa  is  the  concrete  place  where  adults  reported  the   higher  acceptance  when  carrying  out  any  learning  acFvity.     •  However,  the  “listening”  learning  acFvity  that  takes  part  more  evenly   in  the  different  locaFons,  on-­‐the-­‐move  and  embedded  in  different   acFviFes.  
  26. 26. Discussion  and  conclusions  8.  Men  and  women  behave  in  a  differently  when  making   use  of  their  mobile  devices.  Not  only  in  the  way  to   perform  learning  acFviFes  depending  on  the  context,   but  also  in  the  way  to  adend  to  an  incoming   noFficaFon  on  their  mobile  phones.  9.  Lifelong  learners  reported  that  their  learning   experiences  are  disrupted.  Finding  a  suitable  Fme  slot   to  learn  during  the  day  is  the  most  frequent  difficulty   reported  by  parFcipants.    10. There  is  a  high  rate  of  individuals  that  are  not   familiarized  with  the  concept  of  “lifelong  learning”.  
  27. 27. Future  research   Evolving  and  maturing  the  “Ecology  of  Smart  Learning   Objects  Design  Framework”  with  empirical  data   Ecology  of  Resources.     Ambient  InformaFon  Channels  model.   Luckin  (2010)   Specht  (2009)  
  28. 28. References•  Arbitron, M. (2011). No prime time for Smartphone. Retrieved from http://www.zokem.com/2011/06/no-prime-time-for-smartphone•  Eoff, B. D. (2011). How We Use the Tools We Choose: A Week of Worldwide Usage Data. Retrieved from http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/does_your_device_change_the_way_you_use_info.php•  European C. (2011). Making a European area of lifelong learning reality. Retrieved from http:// www.bologna-berlin2003.de/pdf/MitteilungEng.pdf. Eurostat. (2011). Lifelong learning statistics. Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Lifelong_learning_statistics•  Eurostat. (2011). Lifelong Learning statistics. Report. Brussels: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Lifelong_learning_statistics•  Luckin, R. (2010). Re-Designing Learning Contexts: Technology-Rich, Learner-Centred Ecologies. Learning. Routledge.•  Specht, M. (2009). Learning in a Technology Enhanced World. Heerlen: Open University of the Netherlands. http://hdl.handle.net/1820/2034•  Tabuenca B., Ternier S., and Specht M. (2012). Orchestration of smart learning objects in a learner- centred ecology of resources. Heerlen: Open University of the Netherlands. (On review in Journal of Education, Technology & Society)•  Vavoula, G., & Sharples, M. (2002). KLeOS: A personal, mobile, Knowledge and Learning Organisation System. Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop On Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education•  Wong, L-H. (2010). What Seams do We Remove? - The Ten Dimensions of Mobile-assisted Seamless page 28 Learning. ICCE.
  29. 29. Questions? bernardo.tabuenca@ou.nl nl.linkedin.com/in/btabuenca @bernardtabuencapage 29