Dynamic charging latest developments


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Dynamic charging latest developments

  1. 1. Building an alternative renewable power distribution system to the electrical grid using dynamic charging of eVehicles Last updated February 9, 2014 Bill.st.arnaud@gmail.com
  2. 2. Executive Summary • Charging eVehicles as they move (dynamic Charging) significantly reduces size and weight of batteries as vehicle only needs enough battery capacity to get to next dynamic charging station a few kilometers away • It also allows eVehicles to become an energy transport system in addition to carrying people and goods • eVehicle can be used to transport energy from small distributed solar panels in rural or suburban areas to buildings (V2B) in cities or other areas as needed • Technology already working for buses in various cities around the world and in use on factory floors • Transportation and Electrical Energy Generation are the two largest sources of CO2 emissions. Dynamic charging can significantly mitigate against these sources CO2
  3. 3. Current limitations of eVehicles (EV) • High capital cost due to large cost of batteries • High operating cost because batteries need to be replaced every 2-5 years • Limited range, especially in cold weather when battery capacity is reduced – Battery capacity reduced by up to 1/3 if air conditioning or cabin heating is required • Long time to re-charge between trips – So a small number of short trips within a day can deplete batteries – Inhibits spontaneity of taking a long trip because of uncertainty of charge state • Battery powered trucks and buses are more problematic in terms of range and cost 3
  4. 4. Alternative to the battery • Rather than waiting for perfect battery why not change the charging system? • Old world thinking that vehicles must be stationary to be refueled. – This was true when using fossil fuels • But with electric vehicles there is no reason why they cannot be charged while on the move • Dynamic (on the move) charging (aka opportunity charging) – Only 1/5 of battery capacity required compared to regular eVehicle 4
  5. 5. Dynamic Charging • The current vision for most eVehicles is stationary charging at home or at the office • With dynamic mobile charging, the eVehicle can be charged as it is travelling along the highway using power from roadside solar panels and/or windmills – Technology already in use for public bus transportation in various cities and on factory/warehouse systems (opportunity charging) • eVehicle can then be used to deliver this energy as a backup or primary power source at the home or office, rather than consuming electricity at destination – Also known as Vehicle to Building (V2B) Power distribution – http://www.navigantresearch.com/research/vehicle-to-building-technologies • eVehicle then would become a competitor to the electrical grid for delivering renewable energy.
  6. 6. Advantages of dynamic charging • Smaller number of batteries possible -reducing capital costs • Frequent charging of batteries prevents battery depletion and longer life • Reduces concerns of range anxiety • Heavier eVehicles such as trucks and buses are realistically possible • Vehicle can be charged enroute and then used as an alternate power source for the home or business –vehicle to grid or vehicle to business • Eventually concepts of “packet” based power are conceivable leading to future “Energy Internet” 6
  7. 7. Vehicle To Building (V2B) Power • In the coming decade, the energy stored electric vehicle batteries will increasingly be made available to commercial buildings • Numerous pilot projects are now underway around the world to develop and test V2B technologies. • The majority of these programs are part of larger projects that are testing microgrid and smart grid technologies. – http://www.navigantresearch.com/research/v ehicle-to-building-technologies
  8. 8. Dynamic Charging Technologies • Wireless : – Inductive charging uses the electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects in close – Magnetic resonance uses the magnetic coupling of two objects exchanging energy through their varying or oscillating magnetic fields. • Conductive Requires physical contact – Overhead Conductive uses overhead rails or wires as in tram and trolley wires – In Ground Conductive embedded rails as in subways or slot car racing – Capacitive Umbrellas uses overhead “electrical umbrellas” 8
