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Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb
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Child labour in cotton growing haryana 23 feb

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child labour in cotton field a survey based study

child labour in cotton field a survey based study

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  • 1. CHILD LABOUR IN COTTON GROWING FIELDS BASE LINE SURVEY OF HARYANA
  • 2. CONTENTChapter Title of the Chapter PagesNo Summary 1-31 Introduction 4-82 Village Profile 9-123 Household and Child Profile 13-214 Child Labour 22-265. Children in Cotton Work 27-34 Annexure 35-36 2
  • 3. SUMMARY STATISTICS OF CHILDREN IN THREE COTTON GROWING DISTRICT IN HARYANA A. CHILDREN Age Group 6-14 years 15-17* years 6-17* years Male Estimated (%) 196,971 (21.0) 74,389 (7.9) 271,360 (28.9) Sample (No.) 2158 815 2973 Female Estimated (%) 170,305 (20.9) 53,922 (6.6) 128,598 (27.5) Sample (No.) 1775 562 2337 Persons Estimated (%) 271,360 (20.9) 128,598 (7.3) 495,900 (28.3) Sample (No.) 3933 1377 5310 B. EDUCATIONAL STATUS Age Group 6-14 years 15-17* years 6-17* years Attending school (%) 94.4 81.5 91.1 Sample (No.) 3712 1108 4820 Drop Out (%) 1.2 11.4 3.8 Sample (No.) 46 155 201 Never Attended School (%) 4.4 7.0 5.1 Sample (No.) 174 95 269 C. WORKING CHILDREN Age -Group 6-14 years 15-17* years 6-17* years Male Estimated Main (%) 4,290 (2.2) 12,505 (16.8) 16,795 (6.2) Estimated Main +Subsidiary (%) 29,482 (15.0) 36,875 (49.6) 66,357 (24.5) Survey (No.) Main 47 137 184 Survey (No.) Main +Subsidiary 323 404 727 Female Estimated Main (%) 672 (0.4) 768 (1.4) 1,439 (0.6) Estimated Main +Subsidiary (%) 26,481 (15.5) 21,588 (40.0) 48,069 (21.4) Survey (No.) Main 7 8 15 Survey (No.) Main +Subsidiary 276 225 501 Persons Estimated Main (%) 4,962 (1.4) 13,272 (10.5) 18,234 (3.7) Estimated Main +Subsidiary (%) 55,963 (15.2) 58,463 (45.7) 114,426 (23.1) Survey (No.) Main 54 145 199 Survey (No.) Main +Subsidiary 599 629 1228 3
  • 4. D. WORKING CHILDREN IN COTTON Age -Group 6-14 years 15-17* years 6-17* years Male Estimated Main (%) 2,008 (1.0) 4,564 (6.1) 6,572 (2.4) Estimated Main +Subsidiary (%) 25,466 (12.9) 27,291 (36.7) 52,757 (19.4) Survey (No.) Main 22 50 72 Survey (No.) Main +Subsidiary 279 299 578 Female Estimated Main (%) 576 (0.3) 480 (0.9) 1,055 (0.5) Estimated Main +Subsidiary (%) 25,042 (14.7) 18,806 (34.9) 43,848 (19.6) Survey (No.) Main 6 5 11 Survey (No.) Main +Subsidiary 261 196 457 Persons Estimated Main (%) 2,584 (0.7) 5,043 (4.0) 7,627 (1.6) Estimated Main +Subsidiary (%) 50,508 (13.7) 46,097 (35.9) 96,604 (19.5) Survey (No.) Main 28 55 83 Survey (No.) Main +Subsidiary 540 495 1035*upto 18 years of age; Household Covered in Survey: 4022 And Individual Household Members; 18783 4
  • 5. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.1. BackgroundSave the Children, Bal-Raksha, Bharat is a child rights organisation and an independentmember of the International Save the Children Alliance. It works with children,communities, government and civil society organisations across 12 states and unionterritories for realisation of children’s rights, particularly in the areas of quality education,protection from abuse and exploitation, health & nutrition and protection in emergencysituations. The organisation works to make child labour socially and culturallyunacceptable primarily through intense community and children’s mobilisation andthrough constructive engagement with national and state governments.In spite of international instruments, constitutional guarantees and legal provisions thatban employment of children under the age of 14, the problem of child labour persists in theIndian society. The largest employment of children in India is in agriculture, accounting forabout 80% of total working children. More than 40% of those children are actuallyemployed in the cotton fields – both commercial cotton and cottonseed. A study by IKEA(2008) has estimated that about 4.1 million children are currently employed in cottonfields alone across six major cotton growing states in India. These cotton states includeMaharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. Apart from this, astudy by D. Venkateswarlu (2007) had projected an employment of over 400,000 childrenin the cottonseeds production process.Recognising the enormity of child labour issues in commercial cotton and cottonseedproduction and the urgency to work for their progressive elimination, Save the Childrenand IKEA – a global leader in modern home and office accessories – have come togetherwith a 12 year intervention strategy between 2009 and 2021. A total of six major cottongrowing states as mentioned above will be covered under this strategy. The 12 years aredivided in to 3 four-year project phases. The first phase started with the states ofMaharastra and Gujarat wherein highest employment of children in cotton have beenestimated. The project is proposed to be extended to the states of Punjab, Haryana andRajasthan. This study proposes to conduct a baseline survey to examine the incidence ofchild labour, their working conditions, their awareness of child rights and the socio-economic profile and living standards of their families in the selected households belongingto the four districts of Punjab and three districts of Haryana and one district of Rajasthan,where Save the Children and IKEA proposes to commence the project on elimination ofchild labour. The first part of this study was conducted in Banswara district of Rajasthan.1.2. Study AreaIn the production of cotton, Haryana state has come up as a major producer in India. Thecotton in Haryana is cultivated under cotton-wheat double cropping. It grows long staplecotton. The cotton growing districts are Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Bhiwani, Jhajjar andRohtac etc. The time of sowing is from 15th April to 30th May and the picking is done in themonth of Ocober-November. In the present study major districts Hissar, Sirsa andFatehabad districts have been selected for detail investigation. These districts are located 5
  • 6. in western Haryana and touching the boundaries of Punjab in the North and Rajasthan inthe south.In the selected districts almost two third of the population resides in rural areas. The sexratio of the districts in rural areas was far below than the national average of 947 in 2011.Average literacy rate of districts in 2011 was in the rage of 67 per cent and 70 per cent. Theliteracy rate in lower in studied district compared to state. Table 1.1: District Wise Rural Population Distribution Sirsa Hisar Fatehabab Haryana Total Population 974,624 1,189,789 762,182 16,531,49 Population 75.25 68.27 80.95 65.21 Male Population 514,092 634,149 400,587 8,791,036 Female Population 460,532 555,640 361,595 7,740,457 Literacy 66.90 70.02 66.73 72.74 Sex Ratio 896 876 903 880Source: Census of India, 2011According to National Sample Survey, 2010, about 40% people and 5.4 % children betweenthe age group of 6-18 years are working rural Hayrana. More than half of all the workersand 69% children were involved in agriculture including cotton cultivation in 2010. Inagriculture more female workers were involved compared to male in rural areas ofHaryana. Table 1.2: Workers Distribution in Rural Haryana Male Female Total Worker (%) All 52.15 24.96 39.59 Children (6-18) 6.18 4.33 5.42 Agriculture Worker (%) All 50.92 81.42 59.80 Children (6-18) 60.08 87.64 69.09 Source: National Sample Survey, 20101.3. Relevance and ObjectivesThe purpose of the survey is to provide a baseline for designing interventions that canmitigate the problem of child labour and provide long-term gains through a multi-prongedapproach. The baseline would be used to monitor progress and success against theidentified impact indicators. Following are the main objectives of the study: 6
