SURA Meeting Washington

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The role of R&E networks in addressing climate change

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  • ERM has a strong pro-active dimension. As much about proactively managing as measuring It is a key part of our mission to Enable you to make decisions that are based on risk across the enterprise, levels of users,
  • Assume each higher-ed produces 1-2 x 10e5 metric tons COe2 There are 3 x 10e3 higher ed institutions Therefore total higher ed CO2 emissions = 3-6 x 10e8 tons US total emissions 7 x 10e9 COe2 Therefore high ed percentage 3-6 x 10e8/7 x 10e9= 4.5 – 8.5%
  • Future projections from Gartner
  • Each element (component) shown is a sophisticated network router or computer system. A given experiment will be allocated a portion of each of a subset of these elements and of the links connecting these elements. This partition of physical resources is called a slice. Software to be developed will allow a large number of experiments to simultaneously run, each in its own slice, without interfering with other experiments. Virtualization refers to the ability of experiments to behave as if they are not sharing the same physical elements or links.   The facility is  programmable in the sense that software for a slice can be downloaded from a researcher workstation to elements on which the slice resides using tools provided by GENI. In addition, a researcher can define a slice and request its allocation for an experiment from a local workstation.   In effect, experimenters will operate as if they are using a new internet based on their own innovations.
  • Each element (component) shown is a sophisticated network router or computer system. A given experiment will be allocated a portion of each of a subset of these elements and of the links connecting these elements. This partition of physical resources is called a slice. Software to be developed will allow a large number of experiments to simultaneously run, each in its own slice, without interfering with other experiments. Virtualization refers to the ability of experiments to behave as if they are not sharing the same physical elements or links.   The facility is  programmable in the sense that software for a slice can be downloaded from a researcher workstation to elements on which the slice resides using tools provided by GENI. In addition, a researcher can define a slice and request its allocation for an experiment from a local workstation.   In effect, experimenters will operate as if they are using a new internet based on their own innovations.
  • SURA Meeting Washington

    1. 1. Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for R&E networks Bill St. Arnaud CANARIE Inc – www.canarie.ca [email_address] Unless otherwise noted all material in this slide deck may be reproduced, modified or distributed without prior permission of the author
    2. 2. Climate Forecasts MIT <ul><ul><li>MIT report predicts median temperature forecast of 5.2C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11C increase in Northern Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://globalchange.mit.edu/pubs/abstract.php?publication_id=990 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last Ice age average global temperature was 5-6C cooler than today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most of Canada was under 2-3 km ice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With BAU we are talking about 5-6C change in temperature in the opposite direction in less than 80 Years </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. 2008 second warmest year
    4. 4. Climate Change is not reversible <ul><li>Climate Change is not like acid rain or ozone destruction where environment will quickly return to normal once source of pollution is removed </li></ul><ul><li>GHG emissions will stay in the atmosphere for thousands of years and continue to accumulate </li></ul><ul><li>Planet will continue to warm up even if we drastically reduce emissions </li></ul>All we hope to achieve is to slow down the rapid rate of climate change Weaver et al., GRL (2007)
    5. 5. The Planet is Already Committed to a Dangerous Level of Warming V. Ramanathan and Y. Feng, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD September 23, 2008 www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0803838105 Source: Larry Smarr CAL-It2 Temperature Threshold Range that Initiates the Climate-Tipping Additional Warming over 1750 Level 90% of the Additional 1.6 Degree Warming Will Occur in the 21 st Century
    6. 6. Climate tipping points <ul><li>USGS Abrupt Climate Change report finds that future climate shifts have been underestimated and warns of debilitating abrupt shift in climate that would be devastating. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap3-4/final-report/default.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://climateprogress.org/2008/11/24/what-are-the-near-term-climate-pearl-harbors/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tipping elements in the Earth's climate -National Academies of Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pnas.org/content/105/6/1786.abstract?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=tipping+elements+lenton&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Society may be lulled into a false sense of security by smooth projections of global change. Our synthesis of present knowledge suggests that a variety of tipping elements could reach their critical point within this century under anthropogenic climate change. “ </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>80/50 rule – 80% reduction in CO2 by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>(Commitment made by G8 countries) </li></ul>j 15 - 20 tons/person 1 ton/person 2008 2050 ? 2100 2 tons/person Source: Stern 2008 Our Challenge