  9. 9. Wireless vs Conductive • Wireless – Pros • No wires or physical obstructions – Cons • Difficult to maintain in heavy traffic and inclement weather such as ice and snow • Concerns about impact on embedded medical devices such as pace makers from strong magnetic fields • Risks of fire if small pieces of metal debris or on charging pad • Very low efficiencies • Still experimental • Conductive – Pros • In operation in several cities around the world with public buses and trams • Well proven technology – Cons • Unsightly wires and infrastructure • High voltages and currents
  10. 10. Wireless Solutions
  11. 11. New IEEE pre-standardization for dynamic wireless charging • Power Transfer Industry Connections Activity. • Motivation and goal: This IEEE Standards Association Industry Connection Activity is related to pre--‐standardization efforts in the domain of Electric Vehicle Wireless Power Transfer with a particular focus on dynamic wireless charging as these efforts address the range limitation of electric vehicles as well as the cost aspect of the vehicle energy storage and complement the current standardization activities of the SAE J2954)
  12. 12. German prototype induction dynamic charging • http://www.gizmag.com/drawing-power-from-the-road/12874/
  13. 13. New Zealand HaloIPT Induction Dynamic Charging http://www.haloipt.com/ 13
  14. 14. Peugeot EX1 • First all electric race car to use dynamic charging • http://www.gizmag.com/dynamic-charging-for-electric-race-cars/19344/
  15. 15. The e-quickie • Student project to build dynamic charged ebike • http://www.gizmag.com/e-quickie-electric-vehicle-with-wireless-energy- transmission/16346/
  16. 16. EU Funded Program • Project addresses directly the technological feasibility, economic viability and socio-environmental of dynamic on-road charging of electric vehicles • Advanced solutions, conceived to enable full integration in the grid and road infrastructure within urban- and extra-urban environments for a wide range of future electric vehicles, will be implemented and tested. • http://www.fabric-project.eu/
  17. 17. Korean On Line Electric Vehicle • http://www.gizmag.com/kaist-olev-electric-vehicle/12557/
  18. 18. KAIST reveals proof of concept dynamic charging in city park • Batteries 1/5 the size required for normal eVehicle • http://www.gizmag.com/kaist-proof-of-concept-olev-power-road/14454/
  19. 19. KAIST rolling out dynamic wireless charging in buses in South Korea • City of Gumi in South Korea, beginning on 6 August, is providing its citizens with OLEV public transportation services. After the successful operation of the two OLEV buses by the end of this year, Gumi City plans to provide ten more such buses by 2015. – http://www.greencarcongress.com/2013/0 8/kaist-20130808.html
  20. 20. Manhole cover charging in NYC • HEVO Power, which is conducting a manhole pilot with New York University • New York City-based HEVO is focusing on company vehicle fleets as its first market. • Wireless charging for fleet vehicles makes financial sense for corporations • Wireless charging solves issues of the safety hazard of long cords lying around, vandalism, damaged connectors from incorrect use and dead vehicles because drivers forgot to plug them in – http://www.eenews.net/stories/1059989839
  21. 21. Brabant NL to deploy world’s first dynamic mobile charging • Starting in mid -2013 the demonstration project will use inductive charging to charge vehicles as they drive a special lane in the highway. – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBTx87xiscs – http://www.wired.com/autopia/2012/10/glowing-roads/
  22. 22. Conductive Solutions
  23. 23. Shanghai Capabus – Capacitive Dynamic Charging China is experimenting with a new form of electric bus, known as Capabus, which runs without continuous overhead lines (is an autonomous vehicle) by using power stored in large onboard electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), which are quickly recharged whenever the vehicle stops at any bus stop (under so-called electric umbrellas), and fully charged in the terminus. 23 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capa_vehicle
  24. 24. Opbrid Fast Charging • Opbrid Introduces New Overhead Fast-Charging System for Buses; Leveraging Lithium Titanate (nLTO) Battery Technology for Rapid Charge Hybrids – http://www.greencarcongress.com/2010/10/opbrid-20101006.html
  25. 25. Flash Charging of Buses • 15 second charging of bus at each stop • http://www.abb.com/cawp/seitp202/931 5e568e4c6a1f8c1257b7400302fcd.aspx
  26. 26. Volvo’s electric i-road • Volvo research into a future where trucks and buses continuously are supplied with electric power without carrying large batteries. Instead, power lines are built into the surface of the road. This could be a future solution for long-distance trucks and buses running on electricity. – http://news.volvogroup.com/2013/05/23 /the-road-of-tomorrow-is-electric/