  • 7. • To establish a set of baseline against identified indicators to measure progress and success of the project in terms of qualitative improvement in lives of working children and their families• Estimating the number of children involved in cotton cultivation• To study the working Condition of the children involved in cotton cultivation1.4. Research MethodologyThere is large number of child working population in India. Children not only work infamily farms but also migrate to distant areas for work. Various studies showed thatcomparatively large number of children involved in cotton fields of Haryana. In the studywe have chosen cotton three growing districts of Haryana namely Hisar, Sirsa andFatehabad. In the study, our purpose is to estimate of child labour involved in specificactivity of cotton cultivation in Haryana, which can be considered as destination of childlabour (that includes both local and migrant child workers). In cotton growing districts ofHaryana a three-stage sampling procedure (at blocks, village and households) will beadopted for the selection of primary unit of survey (household).(a) Selection of BlocksThe number of blocks selected in each district were based on two considerations i) numberof blocks, where cotton is grown, and ii)minimum of two villages in each of the selectedblock for field survey. The detail is given below: 7
  • 8. Table: District Wise Number of Cotton Growing Blocks and Selected Blocks Total Cotton Selected Growing Blocks Hisar 5 3 Fatehabad 4 2 Sirsa 4 2 Total cotton growing blocks 13 7(b) Selection of VillagesSimilar numbers of villages have chosen from each of the block in a district. The number ofvillages in the district to be surveyed was divided equally in the selected block. Thesevillages were chosen by circular random method after arranging villages in descendingorder of household size in block and selected by a random start with fixed interval.(c) Selection of HouseholdsAfter selection of villages a detailed census survey was conducted in the selected village bycovering all the households having children between 3 and below 18 years of age. Ifnumber of households in the selected village were more than 25% of the averagehousehold size per village in the district. Following procedure was used to conduct thesurvey:A village map was drawn through transact walk or in consultation with villagers andaccordingly households will be selected through circular random method. For example, inthe selected village if number of households are twice to district average, than everysecond households in the village will be selected randomly in the census survey. Finally, adetail sample survey of the child labour was conducted after identifying the child labour inthe census survey in the village.(d) Child Labour SampleA detailed sample survey of child labour working in cotton field was also done afterconducting the census survey. In the sample survey randomly every second children wereselected for detail interview. In sum, a total of 16 villages were surveyed in Haryanadistrict with 4022 households and 764 sample children working in cotton fields (Detailgiven in Appendix).1.5. Limitations • The survey was conducted at the peak season of cotton picking. Therefore finding the individual at home was difficult. Some of the households were left out as premises were found locked and we tried to cover them by visiting to the cotton fields, which was very near to their houses but still we could not cover all of them. • There was local language problem in the study area, so to avoid the language barrier local field investigators were employed in the survey. Overall due to the above limitations, we felt that about 10-15% of households were left in the survey. 8
  • 9. 1.6. Key InformantsAnganwadi workers, ANM, Sarpanch, Block Members, people of the village, people of othervillages, school teachers and NGO workers.1.7. Research ToolsThree survey tools or interview schedules namely village profile questionnaire, listing orcensus questionnaire and sample questionnaire have been used to collect both quantitativeand qualitative information. The listing interview schedule includes basic backgroundinformation of all the household members like their marital status, education, and workand migration status. Sample schedule covers the detailed information of on occupationalhazards, exploitation, health, abuse, child rights, protection and other work relatedinformation of the child labourers. Further, detailed discussions were carried out withseveral key informants like the village sarpanch, head master and teachers and NGOsworking in the villages to collect qualitative information on the situation of child labour. 9
  • 10. CHAPTER 2 VILLAGE PROFILEThe survey was conducted in 16 revenue villages in randomly selected cotton growingblocks of three districts namely Sirsa, Hisar and Fatehabad in Haryana. This chapter givesthe profile of the villages covered in the survey. Here we discuss the basic amenities andinfrastructure available in the villages, namely drinking water, electricity, drainagefacilities, motorable roads and the type of housing. We further present the various servicesavailable in the villages, namely that of schools, anganwadis and health centres. Further, wediscuss social protection facilities in the studied villages, namely NREGs and SHGs.Out of total 16 studied villages in the district 12.4% (2 villages) found extremely backwarddue to absence of three basic facilities of public health centre, primary school, individualdrinking water, motorable road and electricity.2.1. Access to Basic AmenitiesIn the studied villages main sources of drinking water facilities are both individual (50%)and community sources (50%). However, household survey data shows majority of thehouseholds (84%) have tap in dwelling and only12% use community sources like publichand pump/tube well, public tap and others for drinking water. Table 2.1: Source of Drinking Water Source % Own hand pump/tube well 2.66 Public hand pump/tube well 1.54 Tap in dwelling 83.66 Own dug well 1.57 Public dug well 0.57 Public tap 9.92 Pond, river, stream 0.07 HH Surveyed 4022Electricity is available in 93% of the studied villages and most of the households (88%) inthese villages have electric connection. About 81% of the villages have drainage facility butvillagers reported water logging problem during the rainy season due to non-maintenanceof drainage. More than three-fourth of the villages (81%) are well connected by motorableroad1 to the district headquarter.More than half of the households in the studied villages have pucca type 2 of houses (51%)followed by semi-pucca (30%) and katcha houses (18%). Average room per family is also1 Tarred road suitable for use by motor vehicles2 Pucca: Those with both roof and walls made of pucca materials such as cement, concrete, oven burnt bricksand other such building reinforcement materials; Kutcha: Those with both roof and walls made of kutcha(non-pucca) materials, such as mud, thatch, bamboo and tent; also includes structure with thatched walls andthatched roof ; Semi-Pucca: Those with either roof or walls, but not both, made of pucca materials; 10
  • 11. reported decent with average 2 room for katcha and semi pucca houses and 3 rooms forpucca houses per family. Table 2.2: Type of House and Average Number of Room Type % Average Number of Room Katcha 18.30 2 Semi-pucca 30.28 2 Pucca 51.42 3 Total 100.00 3 HH Survyed 4022About 85 per cent of the household in the village have toilet facility but open defecation isthe usual practice.2.2. ServicesThe literacy level is high in the studied area due to availability of government primaryschools in all the villages. Almost 70% of the studied villages have upper primary schooland 60% also have secondary schools. From other villages, where upper primary andsecondary school is not available, children travel on an average 5 kms to access suchfacilities.Vocational Training Institute are not present in the studied villages or nearby places.Children travel about 12 kms to get vocational training like computer training at blockheadquarter. In every village at least two Aganwadi centers (AWC) are located. Accordingto AWC workers all the centres provide supplementary nutrition and more than half (56%)counsel pregnant mothers. About 81% of the AWCs are providing immunization facility,health checkup and about 88% are providing pre-school education to 3-6 years oldchildren. Around 18% of the AWC’s worker reported referral facilities.The villagers reported there is no discrimination in the school on the basis of caste orgender in terms of enrollment, dropout and providing midday meals etc. Rather, one findsthat there are several schemes running in the schools in the studied villages for theencouragement education like provision of stipends, scholarships, free text books anduniforms. Girl children’s gets special incentives like cycles from state government. Table 2.3: Service Provided of Anganwadi % Supplementary Nutrition for children 0-6 years 100.00 Immunisation of children 81.25 Pre-school education for 3-6 yrs 87.50 Health check-ups for children 81.25 Referral services for children 18.25 Counselling of pregnant, lactating mothers & adolescent girls 56.25 Total Number of Villages 16 11