    8. 8. CO2 emissions from Information, Computer, Telecommunications (ICT) <ul><li>It is estimated that the ICT industry alone produces CO2 emissions that is equivalent to the carbon output of the entire aviation industry 2-3% </li></ul><ul><li>ICT emissions growth fastest of any sector in society, doubling about every 4 – 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>ICT represent 8-9.4% of total US electricity consumption, and 8% of global electricity consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Projected to grow to as much as 20% of all electrical consumption in the US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://uclue.com/index.php?xq=724 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future Broadband- Internet alone is expected to consume 5% of all electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ee.unimelb.edu.au/people/rst/talks/files/Tucker_Green_Plenary.pdf </li></ul></ul>*An Inefficient Tuth: http://www.globalactionplan.org.uk/event_detail.aspx?eid=2696e0e0-28fe-4121-bd36-3670c02eda49
    9. 9. IT biggest power draw Heating, Cooling and Ventilation 40-50% Lighting 11% IT Equipment 30-40% Other 6% Sources: BOMA 2006, EIA 2006, AIA 2006 Energy Consumption Typical Building Energy Consumption World Wide Transportation 25% Manufacturing 25% Buildings 50%
    10. 10. Growth Projections Data Centers <ul><li>Half of ICT consumption is data centers </li></ul><ul><li>50% of today’s Data Centers and major science facilities in the US will have insufficient power and cooling;* </li></ul><ul><li>By 2010, half of all Data Centers will have to relocate or outsource applications to another facility.* </li></ul><ul><li>During the next 5 years, 90% of all companies will experience some kind of power disruption. In that same period one in four companies will experience a significant business disruption* </li></ul><ul><li>Data centers will consume 12% of electricity in the US by 2020 (TV Telecom) </li></ul>Source: Gartner; Meeting the DC power and cooling challenge
    11. 11. <ul><li>Waxman-Markey H.R. 2454 passes the House in July 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Average” increase in electricity costs for businesses and institutions will be 60% with cap and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations that use electricity from coal fired power plants will see significantly higher costs (by as much as 3 times current prices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of electricity will come from non carbon sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities will be required to spend 16% revenues on energy reduction strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you emit above your “cap” you are required to purchase offsets at $11-$15 per ton in 2012 and roughly double in price by 2025. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kerry-Boxer Clean Energy Jobs & American Power Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More aggressive CO2 reduction targets then Waxman-Markey (20% by 2020 over 2005, 80% by 2050). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ EPA has proposed a rule that requires mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from larges sources in the United States…. that emit 25,000 metric tons or more” </li></ul>Federal Climate Legislation
    12. 12. Waxman Markey reductions
    13. 13. State GHG Targets 2009 SOURCE: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Climate101-State Actions, January 2009 42% of States Have Existing GHG Reduction Targets
    14. 14. Carbon Footprint by state
    15. 15. American College & University President’s Climate Commitment <ul><li>“ Signatories agree to… </li></ul><ul><li>Create institutional structures </li></ul><ul><li>Select & implement tangible actions to reduce greenhouse gases </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a comprehensive greenhouse gas inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a climate-neutral action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Make information publicly available” </li></ul>20
    16. 16. Green IT MoU <ul><li>Initial Signatories: UCSD, UBC, PROMPT </li></ul><ul><li>To share best practices in reducing GHG emissions and baseline emission data for cyber-infrastructure and networks as per ISO 14064, </li></ul><ul><li>To explore carbon reduction strategies by new network and distributed computing architectures such as PROMPT G-NGI, OptiPuter and CineGrid. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>To work with R&E network to explore relocation of resources to renewable energy sites, virtualization, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>To explore the potential for a “virtual” carbon trading systems </li></ul><ul><li>To explore the creation of a multi-sector pilot of a generalized ICT carbon trading system including stakeholders from government, industry, and universities. </li></ul><ul><li>To collaborate with each other and with government agencies and departments and other organizations </li></ul>
