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Transcript

  • 1. Microphones:Design and Application 2009Created By:Brook Sutton
  • 2. Introduction Microphone• first device in therecording chain• A transducer -converts one form ofenergy into another
  • 3. Microphone Designs THREE TYPES OF MICROPHONES Dynamic Ribbon Condenser
  • 4. DYNAMIC MICROPHONES ELECTROMAGNETICTHE DYNAMIC MICROPHONE INDUCTION whenever an electrically conductive metal cuts across the flux lines of a magnetic field, a current of a specific magnitude and direction will be generated within the metal
  • 5. DYNAMIC MICROPHONES ELECTROMAGNETICTHE DYNAMIC MICROPHONE INDUCTION whenever an electrically conductive metal cuts across the flux lines of a magnetic field, a current of a specific magnitude and direction will be generated within the metal
  • 6. RIBBON MICROPHONES ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION uses a corrugated thin aluminum diaphragm Very sensitive to sound pressure
  • 7. RIBBON MICROPHONES ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION uses a corrugated thin aluminum diaphragm Very sensitive to sound pressure
  • 8. CONDENSERMICROPHONES ELECTROSTATIC PRINCIPLE consists of two very thin plates - one moveable - one stationary acts like a capacitor - varying changes in voltage will occur as the plate moves back and forth
  • 9. CONDENSERMICROPHONES ELECTROSTATIC PRINCIPLE consists of two very thin plates - one moveable - one stationary acts like a capacitor - varying changes in voltage will occur as the plate moves back and forth
  • 10. MICROPHONESCHARACTERISTICS AND RESPONSE PATTERNS
  • 11. DIRECTIONAL RESPONSE SOUND SOURCE“On-Axis” Sound source angles directly into diaphragm
  • 12. OMNIDIRECTIONAL 900“polar pattern” show’s a mic’s sensitivity with o0 1800 respect to direction and frequency over 3600 2700
  • 13. BIDIRECTIONAL 900“figure eight pattern” pressure gradient - the pickup is 00 1800 responsive to relative differences in pressure between the front, back, and sides of the 2700 diaphragm
  • 14. OTHER DIRECTIONAL PATTERNSCARDIOID PATTERN Cardioid means "heart-shaped", which is the type of pick-up pattern these mics use. Sound is picked up mostly from the front, but to a lesser extent the sides as well.
  • 15. OTHER DIRECTIONAL PATTERNSHYPER-CARDIOID PATTERNThis is exaggeratedversion of thecardioid pattern. It isvery directional andeliminates mostsound from thesides and rear.
  • 16. MICROPHONESFrequency Response
  • 17. FREQUENCY RESPONSE CURVEThe on-axis frequency-response curve refers tothe measurement of themicrophones output overthe audible frequencyrange.A microphone that isdesigned equally to allfrequencies is said toexhibit a flat frequency-response.
  • 18. Rumble - high-level vibrations that occur at very lowfrequencies. (usually between 3 to 25 Hz) This phenomena can be avoided by using a “shock mount”, choosing a mic that restricts those frequencies, or by using a low frequency roll-off filterProximity Effect - This effect causes an increase in bassresponse whenever a directional mic is brought within 1foot of the sound source.
  • 19. Transient Response - the measure of how quickly a mic’s diaphragm willreact when it is hit by an acoustic wave.Sensitivity Rating - the output level that a microphone will produce -microphones with a higher sensitivity rating will produce stronger outputsignalsEquivalent Noise Rating - a device’s electrical self-noise; often referred toas a hiss or humOverload Distortion - caused by extreme SPL levels. Most microphoneshave a maximum of 140 dB. Many microphones employ a pad whichreduces the microphones output thereby eliminating overload distortion.Impedence - output impedance is a rating used to match the output ofone device to the input of another device.
  • 20. BALANCED/UNBALANCED LINESBalanced lines use threewires to carry the audio signal:two carry the signal voltage(positive and negative), oneacts as a shield or groundwire. Usually Low-Impedancedevices use this connection.Two Types of Connectors: TRS -(Tip Ring Sleeve) XLR -also known as Three Pin Connector
  • 21. BALANCED/UNBALANCED LINESUnbalanced lines use two wires tocarry the audio signal: a single signallead carries the positive, a secondedgrounded shield completes thecircuits return path. Used by highimpedance and most line-leveldevices.Two Types of Connectors: TS -(Tip Sleeve) RCA - also known as a cinch plug or phono plug. Developed by the Radio Corporation of America in the 1940’s. Still in use today.