  27. 27. Sweden Elways http://elways.se/elways-solution/?lang=en Conductive solution
  28. 28. Siemens dynamic charging for trucks 28 http://reviews.cnet.com/8301- 13746_7-57430211-48/siemens- electrifies-trucks-with-trolley- technology/
  29. 29. Overhead Charging Umbrellas for cars • Overhead charging umbrellas situated every few kilometers • Charging umbrellas can also be located at drive through restaurants, banks, etc. – https://lmco.brightidea.com/ct/ct_a_view_idea .bix?c=DDB6E8A8-81B8-4F5E-8B70- FCB95B8821EA&idea_id=20EDD0CA-0550- 4C4A-A40C-89FE35C2F7BA • Excellent YouTube video: – http://goo.gl/7ecGq
  30. 30. Future Directions for Dynamic Charging
  31. 31. Next generation dynamic charging 3120 – 100 meters Surplus power to Grid for feed in tariff Inverter Ultra-capacitor Charging rail eVehicle with charging skeg More details: elways.se Roadside solar panel array
  32. 32. How does it work • Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels charge ultra-capacitor connected to a charge rail • When eVehicle approaches charge rail skeg underneath vehicle makes contact with in ground charging rail • Ultra-capacitor discharges onto onboard ultra-capacitor in eVehicle through charging skeg located underneath vehicle • Onboard ultra-capacitor slowly discharges to vehicle motor and batteries – Potential demonstrated with Shanghai buses at Washington U • When solar panel or windmill is not charging vehicles it can be used to feed power into grid – FIT programs will pay up to 80.5 cents/kwh – Annual payback of 6-10% 32
  33. 33. Rough Calculations • Electric car consumes 200-400 whr/km • Assume only one electric car on highway every hour – Reasonable assumption given number of eVehicles on road today • Therefore only need 4-5 panel 150W panel array every kilometer – Allowing for panel and capacitor inefficiencies • As number and frequency of vehicles increases, size of and frequency arrays will need to be increased – 4 lane divided highway has approximately 3000 cars/hr maximum capacity – Maximum power draw per km would be 200-400 whr/km x 3000 cars = .6 -1.2 Mw/km – Approximately 10,000 panels required per km at peak traffic load
  34. 34. Case Study Golf Cart For proposed Crowdsource funding • Application: – Golf courses, retirement community vehicles, university campus service fleet, emergency V2B backup for critical systems such as network and computing equipment • Assume : – Golf course with dynamic charge rail at each hole and course distance 10km (including distance between holes) or average .5km hole – Typical golf cart consumption 200 wh/km. Therefore need to charge golf cart 100 wh to get to next hole – 2 Golf carts arriving at a given hole every 7-8 minutes –9 arrivals per hour • Solar capacity: – 2 x 100 wh x 9 arrivals/hr = 1.8 kwh – Assuming 150w panels = 12-15 panels average per hole • Skeg power capacity: – Assume golf cart stays on charging rail for one minute= 6000 watt-minutes power transfer – Approx 6000 volts @1A or 250V @ 20A or 600V @ 10A for 60v @ 100A or 48V @125A – Note that streetcar and subways usually operate at 600V @ 200 A & Elways claims 250 Kw power – 48V design would eliminate need for DC/DC converters (but would not be useful for cars or trucks) • Ultra capacitor size: – Maxwell BCAP 3000 3wh => 33 caps required
  35. 35. System Diagram for Golf Cart System Solar PV array Inverter Regulator Charger DC/DC Converter Ultra Capacitor Battery Bank Charge Rail 600V 600V .1 KW 48V 1.5 KW 600V .1KW Skeg Battery Bank Motor 48V Ultra Capacitor 100wH 500wH DC/DC Converter Solenoid Rail Activation Switch Rail De- Activation Switch To grid ~ GolfCart
  36. 36. Golf Cart System Design Notes • Golf Cart electrical systems are very simple typically with 48V circuits – http://s985.photobucket.com/user/wizards1/media/DIAGRAMS/1980marathonwiringdiagram.png.html • 600V design chosen for charge rail as this is the most common voltage for streetcars, subways, etc. But based on design of charge rail and skeg other voltages and power ratings may make more sense to reduce arcing and/or welding • DC/DC converter pulse power requirements is .5KW over 1 minute duration assuming voltage rail is 600 V – DC/DC converters should be bi-directional to enable future V2B and power routing applications • Assumption that golf cart stays in contact with rail for 1 minute. May be possible to use higher currents and voltages or longer rails – E.g. Elways has tested their rail at 250KW continuous • Solar array charging system has 5x capacity of individual golf cart to enable charging of several carts in rapid succession • Only one golf cart allowed per charge rail segment. Charge rail may be made up many segments to allow several carts to be charged at once • For rail and skeg design see www.elways.se