    17. 17. GHG Regulation in British Columbia <ul><li>Bill 44-2007 was introduced in 2007 and enacted into law in 2008. The law is known as the Greenhouse Gas Reductions Target Act. </li></ul><ul><li>The Act establishes greenhouse gas emission target levels for the Province. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2020 BC GHG will be 33% less than 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2050 BC GHG will be 80% less than 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bill mandates that by 2010 each public sector organization must be carbon neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>If a public sector organization can not achieve carbon neutrality then they are required to purchase offsets at $24/ton </li></ul>SOURCE: “Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 2007”, Ministry of Environment, Victoria, British Columbia, July 2009 Source: Jerry Sheehan UCSD
    18. 18. The Cost of Regulation: The University of British Columbia SOURCE: UBC Sustainability Office, August 2009 SOURCE: http://climateaction.ubc.ca/category/emission-sources SOURCE : UBC Climate Action Plan, GHG 2006 Inventory Source: Jerry Sheehan UCSD UBC Greenhouse Gas Liability 2010-2012 2010 2011 2012 Carbon Offset $1,602,750 $1,602,750 $1,602,750 Carbon Tax $1,179,940 $1,474,925 $1,769,910 Total $2,782,690 $3,077,675 $3,372,660
    19. 19. The Falsehood of Energy Efficiency <ul><li>Most current approaches to reduce carbon footprint are focused on increased energy efficiency of equipment and processes </li></ul><ul><li>But growth in ICT deployment of equipment and services is outstripping any gains made in efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is likely to accelerate as ICT is used to support abatement in other fields such as smart homes, smart buildings, smart grids etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also greater efficiency can paradoxically increase energy consumption by reducing overall cost service and therefore stimulates demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Khazzoom-Brookes postulate (aka Jevons paradox aka rebound effect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In last Energy crisis in 1973 Congress passed first energy efficiency laws (CAFÉ) which mandate minimum mileage for cars, home insulation and appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net effect was to reduce cost of driving car, heating or cooling home, and electricity required for appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer response was to drive further, buy bigger homes and appliances </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Power Consumption of IP network Source: Rod Tucker
    21. 21. Challenge of efficiency Source: Rod Tucker
    22. 22. <ul><li>Purchasing green power locally is expensive with significant transmission line losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for green power within cities expected to grow dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT facilities DON’T NEED TO BE LOCATED IN CITIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Cooling also a major problem in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But most renewable energy sites are very remote and impractical to connect to electrical grid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be easily reached by an optical network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide independence from electrical utility and high costs in wheeling power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings in transmission line losses (up to 15%) alone, plus carbon offsets can pay for moving ICT facilities to renewable energy site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT is only industry ideally suited to relocate to renewable energy sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also ideal for business continuity in event of climate catastrophe </li></ul></ul>Building a zero carbon ICT infrastructure
    23. 23. MIT to build zero carbon data center in Holyoke MA <ul><li>The data center will be managed and funded by the four main partners in the facility: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cisco Systems , the University of Massachusetts and EMC . </li></ul><ul><li>It will be a high-performance computing environment that will help expand the research and development capabilities of the companies and schools in Holyoke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.greenercomputing.com/news/2009/06/11/cisco-emc-team-mit-launch-100m-green-data-center </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Many examples already Hydro-electric powered data centers Data Islandia Digital Data Archive ASIO solar powered data centers Wind powered data centers Ecotricity in UK builds windmills at data center locations with no capital cost to user