  • 12. Around three-fourth (75%) of the studied villages have health sub-centre, and little morethan one third (38%) have primary health centre. However, villagers reported poorservices from these centres. They reported that the staffs were either absent or they werenot familiar with the standard protocols of mother and child health. The people of non-PHC villages travel about 8.4 kms to access health services at nearest primary healthcentres or visit district headquarter. Free health checks up facilities are also provided inthe schools twice a year.2.3. Social ProtectionThere are women self help groups found in 63% of the studied villages with an average of 2SHGs per village having 8-12 members in each. Around 83% of them are linked to banksand formed under the government SGSY scheme. The National Employment Guaranteeschemes (NREGS) is operational in the studied villages for the last five years.Approximately 35% of the households have got job under the scheme. In the scheme theaverage wages reported by people is Rs 170 per day. In the studied villages, females availedNREGS work more than males in a ratio of 66 to 40. The focus group discussions revealedthat higher female participation in NREGS resulted in higher disposable income in poorfamilies and they started sending their children to school. Mid day meals are provided inthe school daily. People are satisfied with the type of quality of midday meals. Butsometimes delay in the supply of ration created problem for 2-3 days.SummaryOverall, on the positive side, majority of the villages are having drinking water facilities,electricity available at the household level, drainage facilities, toilet facilities, motorableroads, pucca housing, primary, upper primary and secondary schools, health sub centreand quite well-functioning anganwadi services. Majority of the villages had SHGs whichwere linked with banks and enjoyed NREGS services which paid them adequately andhelped many poor households to increase their disposable income. Further on the positiveside, are not finding any discrimination based on caste and gender with regard to theselected indicators in majority of the villages. Instead one could find several incentivisingmeasures for education of under-privileged children in these villages. On the problematicside are the absence of vocational training institutes, the non-maintenance of drainagefacilities, the non availability of primary health centres and the poor services rendered bythe health sub centres. 12
  • 13. CHAPTER 3 HOUSEHOLD AND CHILD PROFILEThis chapter presents the different socio-economic and demographic characteristics of thesurveyed households. Religion, caste, age-profile, literacy level, sex ratio and the averagenumber of children in the family of the surveyed households are presented. The activitystatus of the people, especially with regard migration, employment and the type ofoccupation is presented. The household income, their BPL/APL status, their female/ maleheaded status and their participation in NREGS are also presented. With regard to children,we have presented their education profile including vocational education, disability andmarriage status. We have also briefly touched upon the working status of the children.3.1 DemographyMajority of the population in the studied villages belong to Hindu religion (94%). Morethan half of them belonged to schedule caste (55%) followed by general caste (26%) andother backward caste (17%). About 38% of the population in the studied villages iscomprised of children below 18 years of age. Table 3.1a: Population by Gender, Social Group and Religion and Age Group (%) Male Female Total Religion Hindu 94.39 93.69 94.07 Muslim 0.58 0.67 0.62 Christian 0.09 0.15 0.12 Sikh 4.94 5.49 5.19 Caste Schedule Caste 54.53 54.61 54.57 Schedule Tribe 2.14 2.53 2.32 Other Backward Caste 17.40 17.39 17.40 General 25.93 25.47 25.72 Total Number (H) Households Age Group upto 3 3.80 3.62 3.72 3-5 6.23 5.20 5.76 6-14 20.99 20.87 20.94 15-17 7.93 6.61 7.33 18-59 55.27 57.28 56.18 60+ 5.78 6.42 6.07 Total 100 100 100 Number (N) Household Members 10279 8504 18783Note: The age groups given above are in completed years only; 3-5 refers as completed 3years and upto 6 years; similarly 6-14 and 14-17 means those who are upto 18 years or below18 years. Henceforth, this definition applies in all the tables 13
  • 14. The estimated population3 in the cotton growing block of the three surveyed districts inHaryana is approximately 175 thousand with 81.5 thousand male and about 94 thousandfemale in 2011. The sex ratio in the studied area is very disturbing with only 827 femaleper 1000 male compared to all India 9474. It is worse among children compared to adultsdue to prevailing high female foeticide and son preference. Table 3.2: Sex Ratio by Gender and Age Group Age Sex Ratio upto 3 788 3-5 691 6-14 823 15-17 690 18-59 857 60+ 919 All age group 827There is almost negligible presence of child marriage (0.66%) and only 0.87% children arementally or physically disabled in the studied villages. There is almost negligiblepercentage of married and disable children in the studied areas. The focus group discussionrevealed that child marriages exist in weaker section but this has been reduced to someextent due to the high awareness and literacy in the area. Table 3.3: Children (up to 18 years) by orphans and disability, marital status Male Female Total Marital Status Unmarried 99.45 98.83 99.18 Married 0.55 1.17 0.82 Disability Mentally or physically disabled 0.70 0.62 0.66 Orphan 0.15 0.19 0.17 None 99.15 99.19 99.17 Total number of children 4004 3087 7091About one-third of the children have ration-card and one-fifth have birth certificate (19%)as the main document of age proof. Table 3.4: Type of Age Proof (upto 18 years) Male Female Total Birth Certificate 19.78 18.98 19.43 Ration Card 73.88 74.38 74.09 School certificate 0.35 0.06 0.23 None 4.37 4.79 4.56 Others 1.62 1.78 1.69 N 4004 3087 70913.2. Education3 Refer to appendix for detail4 According to the Census of India, 2011 14
  • 15. The overall literacy rate is around 65 % in the survey areas of the people above the age of 6years old. Among children 6-14 age group around 96% are literate with almost equallyboth male and female literate. The literacy rate gap between male and female is wideningwith increasing age group. Table 3.5: Literacy Rate by Gender by age group (6 and above) Age Group Male Female Total 6-14 95.3 95.8 95.6 15-17 93.3 92.2 92.8 6-17 94.8 95.0 94.8 18-59 68.4 39.5 55.0 60+ 25.8 3.5 15.1 Total 74.1 53.6 64.8Around one-third of the children between 3 and upto 6 years are going to aganwadi andpre-school. In the age group 6 to 14 years and 15-17 years about 93% and 81% are goingto school respectively. There is no significant difference between school going of girls andboys and dropout rate in the age group of 6-14 years and 15-17 years. Although drop outrate in 6-14 age group is low (1.17%), the rate is considerably high (11.41) in the 15-17 agegroup. Also worrisome is the considerable number of never enrolled children. Nearly 5percent and around 7 percent children are never enrolled in 6-14 age group and 15-17 agegroups respectively. Older children (15-17 years) compared to young ones (6-14 years)due to various economic and familial reasons. Table 3.6: Educational Profile of 3 and upto 17 years old Children Age Group Male Female Total 3-5 Not Going to School 63.59 69.68 66.08 Going to school but irregular 0.47 0.90 0.65 Going to school regularly 35.94 29.41 33.27 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 (N) 3-5 years 640 442 1082 6-14 Never enrolled 4.64 4.17 4.43 Going to school but irregular 0.09 0.17 0.13 Drop Out 1.11 1.24 1.17 Going to school regularly 94.16 94.42 94.28 (N) 6-14 years 2157 1775 3932 15-17 Never enrolled 6.38 7.87 7.00 Going to school but irregular 0.25 0.18 0.22 Drop Out 11.01 11.99 11.41 Going to school regularly 82.35 79.96 81.37 (N) 15-17 years 799 559 1358Some of the main reasons of drop out or not attending reported were parent’s disapproval,family cannot afford, no interest or aptitude and got job/work. The focus group discussionalso revealed that children left school to take care of livestock as parents work on the fieldsfrom morning to evening. They told that mostly young girls are forced to drop the school totake care of their younger siblings. Parent’s disapproval is mainly because of disputes 15
