Microphones

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  • Microphones

    1. 1. Microphones:Design and Application 2009Created By:Brook Sutton
    2. 2. Introduction Microphone• first device in therecording chain• A transducer -converts one form ofenergy into another
    3. 3. Microphone Designs THREE TYPES OF MICROPHONES Dynamic Ribbon Condenser
    4. 4. DYNAMIC MICROPHONES ELECTROMAGNETICTHE DYNAMIC MICROPHONE INDUCTION whenever an electrically conductive metal cuts across the flux lines of a magnetic field, a current of a specific magnitude and direction will be generated within the metal
    5. 5. DYNAMIC MICROPHONES ELECTROMAGNETICTHE DYNAMIC MICROPHONE INDUCTION whenever an electrically conductive metal cuts across the flux lines of a magnetic field, a current of a specific magnitude and direction will be generated within the metal
    6. 6. RIBBON MICROPHONES ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION uses a corrugated thin aluminum diaphragm Very sensitive to sound pressure
    7. 7. RIBBON MICROPHONES ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION uses a corrugated thin aluminum diaphragm Very sensitive to sound pressure
    8. 8. CONDENSERMICROPHONES ELECTROSTATIC PRINCIPLE consists of two very thin plates - one moveable - one stationary acts like a capacitor - varying changes in voltage will occur as the plate moves back and forth
    9. 9. CONDENSERMICROPHONES ELECTROSTATIC PRINCIPLE consists of two very thin plates - one moveable - one stationary acts like a capacitor - varying changes in voltage will occur as the plate moves back and forth
    10. 10. MICROPHONESCHARACTERISTICS AND RESPONSE PATTERNS
    11. 11. DIRECTIONAL RESPONSE SOUND SOURCE“On-Axis” Sound source angles directly into diaphragm
    12. 12. OMNIDIRECTIONAL 900“polar pattern” show’s a mic’s sensitivity with o0 1800 respect to direction and frequency over 3600 2700
    13. 13. BIDIRECTIONAL 900“figure eight pattern” pressure gradient - the pickup is 00 1800 responsive to relative differences in pressure between the front, back, and sides of the 2700 diaphragm
    14. 14. OTHER DIRECTIONAL PATTERNSCARDIOID PATTERN Cardioid means "heart-shaped", which is the type of pick-up pattern these mics use. Sound is picked up mostly from the front, but to a lesser extent the sides as well.
    15. 15. OTHER DIRECTIONAL PATTERNSHYPER-CARDIOID PATTERNThis is exaggeratedversion of thecardioid pattern. It isvery directional andeliminates mostsound from thesides and rear.
    16. 16. MICROPHONESFrequency Response
    17. 17. FREQUENCY RESPONSE CURVEThe on-axis frequency-response curve refers tothe measurement of themicrophones output overthe audible frequencyrange.A microphone that isdesigned equally to allfrequencies is said toexhibit a flat frequency-response.
    18. 18. Rumble - high-level vibrations that occur at very lowfrequencies. (usually between 3 to 25 Hz) This phenomena can be avoided by using a “shock mount”, choosing a mic that restricts those frequencies, or by using a low frequency roll-off filterProximity Effect - This effect causes an increase in bassresponse whenever a directional mic is brought within 1foot of the sound source.
    19. 19. Transient Response - the measure of how quickly a mic’s diaphragm willreact when it is hit by an acoustic wave.Sensitivity Rating - the output level that a microphone will produce -microphones with a higher sensitivity rating will produce stronger outputsignalsEquivalent Noise Rating - a device’s electrical self-noise; often referred toas a hiss or humOverload Distortion - caused by extreme SPL levels. Most microphoneshave a maximum of 140 dB. Many microphones employ a pad whichreduces the microphones output thereby eliminating overload distortion.Impedence - output impedance is a rating used to match the output ofone device to the input of another device.
    20. 20. BALANCED/UNBALANCED LINESBalanced lines use threewires to carry the audio signal:two carry the signal voltage(positive and negative), oneacts as a shield or groundwire. Usually Low-Impedancedevices use this connection.Two Types of Connectors: TRS -(Tip Ring Sleeve) XLR -also known as Three Pin Connector
    21. 21. BALANCED/UNBALANCED LINESUnbalanced lines use two wires tocarry the audio signal: a single signallead carries the positive, a secondedgrounded shield completes thecircuits return path. Used by highimpedance and most line-leveldevices.Two Types of Connectors: TS -(Tip Sleeve) RCA - also known as a cinch plug or phono plug. Developed by the Radio Corporation of America in the 1940’s. Still in use today.
    22. 22. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
    23. 23. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
    24. 24. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
    25. 25. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
    26. 26. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
    27. 27. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
    28. 28. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