    25. 25. <ul><li>The Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Use cyber infrastructure to combat global warming by reducing computing infrastructure’s carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Find efficient ways to share computing facilities that are close to sources of green power by utilizing BCNET’s advanced network infrastructure within the Province </li></ul><ul><li>Make it possible for BC’s Universities to reduce their carbon footprint by relocating their existing ICT infrastructure to “greener facilities” </li></ul><ul><li>Build a zero carbon data centre and use the BCNET/CANARIE ROADM network to connect users to it </li></ul>British Columbia BCnet Leadership
    26. 26. Optical Network as Enabler SOURCE: Eric Bernier, CTO CANARIE Bandwidth when required … where required 100GBPS Ready
    27. 27. Zero Carbon Data Center source: Dan Gillard BCnet 04/09 BC’s Green Data Centre MUST be in Proximity to a Clean Source of Power
    28. 28. Grand Challenge – Building robust ICT services using renewable energy only <ul><li>30% of electrical power will come from renewable sources </li></ul><ul><li>How do you provide mission critical ICT services when energy source is unreliable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebbing wind or setting sun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back up diesel and batteries are not an option because they are not zero carbon and power outages can last for days or weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Need new network architectures and business models to ensure reliable service delivery by quickly moving compute jobs and data sets around the world to sites that have available power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will require high bandwidth networks and routing architectures to quickly move jobs and data sets from site to site </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Impact on networks <ul><li>Building zero carbon data centers in remote locations creates impact on network in terms of large data volumes being carried greater distances </li></ul><ul><li>More fossil based energy will be consumed in transmission facilities (versus reduction at data centers) </li></ul><ul><li>Optical networks will have modest increase in power consumption especially with new 100G and 1000G waves </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic equipment such as routers and aggregators will have much larger impact </li></ul><ul><li>Future Broadband- Internet alone is expected to consume 5% of all electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ee.unimelb.edu.au/people/rst/talks/files/Tucker_Green_Plenary.pdf </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. CANARIE Green-IT Pilot <ul><li>$3m allocation for Green cyber-infrastructure-IT pilot testbed </li></ul><ul><li>Two objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical viability and usability for relocating computers to zero carbon data centers and follow the sun/follow the wind network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business case viability of offering carbon offsets (and or equivalent in services) to IT departments and university researchers who reduce their carbon footprint by relocating computers and instrumentation to zero carbon data centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International partnership with possible zero carbon nodes using virtual router/computers in Spain, Ireland, California, Australia, British Columbia, Ottawa, Quebec and Nova Scotia </li></ul>25
    31. 31. Possible research areas <ul><li>Dynamic all optical networks with solar or wind powered optical repeaters </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless mesh ad-hoc networks with mini-solar panels at nodes </li></ul><ul><li>New Internet architectures with servers, computers and storage collocated at remote renewable energy sites such as hydro dams, windmill farms, etc </li></ul><ul><li>New routing and resiliency architectures for wired and wireless networks for massively disruptive topology changes due to setting sun or waning winds that power routers and servers </li></ul><ul><li>New grid and data storage architectures with distributed replication and virtual machines (VM turntables, Hadoop) for “follow the sun” and “follow the wind” grids </li></ul><ul><li>New stats and measurement analysis of bits per carbon (bpc) utilization, optimized “carbon” routing tables, etc </li></ul>
    32. 32. GENI Topology optimized by source destination Source: Peter Freeman NSF Wind Power Substrate Router Solar Power Wireless Base Station Sensor Network Thin Client Edge Site Mobile Wireless Network
    33. 33. GENI with router nodes at renewable energy sites Sensor Network Thin Client Edge Site Source: Peter Freeman NSF Wind Power Substrate Router Solar Power Wireless Base Station Topology optimized by availability of energy Mobile Wireless Network
    34. 34. Emerging “Follow the Sun” Technologies <ul><li>The ability to migrate entire virtual machines (routers and computers) to alternate data centres exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Over HS networks the latency is tiny and transfer is invisible to the user. </li></ul><ul><li>Happens instantly without user knowledge, action or intervention </li></ul>Nortel’s research labs developed and conceived the “Virtual Machine Turntable in 2006 and through collaboration with R&E networks in the US, Canada, Netherlands, and South Korea proved viability.