  • 16. between the parents. The male member in the studied areas consumes alcohol and ill-treats his wife; to get rid of the domestic violence, wife normally goes to her parental homealong with her child resulting in child dropping out or being irregular in study. Table 3.9: Reasons of not attending or dropped out in 6-17 year of age Male Female Total Required for care of young siblings 0.00 5.80 2.55 No aptitude/Not interested 25.10 23.19 24.26 Can not afford 28.90 24.64 27.02 Parents disapprove of school 26.62 36.71 31.06 Not safe to send girls 0.00 0.48 0.21 Mentally/physically disable 0.00 0.00 0.00 Fear of punishment by teachers 0.00 0.00 0.00 Got job/work 19.39 9.18 14.89 Young 0.00 0.00 0.00 N 263 207 470If we see the classes of dropped out, it is more than half of the children left out school uptoprimary level education (class 5th) followed by completing secondary (class 10 th) andseventh standard. The informal discussion with villagers revealed that large number ofchildren left schooling after completing primary or secondary education due to variousreasons as discussed above. Table 3.9a: Class of dropped out School of 6-17 children Class N % 2 22 10.95 3 7 3.48 4 21 10.45 5 59 29.35 6 18 8.96 7 23 11.44 8 18 8.96 9 4 1.99 10 24 11.94 12 5 2.49 Total 201 100Those who are attending the school, across age groups, majority of them are studying ingovernment schools. The proportion of children attending government schools gets evenhigher as we move on to higher age- groups. More than one-fourth of the children aregoing to private school in the age-group of 3 - 6 years indicating presence of private schoolsin the area. The detailed discussion revealed that some private English medium schoolshave opened up in the areas during the last few years and children from well-off familiesare going to such schools. 16
  • 17. Table 3.7: Type of School Attending Age Group Type of School Male Female Total 3-5 Government school 68.67 76.87 71.66 Private School 31.33 23.13 28.34 (N) 3-5 years 233 134 367 6-14 Government school 80.67 84.10 82.22 Private School 19.33 15.90 17.78 (N) 6-14 years 2033 1679 3712 15-17 Government School 86.52 87.50 86.91 Private School 13.48 12.50 13.09 (N) 15-17 years 660 448 1108Vocational education is not available in the villages and very few of the children go to thedistrict headquarters to avail the facility. Thus, only 0.24% of the children have receivedsome vocational training5 and not a single child reported receiving life skills training. Table 3.10: Vocational Training and life skills training (6-17) Male Female Total 0.24 0.04 0.15 0.24 99.76 99.96 99.85 99.76 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 (N) 6-17 years 2973 2337 53103.3. Activity Status and OccupationAccording to main activity status, about half of the people in the working age (18-59years) group and quarter (25%) of old age people (60+) are working in the studied areas. Ifwe take both main and subsidiary status workers, around 80% of working age and onethird of the old age people are working. There is huge difference between workparticipation of male and female as only 4% are involved primarily in some economicactivity compared to 59% male. Among children around one tenth of the total (6-17 agegroup children are mainly working. Table 3.11a: Work Participation Rate by Gender and Age group (6+) Age Male Female Person Male Female Person Group Main Main & Subsidiary 6-14 2.20 0.40 1.39 14.54 15.54 14.99 15-17 16.81 1.42 10.53 42.70 39.15 41.25 18-59 88.14 5.58 50.03 92.13 66.74 80.41 60+ 44.11 3.30 24.56 47.98 19.23 34.21 Total 59.13 3.94 33.94 66.98 49.73 59.11However, when we combined main and subsidiary status around 50% female are workingcompared to 69% female and more than half of the children are working. Thus, one canconclude that majority of female and children are working in the subsidiary status.5 Vocational training includes typing, computer hardware or software training, carpenter and motor mechanic etc. 17
  • 18. The highest proportions of working members are involved in casual wage labour (21%),followed by self employment (8%) and regular work (2%). In non-workers, around onethird are students (31%), more than one-fourth are (27%) involved in domestic work and11% are too young or old retired people. The difference between male and female mainworkers can be explained as more than half of the women are involved in domestic workand one-fourth in studies. Table 3.12: Activity Status of All Household Members Male Female Total Employer 0.11 0.06 0.09 Own account worker (self-employed) 13.45 0.59 7.63 Regular wage (salaried) 2.77 0.46 1.72 Casual wage labour 36.68 2.48 21.19 Attached wage labour 0.02 0.00 0.01 Unpaid family labour 0.02 0.00 0.01 Domestic work 1.87 56.81 26.74 Student 32.64 28.75 30.88 Retired/pensioner/ too old 3.31 3.13 3.23 Unemployed 0.39 0.01 0.22 Unable to work because of mental or physical disability 0.53 0.19 0.37 Young 8.22 7.53 7.91 Total Household members (N) 10279 8504 18783Among workers, more than half (54.81%) are involved in cultivation of other agriculturecrops and about one-fourth (25.32%) are doing cotton cultivation followed byconstruction. The proportion of females in cotton cultivation is substantially higher thanmales workers. As villagers reported some male workers go to other villages and districtheadquarter for higher remunerative work in agriculture, construction and transport etc.Table 3.13: Main Occupation of Household Working Members (all age groups) (%) Male Female Total Cultivation of other crops 55.95 34.53 54.81 Cultivation of Cotton 24.51 39.74 25.32 Construction 7.8 6.84 7.75 Transport worker 1.87 1.63 1.86 Personal Services 1.65 0.65 1.60 Lower level administrative work 1.47 2.61 1.53 Teaching 0.94 2.93 1.04 Brick Making 0.79 0.00 0.75 Repair Mechanic 0.39 0.65 0.40 Skilled Artisans 0.39 0.00 0.36 Animal Husbandry 0.26 0.98 0.3 Fisheries 0.11 3.26 0.28 Others* 3.92 6.19 4.00 Main Workers 5459 308 5767*Traditional Artisans, Agro- Processing, Hotel/ Dhaba/ Restaurant/ Tea Stall, Higher professional and technicalservices, Security workers, Sales worker etc 18
  • 19. Around one third of the household are involved in National Rural Employment GuaranteeScheme. The average days of work per household in NREGS are only 48 days, which aresubstantially lower as per norm of 100 days. Table 3.14: Participation in NREGS along with no of days of employment Type % Yes 35.10 No 64.90 Total 100.00 Average Number of Days per HH 483.4. Family Status and IncomeAccording to the ration card type around 42% of the total households have Below PovertyLevel (BPL)6 status. The household reported their average monthly income and about80% of them have more than Rs 8000 per capita monthly income. Table 3.16: Distribution of Household by Income level Per Capita HH Income % Upto 8000 19.97 8001-9600 20.19 9601-12000 23.89 12001-17200 15.54 17200+ 20.41 Number of HH 4022About 9.52% household are female headed households. The average household size is 5 perfamily with almost one male and female child per household in the studied village.2.4. Migration and LivelihoodThe out-migration is almost negligible in the studied areas due to sufficient work availablewithin the villages or nearby areas. Only older children migrate to cities or other state forstudy purposes. However, people in-migrate for agriculture labour from Bihar and UttarPradesh and few in cotton cultivation from Rajasthan. Table 3.18: Migration Status (All household Members) Male Female Total Resident 99.70 99.80 99.74 In migrant 0.18 0.09 0.14 Out Migrant 0.12 0.11 0.11 N 10279 8504 187836 The households identified by a defined economic criteria by the government and given the below poverty line andabove poverty line status, accordingly a ratio cards called BPL for below poverty line households and APL forabove poverty line households is given. 19
