Professional learning in virtual worlds v3Presentation Transcript
PROFESSIONAL LEARNING IN VIRTUAL WORLDS Lessons from the Literature
Major Characteristics Jarmonet al., 2009, p. 175- major characteristic of the learning that occurred in SL was the application of learning into real life practice.
Learning was enhanced by several of SL’s features combined with the project-based instructional design and included (a) the capacity to host social interactions and collaborations, (b) the capacity to allow users to test hypotheses actively, (c) the relevanceof their project to the real world, (d) the opportunity for students to use multiple abilities and skills, (e) the stimulationof imagination, exploration and creativity, and (f) an increased sense of personal presence and tangible experiences.”
Benefits of learning in virtual world environments Telepresence and COPRESENCETelepresence - sense of ‘being there’ and a belief in the reality of the environmentCopresence is the feeling of being there with other people, of being part of a community“The feeling of “presence” is engendered by visual representations of people (avatars) and places, and in part by combining the power of suggestion, which activates the students’ imagination in a simulated learning environment.”(Annetta et al., 2008, p. 8)
Benefits of learning in virtual world environments COMMUNICATION “The heightened quality of interpersonal communications within an immersive environment can lead to connections that can strengthen the professional relationships within courses” (E. A. O'Connor, 2009, p. 229)
SimulationsThe US military “have recognized the necessity of and benefit to embedding computer simulation as a way of training their folks in the use of critical thinking and judgment for a long time.’" (Freifeld, 2007a)
Benefits of learning in virtual world environments “One of the major affordances that students commonly mentioned was that the 3-D virtual environment in SL fostered real life applications of the theories and strategies studied in the course curriculum, a key indicator of successful experiential learning”.(Jarmon, Traphagan, Mayrath, & Trivedi, 2009, p. 174)“Their project engaged them experientially, led to various kinds of learning, and transferred in different ways to real life” (Jarmon et al., 2009, p. 177)
Does it work? “When asked how much was learned from a second life-based virtual environment about nutrition, on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest), 65% of students reported a 4 or 5, and 94% answered with a 3, 4 or 5.” (Hew & cheung, 2010, p. 42)
General advice General adviceAppropriate technology computers able to handle the graphics etc networks/servers with the speed and capacity necessary issues will arise - create a technical assistance and maintenance strategyPublic or private virtual worlds go private - public MUVEs are problematicInstructors need to develop knowledge of facilitation ICT coaching collaboration
General advice Collaboration in MUVEs requires - structure - definition of roles - timetables Etiquette - code of behaviour - need to prepare participants for - appropriate communication, mannerisms, conventions - problems will occur – be prepared – may need to “discipline” someBoot camp – the need for instructors and participants to first - choose and select the appearance of their avatar - master the avatar and the environment (flying, teleporting, communicating etc) - find out what MUVEs can and can’t do (especially important for developers and instructors)
General advice Course times - multiple times to avoid timetable clashesDocumentation and assessment - have methods for participants to document/record and store assess and give feedback as per normal
Instructional Design Instructional DesignSalmon’s five stages 1. access and motivation 2. online socialisation 3. information exchange 4. knowledge construction 5. development
Selecting the appropriate platform Robbin’s principals for selecting appropriate platforms: - simulation (eg flight simulator) – for learning highly defined procedural skill (eg surgery) - educational games (eg world of warcraft) – for performing processes to help participants learn and explore the implications of complex systems - multi user virtual worlds (eg second life) – for learning communities - virtual situations (eg virtual practicum)
What works well in MUVES Things that work well in muves: - short term group tasks - longer term group collaboration - virtual field trips - class meetings and presentations - guest speakers
GAMIFICATION Annetta et al (2010) give reasons why games are so appealing and successful: - provide specific goals - clear rules - sub-goals (or levels) that, once completed, lead to success - final task builds on previous learning obtained through achievement of sub-goals - ultimate success depends upon demonstrating a specific learning/skill level that enables them to achieve the ultimate goal
GAMIFICATION Games based learning allows the participant to: - obtain rewards based on achievements - fail, evaluate and repeat - build on previous knowledge - control their time investment - stop and - continue later from the same or an appropriate place Annettaet al (2010)
GAMIFICATION Aldrich (2009, p.5) reports two cases where students learnt by simulation games while a control group learnt by the traditional methods. Testing revealed significantly greater improvement for those who learnt by simulation games over those who did not. In one of the cases cited, the students who learnt using the simulation had significantly greater recall and application after 6 months.
GAMIFICATION “Games are a more natural way to learn than traditional classrooms and are the ‘most ancient and time-honoured vehicle for education’” (Aldrich, 2009b, p. 5).
GAMIFICATION “Maybe the most compelling reason to adopt gaming technology is that is improves critical thinking and literacy. Players must take on new identities, solve problems through trial and error, and gain expertise or specific types of literacies to be successful in a game. A player learns to think critically while at the same time gaining embodied knowledge through interactions with the environment.”(Annetta, Folta, & Klesath, 2010, p. 31)
GAMIFICATION Annetta et al (2010) also give reasons why games are so appealing and successful: Provide specific goals Clear rules Sub-goals (or levels) that, once completed, lead to success Final task builds on previous learning obtained through achievement of sub-goals Ultimate success depends upon demonstrating a specific learning/skill level that enables them to achieve the ultimate goal
GAMIFICATION Games based learning allows the participant to (Annetta et al (2010) : Obtain rewards based on achievements Fail, evaluate and repeat Build on previous knowledge Control their time investment - stop and continue later from the same or an appropriate place