    35. 35. The SC06 VMT Demonstrator Computation at the Right Place & Time! We migrate live Virtual Machines, unbeknownst to applications and clients, for data affinity, business continuity / disaster recovery, load balancing, or power management DataCenter @Tampa SC|2006 Nortel’s Sensor Services Platform Korea KREOnet Netherlight DRAC Controlled Lightpaths Internal/External Sensor Webs Amsterdam
    36. 36. Wind powered Cell phone tower <ul><li>Over 100,000 cell phone towers to be powered by renewable energy by 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical axis turbines and solar </li></ul><ul><li>Ericsson (Montreal) world leader in these developments </li></ul>
    37. 37. Economic benefits of follow the wind/sun architectures <ul><li>Cost- and Energy-Aware Load Distribution Across Data Centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cs.rutgers.edu/~ricardob/papers/hotpower09.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green data centers can decrease brown energy consumption by 35% by leveraging the green data centers at only a 3% cost increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cutting the Electric Bill for Internet-Scale Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies can shift computing power to a data center in a location where it’s an off-peak time of the day and energy prices are low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cassatt a product that dynamically shifts loads to find the cheapest energy prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45% maximum savings in energy costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ccr.sigcomm.org/online/files/p123.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://earth2tech.com/2009/08/19/how-data-centers-can-follow-energy-prices-to-save-millions/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computing for the future of the planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/dtg/~ah12/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://earth2tech.com/2008/07/25/data-centers-will-follow-the-sun-and-chase-the-wind </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Prompt’s Green ICT Vision <ul><li>A distributed Canadian Initiative devoted to creation and commercialization of ICT technologies that reduce GHG emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Shout for support for Green ICT in Canada! </li></ul><ul><li>Involve universities, industries, governments and consumers in Green ICT activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform stakeholders; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate R&D; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deploy infrastructure; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercialize. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. University R&D: PISA Source: GENI <ul><ul><li>Pervasive Infrastructures, Services and Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Network of Centres of Excellence proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To address challenges of Networked Society of 2020 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connected environments and smart infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture & design of virtualized networks; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green cloud computing; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence design Lab testbed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves 50 professors, headed by Dr Alberto Leon-Garcia, U. of Toronto </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: Prof. Mihaela Ulieru, U. of New Brunswick, PISA
    40. 40. University R&D: NetVirt <ul><ul><li>NetVirt 200k$ Prompt Major Project in Quebec: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture & design of virtualized networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible link sharing in virtualized networks; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pushing the isolation paradigm at the hardware level for NGI virtual routers; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UQAM, Polytechnique, Ericsson, Inocybe </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: GENI
    41. 41. <ul><li>Business plan for a Canada-California Consortium for a Zero carbon Internet; </li></ul><ul><li>Regroup researchers in computer science, electrical & computer engineering, sociology, business and economics; </li></ul><ul><li>Create an R&D environment and identify funding to support the consortium in: </li></ul>University R&D: CCSIP <ul><ul><li>University-based “living ICT laboratories” test beds that demonstrate how ICT can mitigate GHG; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events to raise the awareness of the benefits of the application of ICT for carbon minimization; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement an international repository for data and best practices related to ICT’s carbon footprint and applications to reduce GHG. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. What are carbon offsets? <ul><li>Many claims of energy savings can only be proven through rigorous process of carbon offsets (ISO 14064) </li></ul><ul><li>Companies or individuals buy carbon offsets from projects that remove or reduce carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting trees, building hydro dams, installing energy efficient processes, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated markets – Alberta, BC , Europe and New England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary markets – Air Canada, Chicago, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon buying and selling is done through registries or exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Carbon Trust, Montreal Carbon exchange, REGI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In regulated markets all big emitters such as power plants, steel mills, universities , etc must purchase permits based on cap and trade </li></ul>
    43. 43. The Carbon Economy <ul><li>$500 billion - Value of low-carbon energy markets by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>$100 billion - Demand for projects generating GHG missions credits by 2030 </li></ul><ul><li>Global carbon market expected to grow 58% this year to $92 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon market could be worth billions for telecoms & IT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US market estimated at $700 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://telephonyonline.com/global/news/carbon-trade-arnaud-0626/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obama’s cap and trade (Waxman-Markey) bill will force emitters to spend $1.25 on carbon offsets for every $1.00 on emission permits at $ 1billion per year </li></ul>Source: ClimateCheck 20