  • 20. SummaryOn the whole, the socio- economic and demographic profile of the families does not give aspositive a picture as we saw with regard to the availability of basic amenities. On thepositive side are negligible proportion of child marriages and disability of children. Highlevels of literacy with not much gender gap in the 6-14 age group is another positive facetof development. Majority of the houses are having APL status and their per capita monthlyincome is above Rs. 8000. However there are several worrisome aspects as listed below.One, is the disturbing sex ratio, which is higher among children indicating the possibility offemale foeticide and son preference. The number of children in the family is also high.Although the proportion of school going children are considerably high, it is still of concernthat there is a notable proportion of children who have never been enrolled, even in aprosperous state like Haryana. Of concern is also the considerable proportion (1.5 percent)of children engaged as main workers even in the young age group of 6- 14 years. Thisproportion goes quite high (15 percent) if one considers their status as subsidiary workers.The proportion of child labour as main workers and subsidiary workers are even higher inthe 15-17 age group. There is also the worrisome aspect of low participation of women inthe work force. Although NREGS operates in most villages and the wages paid are high, asnoted in the previous chapter, the days of employment provided is far less than the norm. 20
  • 21. CHAPTER 4 CHILD LABOURThe previous chapter had given the proportion of working people in the surveyedhouseholds including children. In this chapter, we focus only on child labour and presentthe different characteristics of their employment. We also present the details of migrationof the working children. In the study area about 36% of the household were found havingat least one working child. Eighteen percent of households had atleast one child, working incotton fields. Family members stated that they are sending their children for work due topoor economic conditions and easy availability of work. They also think that if more handswill work they have more income at their hand.4.1 Working ChildrenAround 4% of the total children in the age groups of 6-18 and 1.4% of children in the agegroup of 6-14 years and 10.53% children in the age group of 15-18 years are working as amain worker in the cotton growing areas in Haryana. About every fifth child in the agegroup of 6-18 years are working as both main and subsidiary worker. Table 4.1a: Working Children by Gender and Age group Male Female Persons 6-14 15-17 6-17 6-14 15-17 6-17 6-14 15-17 6-17 Worker Main7 2.18 16.81 6.19 0.39 1.42 0.64 1.37 10.53 3.75 All(Main & Subsidiary8) 14.97 49.57 24.45 15.55 40.04 21.44 15.23 45.68 23.13 All Children (N) 2158 815 2973 1775 562 2337 3933 1377 5310An estimated number of eighteen thousand seven hundred children are working as mainworkers with 13,511 in the age group of 15-18 years and 5,092 in the age group of 6-14years. Total around 114 thousand four hundred estimated children are working as bothmain and subsidiary workers with 58 thousand in the age group of 15-18 years and 56thousand in the age group 6-14 years in cotton growing areas in three districts. Table 4.1a: Estimated Number 9of Working Children by Gender and Age group in three Cotton Growing Districts Male Female Person 6-14 15-17 6-17 6-14 15-17 6-17 6-14 15-17 6-17 Worker Main 4,290 12,505 16,795 672 768 1,439 4,962 13,272 18,234(Main and Subsidiary) 29,482 36,875 66,357 26,481 21,588 48,069 55,963 58,463 114,4267 Main workers are those who involved in any economic activity in a longer period, i.e. more than 180 days duringthe last 365 days from the date of interview.8 Subsidiary worker, those who are mainly non-workers but involved in some economic activity in a shorterduration, i.e. at least 30 days during the last year , 365 days,9 For estimation please refer to annexure 21
  • 22. 4.2. Status and OccupationOut of total 6 to 18 years of age children main activity status is students (94.21%) anddomestic workers (2.22%). Only few children have main activity as worker in casual andself employment activity. Table 4.2b: Main Activity Status of Children 6 and upto 18 Male Female Person 6-14 15-18 Total 6-14 15-18 Total 6-14 15-18 TotalO wn account worker 0.28 1.60 0.00 0.18 0.38 0.15 1.02 0.28 0.28(self-employed) 10Casual wage labour 11 1.90 15.21 0.39 1.25 3.37 1.22 9.51 2.63 1.90Domestic work 2.22 1.96 4.45 18.86 4.69 3.23 8.86 4.63 2.22Student 94.21 80.98 94.48 79.36 90.70 94.33 80.32 91.64 94.21Unable to work because 0.19 0.25 0.00 0.36 0.15 0.10 0.29 0.11 0.19of mental or physicaldisabilityOther 1.20 0.00 0.68 0.00 0.72 0.97 0.00 0.71 1.20(N) 2158 815 2973 1775 562 2337 3933 1377 5310Majority of working children are involved in cultivation of cotton (47%), followed bycultivation in agriculture (26%) and construction (9%) and brick making (12%) andanimal husbandry (6%). Table 4.3a: Occupation Main Male Female Person 6-14 15-17 Total 6-14 15-17 Total 6-14 15-17 TotalCultivation of Cotton 46.81 36.50 85.71 62.50 41.71 51.85 37.93 43.20 46.81Cultivation of other crops 25.53 43.80 14.29 37.50 38.19 24.07 43.45 37.38 25.53Animal Husbandry 6.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.51 5.56 0.00 1.46 6.38Repair Mechanic 0.00 2.19 0.00 0.00 1.51 0.00 2.07 1.46 0.00Transport worker 0.00 1.46 0.00 0.00 1.01 0.00 1.38 0.97 0.00Construction 8.51 9.49 0.00 0.00 8.54 7.41 8.97 8.25 8.51Brick Making 12.77 2.92 0.00 0.00 5.03 11.11 2.76 4.85 12.77Others 0.00 3.65 0.00 0.00 2.51 0.00 3.45 2.43 0.00Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00In the subsidiary status, majority of working children are involved in cultivation of cotton(92%) and other agriculture crops (7.46).O10 Self Employed workers are those who work in their own farm or enterprises as a helper, supervisor ormain worker11 Casual workers are those who works as a labour in farm or non-farm activity and paid on a daily basis orpiece rate basis; the casual work also not available regularly 22
  • 23. Table 4.3b: Occupation Subsidiary Occupation Male Female Person 6-14 15-17 Total 6-14 15-17 Total 6-14 15-17 TotalCultivation of Cotton 92.45 93.26 94.44 88.02 92.25 93.43 90.91 92.70 92.45Cultivation of other crops 6.47 6.74 5.56 11.98 7.46 6.02 9.09 7.07 6.47Construction 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.18 0.00 0.08 0.36Others 0.72 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.36 0.00 0.15 0.72Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00Around one-fifth of the total children are working in cotton fields with equal proportion ofmale and female children. The participation of elder children (15 to upto 18) in cotton isaround three times higher than younger children. Table 4.3d: Proportion of Working Children in Cotton Age Group % Sample Number(N) Male Female Total Male Female Total 6-14 Main 1.02 0.34 0.71 22 6 28 All (Main& Sub) 12.93 14.70 13.73 279 261 540 15-17 Main 6.13 0.89 3.99 50 5 55 All (Main& Sub) 36.69 34.88 35.95 299 196 495 All Main 2.42 0.47 1.56 72 11 83 All (Main& Sub) 19.44 19.55 19.49 578 457 1035There is very low migration reported in the studied areas. Only few children are bothmigrating to other states and coming from other state for work. Table 4.4: Migration Status Status Male Female All 6-14 15-18 Total 6-14 15-18 Total 6-14 15-18 TotalResident 99.77 99.75 99.83 100.00 99.81 99.80 99.85 99.82 99.77In migrant 0.19 0.25 0.11 0.00 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.19Out Migrant 0.05 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.04 0.05Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00SummaryHigh prevalence of child labour was found with 18 percent of households reporting childlabour in cotton fields. Although there is considerable proportion of children even as themain workers in the 15- 17 years age group, many children’s work is of a subsidiary nature.About one-fifth of children are working, when one considers both main and subsidiarycategory workers. Majority of children worked in cotton cultivation, Very few workingchildren had to migrate for their work since adequate opportunities for work existed intheir native villages itself. 23
