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Dynamic charging (on the move) of electric vehicles

Dynamic charging (on the move) of electric vehicles
Building the world's first "Energy Internet"

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Liviu:
    I agree with your assessment of inductive charging. What I propose is more in line with hybrid-engine-hope.com, but using capacitive charging. This is a well proven technology now in use in several cities in China
    Bill
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  • The dynamic inductive charging (on the move) cannot be implemented at large scale because of the enormous cost and huge electromagnetic fields incompatible with the living beings.

    A more realistic approach is now proposed by Siemens and Scania which will develop an entire electrified highway in California for heavy vehicles. An even simpler solution is presented in the site www.hybrid-engine-hope.com/hybrid_transport_system where you can find few solutions developed also for passenger cars.
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Dynamic charging (on the move) of Dynamic charging (on the move) of Presentation Transcript

  • Dynamic Charging (On the Move) of Electric Vehicles Building the Future “Energy Internet” Bill.st.arnaud@gmail.com November 17, 2011 Unless otherwise noted all material in this slide deck may be reproduced, modified or distributed without prior permission of the author 1
  • Current limitations of eVehicles (EV)• High capital cost due to large cost of batteries• High operating cost because batteries need to be replaced every 2-5 years• Limited range, especially in cold weather when battery capacity is reduced• Battery capacity reduced by up to 1/3 if air conditioning or cabin heating is required• Long time to re-charge between trips – So a small number of short trips within a day can deplete batteries – Inhibits spontaneity of taking a long trip because of uncertainty of charge state• Although operational cost (i.e. fuel consumption) is less than traditional automobile overall amortized cost higher 2
  • Alternative to the battery• Rather than waiting for perfect battery why not change the charging system?• Old world thinking that vehicles must be stationary to be refueled. – This was true when using fossil fuels• But with electric vehicles there is no reason why they cannot be charged while on the move• Dynamic (on the move) charging 3 View slide
  • Dynamic (on the move) charging• Also sometimes referred to “pathway” charging• Charging systems are located enroute – eVehicle can be charged while moving or at drive through locations• Initial applications are drive through banks, drive through fast food restaurants, parking lots – Eventually deployed along road ways at traffic lights and toll plazas• Dynamic charging enables frequent charges with small charging cycles and smaller battery capacity• Today’s charging infrastructures assumes infrequent charges with deep charging cycles and large battery capacity 4 View slide
  • Advantages of dynamic charging• Smaller batteries possible -reducing capital costs• Frequent charging of batteries prevents battery depletion and longer life• Reduces concerns of range anxiety• Heavier eVehicles such as trucks and buses are realistically possible• Vehicle can be charged enroute and then used as an alternate power source for the home• Eventually concepts of “packet” based power are conceivable leading to future “Energy Internet” 5
  • Two alternative approaches• Induction charging with embedded induction pads in the road – Auckland University company in $70m deal with Qualcomm for inductive car charging technology – http://tinyurl.com/73pdksw – But induction charging requires precise tolerances and alignment – Difficult to maintain in heavy traffic and inclement weather such as ice and snow – Also requires specialized electronics in vehicle• Capacitive Charging using overhead “electrical umbrellas” - capabuses – Currently operation in Shanghai with public buses – http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/23754/ 6
  • New Zealand HaloIPT Induction Charging http://www.haloipt.com/ 7
  • Shanghai Capabus – Capacitive Charging China is experimenting with a new form of electric bus, known as Capabus, which runs without continuous overhead lines (is an autonomous vehicle) by using power stored in large onboard electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), which are quickly recharged whenever the vehicle stops at any bus stop (under so-called electric umbrellas), and fully charged in the terminus. 8
  • Next-gen dynamic charging concept• Rather than drawing power from grid use local solar panels and/or windmills – Potential demonstrated with Shanghai buses at Washington U• When solar panel or windmill is not charging vehicles it can be used to feed power into grid – Ontario FIT program will pay 80.5 cents/kwh – Annual payback of 6-10%• Unknowns and challenges – Can we build a dynamic charging system for automobiles based on Shanghai bus model using renewable energy alone? 9
  • Ontario to invest $80m in EV charging systems• Seed money will fund electric car charging development• The Ontario provincial government announced it would set aside an $80 million fund to channel seed money to public and private companies who want to develop electric car recharging facilities.• Premier Dalton McGuinty is hoping this will encourage companies to draft proposals to build and test recharging docks, and also to expand the availability of rechargers in the province.• The move is part of the provinces clean energy goals; other initiatives include a $5,000 to $8,500 rebate on electric cars and "green licence plates" to let EV drivers use HOV lanes. 10