    44. 44. Do your carbon inventory NOW!! <ul><li>You can not earn credits until you do an inventory and calculate baseline emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.ghginstitute.org provides eTraining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next year carbon cap price will be $100 per ton in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>At European cap price the cost of GHG emission could be as much $10 - $50 million per year for university in the next decade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot depends on details of Obama’s cap and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversely university could earn $10 - $50 million per year if a university is zero carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No revenue potential if university is carbon neutral </li></ul></ul>19
    45. 45. Policy approaches to reducing CO2 <ul><li>Carbon taxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politically difficult to sell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cap and trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for big emitters like power companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses only supply side of CO2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carbon Neutrality imposed by law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing in popularity especially as protests over gas tax escalates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But there may be an additional approach…. </li></ul>28
    46. 46. Carbon Rewards rather carbon taxes – “gCommerce” <ul><li>Although carbon taxes are revenue neutral, they payee rarely sees any direct benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No incentive other than higher cost to reduce footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rather than penalize consumers and businesses for carbon emissions, can we reward them for reducing their carbon emissions? </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon rewards can be “virtual” products delivered over broadband networks such movies, books, education, health services, collarboartive education and research technologies etc </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon reward can also be free ICT services (with low carbon footprint) such as Internet, cellphone, fiber to the home, etc </li></ul>29
    47. 47. Virtualization and De-materialization Source: European Commission Joint Research Centre, “The Future Impact of ICTs on Environmental Sustainability”, August 2004 Direct replacement of physical goods – 10% - 20% impact
    48. 48. Virtualization is key <ul><li>Movies and music delivered over Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google docs, ESERI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In many homes electronic devices consume more power than traditional appliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.iea.org/journalists/headlines.asp </li></ul></ul>MIT’s Sixth sense
    49. 49. Digital vs Traditional appliances
    50. 50. Case Western pilot with Kindle DX <ul><li>One pound of printer paper generates 4 pounds of CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>One pound of newspaper produces 3 pounds of CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>One pound of textbooks produces 5 pounds of CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Babcock school of Management textbooks for 160 students alone produces 45 Tons CO2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.stewartmarion.com/carbon-footprint/html/carbon-footprint-stuff.html </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Other sectors (40%) (e.g. manufacturing, coal mining, export transport) Emissions under direct consumer control (35%) Consumer influenced sectors (25%) (e.g. retail, food and drink, wholesale, agriculture, public sector) Heating Private cars Electricity Other transport Consumers control or influence 60 per cent of emissions http://www.cbi.org.uk/pdf/climatereport2007full.pdf 30
    52. 52. Free Wifi on Buses <ul><li>There’s a school bus service called The Green Bus in Birmingham, UK which operates double-decker, low-carbon emissions buses that carry over 1400 kids to school every day (saving over 2000 car journeys). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to encouraging kids to play peer-to-peer games, the access points allow the bus company to monitor where the buses are in the city in real time. Parents as well as staff can follow the progress of any bus via Google maps. </li></ul><ul><li>Business bus service in San Francisco offers office on the move – free wifi, femto cell service etc </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.muniwireless.com/2009/01/14/school-kids-enjoy-wi-fi-on-green-bus/ </li></ul>32
    53. 53. Carbon Reward Strategy for last mile infrastructure <ul><li>Provide free high speed Internet and fiber to the home with resale of electrical and gas power (ESCOs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.newamerica.net/files/HomesWithTails_wu_slater.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilots in Cleveland, Switzerland, Ottawa, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer pays a premium on their gas and electric bill </li></ul><ul><li>Customers encouraged to save money through reduced energy consumption and reduced carbon output </li></ul><ul><li>Customer NOT penalized if they reduce energy consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May end up paying substantially less then they do now for gas + electricity + broadband + telephone + cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network operator gets guaranteed revenue based on energy consumption rather than fickle triple play </li></ul>33
    54. 54. Final remarks <ul><li>The problem we face is NOT energy consumption, but carbon emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Think carbon, not energy </li></ul><ul><li>We must start addressing climate change now – not in 2050 or 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>80% reduction in CO2 emissions will fundamentally change everything we do including ICT and networks </li></ul><ul><li>Huge potential for innovation for ICT sector because 30% of energy must come from renewable sources </li></ul>
    55. 55. Thank you <ul><li>More information </li></ul><ul><li>List server on Green IT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send e-mail to bill.st.arnaud@canarie.ca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://green-broadband.blogspot.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://free-fiber-to-the-home.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>

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