  • 24. CHAPTER 5 CHILDREN IN COTTON WORKThis chapter specifically examines child labour in cotton fields. We have examined severalaspects of their work. We have looked into their working conditions including the hours ofwork, the wages, mode and frequency of payment, using of protective clothes, medicalcoverage for sickness, first aid arrangement for accidents, supervision at work and issues ofexploitation and abuse. We have further looked into the health and habits of thesechildren. Children’s own perceptions regarding the work, namely whether they like doingthis work, how dangerous they find this work and whether they would recommend thiswork to any one, are also looked into. The analysis has been done of four age groups (6-8years; 9-11 years; 12-14 years and 15 and upto 18 years) children to understand theirproblem in detail. In the sample survey total 684 child workers were interviewed withhighest number from the elder children (15-17 years) and lowest from younger ones (6-8years). Sample distribution Age-Group N % 6-8 19 2.78 9-11 102 14.91 12-14 241 35.23 15-17 322 47.08 Total 684 100.00Majority of the children in the age group of 6-18 years worked in plucking of cotton for 80to 90 days during the season (October-December) and few of them also work in cultivationof other agricultural crops like wheat, bajra, jowar etc. In the studied areas mostly localworkers work in the cotton fields. Few of them also comes from other state like Rajasthan,UP and Bihar. However, migrant workers work mainly in cultivation of other agriculturalcrops. In cotton, few families also comes from Rajasthan and stay for 1- 2 months duringharvesting of crops and plucking of cotton. According to the local people their number isjust around 2-3% of the total workers.5.1. Health and HabitsOnly 2% of the working children in cotton fields of age group 16 to below 18 years of agereported suffering from any chronic illness. Only Asthma was reported. Table 5.1: Child Worker Reported Suffering from Chronic Illness by Age Group 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-17 Total Yes 0.00 2.94 1.66 2.48 2.19 No 100.00 97.06 98.34 97.52 97.81 N 19 102 241 322 684 24
  • 25. About 2% of child worker above the age of 9 years informed us about consumingintoxicants in the form of smoking and chewing tobacco. Table 5.2: Child Worker Reported Consuming Any Intoxicants by Age Group 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-17 Total Yes 0.00 2.94 1.66 1.86 1.90 No 100.00 97.06 98.34 98.14 98.10 N 19 102 241 322 684Majority of child worker consume 3 meals in a day (66%) and rest consume 2 meals perday. Only 9% informed reported about taking additional nutritional supplements in theform of milk, juice and nutritional food.5.2. Work and Working ConditionsMore than three-fourth of child workers had started work before completing the age of 14years. More than one-third of the elder working children (15-17 year of age) stoppedschooling and started work, which complements with our earlier finding of higher dropouts among elder children. One-fifth of the child workers in the age groups 9-11 and 12-14years also reported dropping from schools to start work due to poor economic conditionsof family. Table 5.4: Age at Work Started and Stopped going to School to start work by Age Group Age Group 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Work Started 2.88 23.00 51.75 22.37 100.00 Stopped Going to Yes 15.79 20.59 20.75 34.47 27.05 school No 63.16 68.63 70.12 55.59 62.87 Not Attended 21.05 10.78 9.13 9.94 10.09 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 19 102 241 322 684More than one-fourth of them left school (27%) to start work and were put into work bytheir parents (77%) and self (22%). They started work due to their low family income theirfamilies (65%) also wanted them to work (31%). 25
  • 26. Table 5.5: Who put them to work for the first time by Age Group Who put them to work 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Parents 78.95 76.47 78.42 76.71 77.34 Relative 0.00 0.98 1.66 0.93 1.17 Self 21.05 22.55 19.92 22.36 21.49 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 19 102 241 322 684 Reason for to start work Parents had debt 10.53 0.98 0.41 1.86 1.46 Family income low 68.42 61.76 69.71 63.04 65.35 Not interested in study 0.00 1.96 0.41 1.55 1.17 Family wanted me to work 15.79 34.31 29.05 33.23 31.43 Others 5.26 0.98 0.41 0.31 0.58 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 N 19 102 241 322 684On an average children have been working in the cotton fields for the last 27 months. Theywork on an average around average 8 hours per day in the cotton fields 4 days in a week.However, the range of hours of work varies from 2 hours daily to 13 hours. The youngerchildren worked on average lesser number of hours compared to elder children. Table 5.7: Average Hours per Week by Age Group Hour 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total 2 0.00 2.94 1.66 0.62 1.32 3 0.00 0.00 1.24 0.00 0.44 4 0.00 3.92 2.90 4.66 3.80 5 15.79 15.69 16.18 12.11 14.18 6 10.53 6.86 8.30 6.83 7.46 7 21.05 11.76 15.77 15.53 15.20 8 26.32 31.37 22.82 25.78 25.58 9 0.00 0.00 1.24 0.93 0.88 10 26.32 22.55 23.65 19.57 21.64 11 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.93 0.58 12 0.00 4.90 5.81 12.42 8.63 13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.29 N 19 102 241 322 684 Average 7.63 7.59 7.64 8.08 7.84 26
  • 27. Most of the children were engaged in own household work and other agriculture and alliedwork like livestock apart from cotton work during the last 12 months. Table 5.8: Other Work last year by Age Group Other Type of Work 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Own HH work 58.82 70.13 64.43 59.14 62.57 Other agriculture 29.41 23.38 23.20 26.46 24.95 Looking for livestock 11.76 6.49 12.37 14.01 12.29 Small Shop 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.39 0.18 N 19 102 241 322 684The payment was done on the basis of quantity of cotton plucked at the rate of Rs. 4 to 6per kg. Whether it is being done by the local or migrant labour, both gets the same wages.Wage rate in cotton picking is Rs 400-600 per 100 kg and around 150 Rs per day in otherseason. Around 67% of children were paid on a daily basis and 25% on the piece rate basisdepending upon the work as stated above. At the time of cotton picking, payment was madeto the whole family involved in the cotton picking on the basis of amount of cotton pickedup the whole day. The payment was received by parents during the picking season (45%)and by self in other seasons. However, the higher proportion of elder children reportedreceived their payment by self compared to younger children. Table 5.9: Basis of Payment by Age Group Basis 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Piece rate basis 21.05 36.27 22.82 22.67 24.71 Daily basis 63.16 55.88 66.39 70.19 66.52 Weekly basis 5.26 5.88 9.54 5.59 7.02 Monthly basis 10.53 0.00 1.24 1.55 1.46 Others 0.00 1.96 0.00 0.00 0.29 N 19 102 241 322 684 Who Receive their Payment Parents 47.37 51.96 49.38 39.75 45.18 Relatives 5.26 3.92 0.83 0.93 1.46 Self 47.37 44.12 49.38 59.32 53.22 Others 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.00 0.15 N 19 102 241 322 684Majority of child workers handed over their income to the parents or family members.About 11% reported using for purchase food and 3% for payment of school fee and book,informs etc. 27
  • 28. Table 5.12: Use of income Frequency 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Pay rent 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.29 School fees 5.26 0.98 2.07 2.80 2.34 Books, uniforms, etc 0.00 1.96 0.00 0.62 0.58 Give to parents/ family 84.21 89.22 85.06 82.61 84.50 Pay employer (dues) 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.31 0.29 Food 10.53 7.84 12.03 12.11 11.40 Others 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.93 0.58 N 19 102 241 322 6841.3. Occupational Safety and HealthOnly 1% of child worker perceived that working in cotton field is dangerous for theirhealth. Most of them (84%) wear some protection during the work. They wear face mask,cloth cover and gloves to protect themselves. Table 5.15: The work is Dangerous for your health by Age Group 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Yes 5.26 1.96 0.41 0.31 0.73 No 94.74 98.04 99.59 99.69 99.27 N 19 102 241 322 684 Type of Protection Face mask 0.0 18.2 11.8 17.9 15.9 Gloves 0.0 36.4 17.6 15.4 18.8 Goggles 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 1.4 Cloth Cover 50.0 45.5 70.6 64.1 62.3 Face mask+cloth cover 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 N 5 60 190 320 575A very few child workers (2%) stated about having some on-site first aid arrangementduring the work. That is mainly some medicine for fevers and headache. About 2% of thechild workers stated about having some on-site first aid arrangement during the work. Allthe working children go for open defecation and reported no toilet facility at the work site.Some of them (3%) fell sick as a result of work in the cotton field during the last 3 monthswith an average 15 days of sickness. About 90% of them consulted with local traditionalhealer and medical expenses were paid by themselves and their parents. However, thestatement can not be generalised due to very few number of reported cases. 28