  • 22. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
  • 23. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
  • 24. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
  • 25. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
  • 26. MICROPHONE PREAMPSMicrophone Preamps areused to amplify the signalthat comes from mostmicrophones.Most studios employ aconsole that containspreamps for each channel. growing trend to stock outboard preamps to get a different sound from a microphone
  • 27. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
  • 28. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
  • 29. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
  • 30. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
  • 31. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
  • 32. PHANTOM POWERSome microphonesrequire a DC voltage of+48V (volts) in order tooperate. Most condenser microphones require a separate power supply either from a battery, console, or Phantom Power pack
  • 33. MICROPHONESTechniques
  • 34. FOUR FUNDAMENTAL STYLESOF MICROPHONE PLACEMENT FOUR TYPES OF MICROPHONE PLACEMENT: Distant Close Accent Ambient
  • 35. DISTANT MIKING It considered distant miking when the sound source is 3ft or more from the microphone. Most often used to pickup large instrument ensembles, add a live, open feeling to a recorded sound
  • 36. CLOSE MIKING It considered close miking when the sound source is 1 inch to 3 ft from the microphone. Used to record a desired sound when other sounds are present simultaneously
  • 37. ACCENT MIKING It considered accent miking when the microphone is used to enhance presence and volume for a solo instrument(s) among an ensemble or orchestra. Often difficult to blend in with a natural balance in recordings.
  • 38. AMBIENT MIKING It considered ambient miking when the reverberant room is more prominent than the direct sound source. Often used in stereo recording, audience, a hall where a performance is being held, or in the same room as a sound source to create a sense of space.
  • 39. MICROPHONESStereo Miking Techniques
  • 40. STEREO MIKING TECHNIQUESStereo Miking refers to theuse of two microphones toproduce a coherent stereoimage.FOUR TECHNIQUES: Spaced Pair X/Y M/S Decca Tree
  • 41. STEREO MIKING: SPACED PAIRSpaced Pair stereomiking refers to the use oftwo microphones placedin front of a sound sourcespaced anywhere from afew feet to 30 ft apart. Inthis configuration there isa strong potential forphase discrepancies.
  • 42. STEREO MIKING: SPACED PAIRSpaced Pair stereomiking refers to the use oftwo microphones placedin front of a sound sourcespaced anywhere from afew feet to 30 ft apart. Inthis configuration there isa strong potential forphase discrepancies.
  • 43. STEREO MIKING: X/YX/Y - stereo miking refers tothe use of two microphonesof the same brand and modelplaced with their grills closetogether generally between900 and 1350. Bothmicrophones are set topickup in a Cardioid polarpattern. (very commontechnique)
  • 44. STEREO MIKING: X/YX/Y - stereo miking refers tothe use of two microphonesof the same brand and modelplaced with their grills closetogether generally between900 and 1350. Bothmicrophones are set topickup in a Cardioid polarpattern. (very commontechnique)
  • 45. STEREO MIKING: X/YX/Y - stereo miking refers tothe use of two microphonesof the same brand and modelplaced with their grills closetogether generally between900 and 1350. Bothmicrophones are set topickup in a Cardioid polarpattern. (very commontechnique)
  • 46. STEREO MIKING: M/SM/S- (mid-side) stereo mikingutilizes two microphones withdifferent polar patterns. Similarto X/Y with the exception thatone microphone is set to a Bi-Directional polar pattern angled90º toward the soundsources. The frontmicrophone is set to a Cardioidpolar pattern and is angleddirectly at the sound source.
  • 47. STEREO MIKING: M/SM/S- (mid-side) stereo mikingutilizes two microphones withdifferent polar patterns. Similarto X/Y with the exception thatone microphone is set to a Bi-Directional polar pattern angled90º toward the soundsources. The frontmicrophone is set to a Cardioidpolar pattern and is angleddirectly at the sound source.
  • 48. STEREO MIKING: M/SM/S- (mid-side) stereo mikingutilizes two microphones withdifferent polar patterns. Similarto X/Y with the exception thatone microphone is set to a Bi-Directional polar pattern angled90º toward the soundsources. The frontmicrophone is set to a Cardioidpolar pattern and is angleddirectly at the sound source.
  • 49. STEREO MIKING: DECCA TREEDECCA TREE - this mikingtechnique is primarily used inclassical recording scenarioshowever it can also be used instudio situations. This techniqueemploys three microphones setto Omnidirectional polarpatterns. The left and rightmicrophones are set 3 ft apartwhile the third mic is placed1.5 ft centered in front of the leftan right microphones.
  • 50. STEREO MIKING: DECCA TREEDECCA TREE - this mikingtechnique is primarily used inclassical recording scenarioshowever it can also be used instudio situations. This techniqueemploys three microphones setto Omnidirectional polarpatterns. The left and rightmicrophones are set 3 ft apartwhile the third mic is placed1.5 ft centered in front of the leftan right microphones.
  • 51. STEREO MIKING: DECCA TREEDECCA TREE - this mikingtechnique is primarily used inclassical recording scenarioshowever it can also be used instudio situations. This techniqueemploys three microphones setto Omnidirectional polarpatterns. The left and rightmicrophones are set 3 ft apartwhile the third mic is placed1.5 ft centered in front of the leftan right microphones.