  37. 37. Why not use power from grid for dynamic charging? • Within 3- 4 years it is expected electricity from solar panels will be cheaper than from grid – http://mobile.nytimes.com/2014/11/24/business/energy-environment/solar-and-wind- energy-start-to-win-on-price-vs-conventional-fuels.html?referrer=&_r=0 • Most grid systems have large percentage of coal power – CO2 savings are marginal – Scant CO2 Benefit from China’s Coal-Powered Electric Cars – http://green-broadband.blogspot.com/2011/10/scant-co2-benefit-from-chinas- coal.html • Grid interconnection fees, transformers, debt retirement charges, etc significantly drive up costs – However in some locations using solar panel to feed power to grid may allow for additional revenue • Grid and utility power reliability is declining with increased severe weather due to climate change 37
  38. 38. Future vulnerability of grid why we need an alternative for distribution of local renewable power • “US Energy sector vulnerabilities to climate change and extreme weather” US Department of Energy July 2013 – http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/20 13/07/f2/20130716- Energy%20Sector%20Vulnerabilities %20Report.pdf 38 Recent Sample outages • Coal and nuclear power generating capacity will decrease by between 4 and 16 percent in the United States and a 6 to 19 percent decline in Europe due to lack of cooling water. • http://www.reuters.com/artic le/2012/06/04/climate-water- energy- idUSL3E8H41SO20120604
  39. 39. Why not use fixed static charging stations? • Static or fixed charging assumes infrequent charges with deep charging cycles and large battery capacity versus dynamic charging assumes frequent charges with small charging cycles and smaller battery capacity • Current systems may require several hours to provide full charge • Fixed charging stations are difficult to find and get blocked by current charging vehicle – Limited capability to charge multiple vehicles at the same time because of long charging cycle • Fixed charging stations require driver to get out of vehicle and connect charging cable 39
  40. 40. Past concerns about using Solar Panels for Charging EV • Previous attempts to use solar panels for static charging of eVehicles have not been very successful – Very large solar arrays are required because need to recharge depleted battery bank – Doesn’t work at night time or on cloud days – Design premised that each vehicle requires long deep charge cycle • With dynamic charging only have to provide enough power to get to next charging station – Don’t need to design to recharge depleted batteries – Solar panel capacity per charge therefore considerably less • Dynamic charging also means smaller battery capacity required which reduces vehicle weight and improves performance and cost – Up to 1/5 battery capacity required with dynamic charging
  41. 41. Initial target markets • Drive through banks, fast food restaurants, parking garages, universities, golf courses, etc – “Will that be fries with your free electrical charge?” – Complete package of PV system on roof connected to ultra-capacitor and charge rail – When PV is not charging vehicles it can be making money from feed in tariff – Guaranteed 6-10% return even if not a single vehicle charged • V2B for maintain critical systems at universities and businesses such as computing and network equipment, alarm systems, etc • Eventually deployed at toll plazas, on/off ramps, stop lights and intersections 41
  42. 42. eVehicle energy storage and micro grids for university 42 UCSD 2nd life battery program University Delaware use of eVehicles for power
  43. 43. Suburban sprawl may be answer to global warming • Suburban lifestyle with distributed solar panels on every house with dynamic charging of vehicles driving by the house • Rather than charging vehicles at home and driving to work or shopping, vehicle is charged on the way to and from work or shopping • eVehicle can then be used for supplementary power during the day at work, or during the night at home – http://www.navigantresearch.com/research/vehicle-to- building-technologies • Suburban sprawl to power cities of the future – http://www.lincoln.ac.uk/news/2013/07/745.asp • How suburban sprawl paradoxically could be the answer to global warming – http://goo.gl/bXO6x