  • Other Ontario Incentives• Effective July 1, 2010, Ontario consumers will be eligible for an incentive ranging from $5,000 to $8,500 towards the purchase or lease of a new plug-in hybrid electric or battery electric vehicle.• The provinces vision is to have one out of 20 cars in Ontario electrically powered by 2020.• Toyota recently announced it chose Woodstock, Ontario as the place to manufacture the RAV4 EV.• More cars are built in Ontario than any other state or province in North America. 11
  • Next generation dynamic charging To Grid for feed in tariff Inverter Ultra-capacitor Charging rail eVehicle with charging whip 20 – 100 meters? 12
  • How does it work• Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels charge ultra-capacitor connected to a charge rail• When eVehicle approaches charge rail it extends charging whip• Ultra-capacitor discharges onto onboard ultra-capacitor in eVehicle through charging whip• Onboard ultra-capacitor slowly discharges to vehicle batteries using existing external charging connector – Eventually can be internally wired so that same ultra-capacitor can be used for regenerative braking 13
  • Things that need to be researched• Design of charging whip and charging rail to ensure good contact at reasonable high speed – Lots of good data from trolley buses, electric railways, etc – Alternative design is “electric poma” where whip extends from rail and connects with eVehicle as it passes underneath, and then released after charging• How much current, and how fast, can one ultra-capacitor discharge to another capacitor?• How will charging whip be designed for high current loads and passenger safety?• Length of charging rail and time need to charge?• Communications system and signaling between eVehicle and dynamic charging station• How to handle multiple eVehicles going through charging system at the same time? (electric poma may solve this problem) 14
  • Why not use fixed static charging stations?• Fixed charging stations are difficult to find and get blocked by charging vehicle – Consider a dynamic charging station on entrance to parking garage versus fixed charging stations at each parking spot• Fixed charging stations require driver to get out of vehicle and connect charging cable• Current systems may require several hours to provide full charge – Ultra capacitors could help reduce charging time• Revenue per vehicle and per station very small• Static or fixed charging assumes infrequent charges with deep charging cycles and large battery capacity versus dynamic charging assumes frequent charges with small charging cycles and smaller battery capacity 15
  • Why not use power from grid for dynamic charging?• Most grid systems have large percentage of coal power – CO2 savings are marginal – Scant CO2 Benefit from China’s Coal-Powered Electric Cars – http://green-broadband.blogspot.com/2011/10/scant-co2-benefit- from-chinas-coal.html• Within 3- 4 years it is expected electricity from solar panels will be cheaper than from grid – http://e360.yale.edu/feature/solar_power_nrg_president_crane_ties_ future_to_renewable_energy/2462/• Grid interconnection fees, transformers, debt retirement charges, etc significantly drive up costs – However in some locations using solar panel to feed power to grid may allow for additional revenue 16
  • Initial target markets• Drive through banks, fast food restaurants, parking garages, universities, golf courses, etc – “Will that be fries with your free electrical charge?” – Complete package of PV system on roof connected to ultra-capacitor and charge rail – When PV is not charging vehicles it can be making money from feed in tariff – Guaranteed 6-10% return even if not a single vehicle charged• Initial target vehicles: campus service vehicles, utility fleets, golf carts, ride sharing, early EV adopters• Eventually deployed at toll plazas, on/off ramps, stop lights and intersections 17
  • The Future – “Energy Internet”• In future dynamic charging stations can be designed to receive energy as well as deliver energy from passing vehicles• eVehicle becomes more than a transportation system – it also becomes an energy transport system to transfer energy between dynamic charging stations – E.g. power from under utilized charging stations can be delivered by eVehicle to charging stations that are heavily used – Or power can be brought to the home to provide backup power to the home• Dynamic charging station becomes energy packet router/switch!• Rather than eVehicle coming home with depleted batteries, instead it comes home fully charged in order to provide power to the home• eVehicle becomes competitive alternative to the electrical grid• Interconnect to distributed computing clouds and networks like Greenstar to provide power for distributed caches, cell phone towers, etc -- especially on cloudy days or little wind 18
  • Next steps?• Pilot project demonstrating concept of dynamic charging of vehicles• Seeking partners and interested parties who may want to participate• Research needed into design of charging whips and rails 19
  • Further Reading• Green Investment Opportunity for small business - on the move electric car charging http://green-broadband.blogspot.com/2010/04/green-investment-opportunity- for-small.html• How California suburban sprawl could be the answer to global warming http://green-broadband.blogspot.com/2010/12/how-california-suburban-sprawl- could-be.html• The "Energy Internet" - how the Internet + renewable energy can transform the economy http://green-broadband.blogspot.com/2011/10/energy-internet-how-internet- renewable.html#more• Electric roads and Internet will allow coast to coast driving with no stopping and no emissions http://green-broadband.blogspot.com/2011/05/electric-roads-and-internet-will- allow.html 20