  • 29. Table 5.17: On-site first aid arrangement during the work by employer by Age Group 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Yes 0.00 1.96 1.66 1.55 1.61 No 100.00 98.04 98.34 98.45 98.39 N 19 102 241 322 684There is no supervision of work in cotton fields. The owner only visit two times in a day,once in the morning, to tell them about the work and another in the evening to pay themwages on the basis of work done during the day.1.4. Exploitation and AbuseThere is no exploitation or abuse reported at the workplace. About 52% of the workingchildren stated that they liked the work.1.5. Child PerceptionsAbout 60% of the working children stated that they liked the work and 26% said about noother option available. Table 5.21: Working Children like his/her work by Age Group 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Yes 42.11 54.90 52.70 50.93 51.90 No 5.26 3.92 4.15 4.97 4.53 No option 52.63 41.18 43.15 44.10 43.57 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 19 102 241 322 684They like the work as they are able to provide monetary support to their families andthemselves. Majority of those who did not like their work, disliked it due to work hazardsand disliking of employer. About one third of child workers reported not liking the cottonwork due to their inability to attend school and because it is too tiring. Table 5.22: Reason of liking and not liking his/her work by Age Group Like Work 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Support family 62.50 61.82 55.20 60.49 58.86 Earn money for school 0.00 9.09 4.80 4.94 5.43 Earn money for food 37.50 29.09 40.00 34.57 35.71 N 8 56 127 164 355 Not like work Can not attend school 0.00 0.00 22.22 43.75 30.00 Not like the cotton work 0.00 50.00 22.22 12.50 20.00 Too tired to work 100.00 25.00 44.44 25.00 33.33 Paid less 0.00 25.00 11.11 18.75 16.67 N 1 4 10 16 31 29
  • 30. About 43% of the working children recommended this job to their brother/sister orfriends. However, most of the children in the areas worked in cotton fields with theirparents and other family members. Table 5.24: Recommended this job to others family member and relative by Age Group 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-18 Total Yes 52.63 40.20 43.98 42.55 42.98 No 0.00 4.90 6.64 5.90 5.85 Can.t say 47.37 54.90 49.38 51.55 51.17 N 19 102 241 322 6844.4. Government EffortsHaryana State has prepared a State Plan of Action for the children which is a verycomprehensive document encompassing the various critical areas like health , nutrition ,education and environment with issues like girl child, child labour and children especiallyin difficult circumstances.A Child Labour Cell at headquarters has been constituted to pay special attention towardselimination of Child labour. The Cell is headed by a Joint Labour Commissioner. Moreover,the necessary directions have been issued to the Inspectorate staff to ensure that workinghours of such children do not exceed six hours. The other State Government departmentswhich are involved in the task of rehabilitation of Child labour are Health, Education andSocial Welfare departments.The Health department has been instructed to get the Child Labour medically examinedand issue health cards in the districts. The Project Director, Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan andDirector, Primary Education have also been requested to enroll the Child labour in schools.The Child labour who were found in non-hazardous occupations are also being got enrolledin the primary schools and non-formal education centres. Efforts are being made to startspecial projects of informal education for these children.The meetings of various Associations of the employers are also held at the level of seniorfunctionaries of the Labour Department to educate and advise them not to employ ChildLabour in their establishments. As reported by the local school teachers that thegovernment have initiated awareness campaign through them. They not only aware theparents but also ask the children to attend school regularly. Because of this efforts lot ofchildren who were working stopped work and attending the classes and some other workafter attending school.SummaryMany children, although not the majority had stopped going to school to start work. Longhours of work, over and above the acceptable hours of work were the plight for many.There was neither first aid nor any toilet facility in the work site. Supervision was also notfound. Despite the above mentioned government efforts that considerable children areworking in the cotton fields for long working hours should be noted. 30
  • 31. Of relief are findings of low levels of illness reported from work . However, short termrespite from ailments does not rule out the long run implications of being exposed topesticides for long hours. Again of relief is the finding that children use protective clothes.However, how adequate are they in actually protecting children is not known. No bodyreported instances of exploitation or abuse, probably because they were working withother family members. On the positive side, very low numbers of children are found gettinginto bad habits of consuming intoxicants. Majority are able to have regular meals, althoughvery few reported taking nutritional supplements. Majority of children themselves receivedpayment and handed it over to their parents. Majority of the children also reported thatthey liked their work given that it was enabling them to contribute to their families and didnot find the work posing danger to their health. 31
  • 32. Chapter 5 Summing UpThe baseline study indicates very high presence of child labour is the study areas. Aboutevery third households have at least one child labour and one fifth working in cotton.• The following are the major key points emerged from the study:• Agriculture is the main source of income in the survey areas with wheat and cotton being the major crops. Majority of the workers are involved in as farm labour in fields of landlords in the villages. Children constitute a significant proportion of the labour force in cotton cultivation.• The sex ratio in the studied area is very disturbing like in the state with only 827 female per 1000 male compared to all India 947.• Almost all the studied village have basic infrastructure like motorable road, electric connection, drainage facility and residing in pucca and semi pucca houses. Access to primary school is not a major challenge for children as in all the village government primary school is available.• Out of total children between the age group of 3 and 18 years about 81% are currently enrolled in school and going regularly, 15% never enrolled and about 3% dropped out of the school.• The main reasons of children dropping out or not attending school reported disapproval of parents, not interested and family can not afford. About 6% also stated that they got the job or work and left the school. In low income families children compel to work because of their livelihood and survival.• There is no nearby vocational training institute available in the villages; children travel about 12 kms to get such training.• About three-fourth of the studied villages have health sub-centre, and little more than one third (38%) have primary health centre. However, in these sub-centres have poor services with staff either being absent or not familiar with the standard protocols of mother and child health. The people of other villages travel about 8.4 kms to access health services at nearest primary health centres or visit to district headquarter.• About one-third of the children have ration-card and one-fifth have birth certificate (19%) as the main document of age proof. The increasing rate of birth registration in the area shows a healthy sign as reported more female accessing public hospital and delivery hut made under the government BRGF scheme for child delivery. 32