  44. 44. Research Initiatives-Energy Internet • With Energy Internet it is assumed that many energy consuming devices power have their own local power source e.g: – WiFi spot with its own solar panel – Backup battery power on computer – Electric vehicle with its own battery bank • Many possible virtual and real power circuits: Software Defined Power Networks – PoE, USB, Traditional 110/220, 48V Dc,Pulse power over Cat 5 – Power routing across devices following path of virtual power circuit • Ideal for existing intelligent networked devices like computers, switches, routers, servers, Wifi hot spots , electric vehicle charging stations, etc – Most of these devices have their own on board storage and so techniques such as round-robin power distribution are possible • Network engineers & researchers have to start thinking how to deploy networks that are powered solely by solar power – http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/rob-commentary/rob-insight/an-earth-day- look-at-the-sunny-state-of-solar/article18101176/#dashboard/follows/ … 44
  45. 45. The Future – “Energy Internet” • eVehicle becomes more than a human transportation system – it also becomes an energy transport system to transfer renewable energy between dynamic charging stations – E.g. power from under utilized charging stations can be delivered by eVehicle to charging stations that are heavily used – Or power can be brought to the home to provide backup power to the home • Dynamic charging station becomes energy packet router/switch! • Rather than eVehicle coming home with depleted batteries, instead it comes home fully charged in order to provide power to the home • eVehicle becomes competitive alternative to the electrical grid • http://Green-broadband.blogspot.com 45
  46. 46. “Packetized Power” with autonomous eVehicles • Autonomous eVehicles could be used to capture renewable power from solar panels along highways to deliver to remote sites • Alternative back up power source instead of diesel generators • Autonomous vehicles could store and forward power to other vehicles at packet power routing points • Where practical can be also used to carry passengers – next generation ZipCar
  47. 47. More on Energy Internet • How suburban sprawl paradoxically could be the answer to global warming http://goo.gl/bXO6x • Green Investment Opportunity for small business - on the move electric car charging http://goo.gl/c44Tv • Dynamic Charging and Why Energy needs to be Free to reduce CO2 http://goo.gl/LQQum • Packet Based Energy Delivery Systems http://goo.gl/pZEdE • Electric roads and Internet will allow coast to coast driving with no stopping and no emissions http://goo.gl/lMmLy
  48. 48. Let’s Keep The Conversation Going E-mail Blogs http://green-broadband.blogspot.com Twitter http://twitter.com/BillStArnaud Bill.St.Arnaud@gmail.com Bill St. Arnaud is a R&E Network and Green IT consultant who works with clients on a variety of subjects such as the next generation research and education and Internet networks. He also works with clients to develop practical solutions to reduce GHG emissions such as free broadband and electrical highways (See http://green-broadband.blogspot.com/) .
  49. 49. E1-Assist Concept • EV charging system that makes use of existing technology • System comes as a trailer-like unit hauled by a truck. Private electric cars can simply merge with the truck and accomplish any energy needs on the go. • http://www.environmentteam.com/concept/category/futuristic-vehicles/
  50. 50. Hybrid Transport System • Similar concept for capacitive charging proposed in French patent • Interesting concept of alternating polarity on single rail – http://www.hybrid-engine-hope.com/hybrid_transport_system
  51. 51. Arizona Dynamic Charging Solar Train • Proposed solar train between Phoenix and Tuscon • Solar panels will power train and provide surplus power to the grid – http://www.solarbullet.org/
  52. 52. SAE standards for wireless charging • SAE has launched a taskforce (SAE J2954) on the “Wireless Charging of Electric and Plug-in Electric Vehicles”—i.e. EVs and PHEVs. • The taskforce goal is to establish performance and safety limits for wireless power transfer for automotive applications while establishing a minimum interoperability requirement. • The scope of the work covers light duty passenger EVs and PHEVs and buses. Charging locations to be considered include residential; on-road (static and dynamic)
  53. 53. Things that need to be researched • Design of charging whip and charging rail to ensure good contact at reasonable high speed • How much current, and how fast, can one ultra-capacitor discharge to another capacitor? • Length of charging rail and time need to charge? • Communications system and signaling between eVehicle and dynamic charging station • How to handle multiple eVehicles going through charging system at the same time? 53