    29. 29. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
    30. 30. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
    31. 31. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
    32. 32. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
    33. 33. MICROPHONESTechniques
    34. 34. FOUR FUNDAMENTAL STYLESOF MICROPHONE PLACEMENT FOUR TYPES OF MICROPHONE PLACEMENT: Distant Close Accent Ambient
    35. 35. DISTANT MIKING It considered distant miking when the sound source is 3ft or more from the microphone. Most often used to pickup large instrument ensembles, add a live, open feeling to a recorded sound
    36. 36. CLOSE MIKING It considered close miking when the sound source is 1 inch to 3 ft from the microphone. Used to record a desired sound when other sounds are present simultaneously
    37. 37. ACCENT MIKING It considered accent miking when the microphone is used to enhance presence and volume for a solo instrument(s) among an ensemble or orchestra. Often difficult to blend in with a natural balance in recordings.
    38. 38. AMBIENT MIKING It considered ambient miking when the reverberant room is more prominent than the direct sound source. Often used in stereo recording, audience, a hall where a performance is being held, or in the same room as a sound source to create a sense of space.
    39. 39. MICROPHONESStereo Miking Techniques
    40. 40. STEREO MIKING TECHNIQUESStereo Miking refers to theuse of two microphones toproduce a coherent stereoimage.FOUR TECHNIQUES: Spaced Pair X/Y M/S Decca Tree
    41. 41. STEREO MIKING: SPACED PAIRSpaced Pair stereomiking refers to the use oftwo microphones placedin front of a sound sourcespaced anywhere from afew feet to 30 ft apart. Inthis configuration there isa strong potential forphase discrepancies.
    42. 42. STEREO MIKING: SPACED PAIRSpaced Pair stereomiking refers to the use oftwo microphones placedin front of a sound sourcespaced anywhere from afew feet to 30 ft apart. Inthis configuration there isa strong potential forphase discrepancies.
    43. 43. STEREO MIKING: X/YX/Y - stereo miking refers tothe use of two microphonesof the same brand and modelplaced with their grills closetogether generally between900 and 1350. Bothmicrophones are set topickup in a Cardioid polarpattern. (very commontechnique)
    44. 44. STEREO MIKING: X/YX/Y - stereo miking refers tothe use of two microphonesof the same brand and modelplaced with their grills closetogether generally between900 and 1350. Bothmicrophones are set topickup in a Cardioid polarpattern. (very commontechnique)
    45. 45. STEREO MIKING: X/YX/Y - stereo miking refers tothe use of two microphonesof the same brand and modelplaced with their grills closetogether generally between900 and 1350. Bothmicrophones are set topickup in a Cardioid polarpattern. (very commontechnique)
    46. 46. STEREO MIKING: M/SM/S- (mid-side) stereo mikingutilizes two microphones withdifferent polar patterns. Similarto X/Y with the exception thatone microphone is set to a Bi-Directional polar pattern angled90º toward the soundsources. The frontmicrophone is set to a Cardioidpolar pattern and is angleddirectly at the sound source.
    47. 47. STEREO MIKING: M/SM/S- (mid-side) stereo mikingutilizes two microphones withdifferent polar patterns. Similarto X/Y with the exception thatone microphone is set to a Bi-Directional polar pattern angled90º toward the soundsources. The frontmicrophone is set to a Cardioidpolar pattern and is angleddirectly at the sound source.
    48. 48. STEREO MIKING: M/SM/S- (mid-side) stereo mikingutilizes two microphones withdifferent polar patterns. Similarto X/Y with the exception thatone microphone is set to a Bi-Directional polar pattern angled90º toward the soundsources. The frontmicrophone is set to a Cardioidpolar pattern and is angleddirectly at the sound source.
    49. 49. STEREO MIKING: DECCA TREEDECCA TREE - this mikingtechnique is primarily used inclassical recording scenarioshowever it can also be used instudio situations. This techniqueemploys three microphones setto Omnidirectional polarpatterns. The left and rightmicrophones are set 3 ft apartwhile the third mic is placed1.5 ft centered in front of the leftan right microphones.
    50. 50. STEREO MIKING: DECCA TREEDECCA TREE - this mikingtechnique is primarily used inclassical recording scenarioshowever it can also be used instudio situations. This techniqueemploys three microphones setto Omnidirectional polarpatterns. The left and rightmicrophones are set 3 ft apartwhile the third mic is placed1.5 ft centered in front of the leftan right microphones.
    51. 51. STEREO MIKING: DECCA TREEDECCA TREE - this mikingtechnique is primarily used inclassical recording scenarioshowever it can also be used instudio situations. This techniqueemploys three microphones setto Omnidirectional polarpatterns. The left and rightmicrophones are set 3 ft apartwhile the third mic is placed1.5 ft centered in front of the leftan right microphones.

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