  • 33. • Approximately 35% of the households have got job under the NREGS scheme. In the scheme the average wages reported by people is Rs 170 per day. In the studied village female availed NREGS work more than male in a ratio of 66 to 40. This is instrumental to higher participation of schooling of children from poor families.• About every fifth child in the age group of 6-18 years are working as both main and subsidiary worker.• Total around 108 thousand two hundred estimated children are working as both main and subsidiary workers with 59,922 in the age group of 15-18 years and 55,068 in the age group 6-14 years cotton growing blocks in three districts.• Majority of working children are involved in cultivation of cotton (47%), followed by cultivation in agriculture (26%) and construction (9%) and brick making (12%) and animal husbandry (6%).• Around 90 thousand children are working in cotton fields with 44 thousand female and 53 thousand male children in the studied area.• Children are mainly involved in cotton picking activity that normally takes 8 hours a day for 80 to 90 days during the cotton picking season (October-December).• About 78% of child workers have started working in the age group of 11 to 17 years. About more than half of them left school (63%) to start work and were put into work by their parents (77%) and self (22%). They started work due to their low family income their families (65%) also wanted them to work.• On average children have been working in the cotton fields for the last 27 months. They work on an average 5-10 hours per day in the cotton fields 4 days in a week. Most of the children were engaged in other agriculture (63%) and construction (25%), apart from cotton work during the last 12 months.• Wage rate in cotton picking is Rs 400-600 per 100 kg and around 150 Rs per day in other season. At the time of cotton picking payment is made to the whole family involved in the cotton picking on the basis of amount of cotton picked up the whole day.• The children are handed over to their 97% income to his/her families. However, at the time of cotton picking payment is made to the whole family involved in the cotton picking on the basis of amount of cotton picked up the whole day. Physical and psychological abuse against the children is not reported in the area.• There is no supervision of work in cotton fields. The owner only visit two times in a day, once in the morning, to tell them about the work and another in the evening to pay them wages on the basis of work done during the day. 33
  • 34. • The children are exploited by in the cotton picking season they go to school as well as work in cotton fields. The money that children earn is mostly handed over to the parents or head of the family leaving the children to feel economically exploited. Most of the children from poor families are going to school and after school working in the cotton fields.• About 52% of the working children stated that they liked the work. Majority of them (42%) reported that they have to support to their families. They like the work as they are able to provide monetary support to their families and themselves.• About one-third of the working children also reported did not like the work due to not able to attend school and job is physically tiring, low payment and do not want to work.• The finding of the study indicates gross negligence of children’s rights. To address these issues simultaneous interventions are needed both at micro and macro levels. At micro level there is a dire need to establish effective community based child rights and protection mechanism though meaningful participation of community members including children.• It is equally critical to empower civil society, government and other stakeholder to fulfil their responsibilities towards providing a protective and enabling environment to children. At the macro level, effective advocacy efforts are required with government to implement policies, laws and procedures to deliver their commitment. Government of Haryana has taken several steps in this direction like children can not work more than eight hours, health facilities to working children and bring them back to schools. But these efforts are done for only working children in hazards occupations. 34
  • 35. Annexure 1a). Calculation of Number of HouseholdSince objective of the survey is to estimate the incidence of child labour in cotton growingregions, a fairly representative sample of households is absolutely necessary for eachdistrict in the region. For the calculation of desired sample size, we need incidence of childlabour in cotton at the regional level. In absence of data on incidence of child labour incotton field at regional level, we have used a proxy variable incidence of child labourhouseholds at the regional level from National Sample Survey, 2007-08. According to NSSestimates, around 7% households in Haryana were found having child labour. Hence,desired number of households for each district would be calculated at 95% confidenceinterval with 10% standard error or standard deviation by the following formula:N=z2p (1-p)/d2Where, N=the desired sample size; z= confidence level; p=the proportion of child labourhouseholds; d=standard error or deviationAt regional level households required to survey are approximately 5000 in Haryana region.To get an idea of number of villages to be covered average household size of Haryana, i.e376 is used. Which comes around 16 villages in Haryana region needs to be covered.Further, the number of villages required to be surveyed in each selected districts of theregion is distributed in proportion of district to total regional population from Census. Table 1: Number of Village State District Village HH Haryana Hisar 7 2000 Sirsa 5 1500 Fatehabad 4 1517b). Estimation of Child Worker in Three Cotton Growing District in HaryanaThe district wise population for rural and urban is available from census of India, 2011. Butthe population by block wise for 2011 is not released yet. Thus, we have used compoundgrowth rate of district population between 2001 and 2011 to calculate estimatedpopulation of the cotton growing blocks in each district in 2011. The blocks population of2001 is available from census 2001. The estimated population of the cotton growing blocksin 2011 was derived by using the formula A=A1*[(1+R/100) ^(n)], where A1 is thepopulation on March 2001; R is the rate of growth of district rural population and A isestimated population of four blocks and n is time period. The estimated population ofcotton growing blocks in each district is combined to make an aggregate estimation of childlabour in cotton growing areas and child labour in cotton fields. Total estimated populationof cotton growing blocks in three district of Haryana is following: 35
  • 36. Table 2. Estimated Population of Cotton Growing Blocks Total Selected Villages Estimated Cotton Blocks population, Growing 2011 Hisar 5 3 7 699,469 Fatehabad 4 2 5 533,187 Sirsa 4 2 4 521,486 Total population of cotton region 13 7 16 1,754,142The age wise population distribution has been calculated by using the age proportion of thestudied villages in our census survey. First male and female proportion by age wascalculated and added to make total persons. The following is the estimated population agewise. Table 3: Age-wise estimated population in 2011 Male Female Total 0-2 35,688 29,552 65,280 3-5 58,416 42,408 101,048 6-14 196,971 170,305 367,302 15-17 74,389 53,922 128,598 18-59 518,532 467,355 985,450 59+ 54,217 52,387 106,464 Total 938,213 815,929 1,754,142Further, child labour proportion was used to get the estimated number of child labour agewise. Table 4: District and Block Wise List of Villages District Block Village Hisar Adampur Telanwali Kishan Garh Modakhera Agroha Durjan pur Kale Ravan Hisar II Ralwas Kalan Dobhi Fatehaba Bhattu Kalan Dhabi khurd d Ban Mandori Fatehabad Gilakhda Dariyapur Sirsa Nathu Ram Chopta Ali Mohammad Makhosurani Mochiwali Odhan Odhan Jagmalwali 36
  • 37. 37

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