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# Lesson 6: Informal Logic

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### Lesson 6: Informal Logic

1. 1. Lesson Three Informal Logic
2. 2. By the end of this lesson, you should know: How to use informal logic to effectively organize an argumentative essay. Today’s O bjective
3. 3. “ The aim or purpose of argument is to use logic (both inductive and deductive) to create reasoned communication of ideas, insights, and experiences to some audience so as to produce a new understanding of some issue for that audience.” argument
4. 4. Analytical Thesis Statement A thesis statement that analyzes the relationship among various significant ideas contained in the thesis sentence(s) Thesis Stat e ments
5. 5. Structure of Analytical Thesis Statements This pattern can serve as an aid: Independent clause(s) + restricting clause(s) [general ideas are stated] [qualifying idea(s) defined] Thesis Stat e ments
6. 6. O utlining “ A thesis statement focuses both the writer’s and reader’s attention on specific issues to be developed within an essay.” In addition, analytical thesis statements analyze the relationship among these significant ideas.
7. 7. If you have a good analytical thesis statement, creating an outline is relatively easy. O utlining
8. 8. <ul><li>There are essentially two major ways to draft an outline from a thesis statement: </li></ul><ul><li>Isolating key ideas to be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Using informal logic </li></ul>O utlining
9. 9. O utlining From Thesis Statement to Outline Example: “ University education is more beneficial than technical training [ independent / generalization ] because at the university the students have the opportunity to learn technical and career related skills as well as to acquire perspectives on life from studying subjects like philosophy, art, and literature [ restricting idea ] . ”
10. 10. From Thesis Statement to Outline Example: We immediately recognize that the driving organizational force behind the thesis statement is comparison & contrast . At the most general level, we are comparing & contrasting university education to technical training. O utlining
11. 11. <ul><li>From Thesis Statement to Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The restricting idea helps us focus the general comparison to two major focus points: </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives on life </li></ul>O utlining
12. 12. <ul><li>From Thesis Statement to Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Now, let’s create an outline from these key ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>As you know, with comparison & contrast there are two ways to organize our outline: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject by subject </li></ul><ul><li>Point by point </li></ul>O utlining
13. 13. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>University Education </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Training </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>O utlining
14. 14. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>University Education </li></ul><ul><li>A. Opportunities to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>B. Perspectives on Life </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Training </li></ul><ul><li>A. Opportunities to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>B. Perspectives on Life </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Conclusion </li></ul>Subject-by-Sub j ect
15. 15. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>A. University Education </li></ul><ul><li>B. Technical Training </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives on Life </li></ul><ul><li>A. University Education </li></ul><ul><li>B. Technical Training </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Conclusion </li></ul>Po i nt-by-Point
16. 16. From Thesis Statement to Outline Example: There is one more key idea that is implicit in the thesis statement (this would be easily recognizable using informal logic): “ Acquiring perspectives on life in addition to technical and career related skills is more beneficial than acquiring only technical and career related skills.” O utlining
17. 17. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>A. University Education </li></ul><ul><li>B. Technical Training </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives on Life </li></ul><ul><li>A. University Education </li></ul><ul><li>B. Technical Training </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Learning vs. Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>V. Conclusion </li></ul>Po i nt-by-Point
18. 18. From Thesis Statement to Outline Now, let’s try to think through this a different way: by using informal logic . Look at logic handouts. O utlining
19. 19. O utlining Deductive conclusion Inductive premise From Thesis Statement to Outline “ University education is more beneficial than technical training [ independent / generalization ] because at the university the students have the opportunity to learn technical and career related skills as well as to acquire perspectives on life from studying subjects like philosophy, art, and literature [ restricting idea ] . ”
20. 20. Syllogism: Inductive Premise 1 : At the university the students have the opportunity to learn technical and career related skills as well as to acquire perspectives on life from studying subjects like philosophy, art, and literature. Premise 2: ? Deductive conclusion : University education is more beneficial than technical training. O utlining
21. 21. From Thesis Statement to Outline Syllogism: Inductive Premise 2: Acquiring perspectives on life in addition to technical and career related skills is more beneficial than acquiring only technical and career related skills. O utlining
22. 22. From Thesis Statement to Outline Example: “ Love is disappearing [ independent / generalization ] because individualism is the main survival technique in today’s fiercely competitive society [ restricting idea ] . ” O utlining
23. 23. From Thesis Statement to Outline Example: We immediately recognize that the driving organizational force behind the thesis statement is cause & effect . At the most general level, we are asserting that love is disappearing because of individualism. O utlining
24. 24. From Thesis Statement to Outline Premise 1 : ? Premise 2: Individualism is the main survival technique in today’s fiercely competitive society . Conclusion: Love is disappearing. O utlining
25. 25. From Thesis Statement to Outline Premise 1 : Individualism and love are mutually exclusive. Premise 2: Individualism is the main survival technique in today’s fiercely competitive society . Conclusion: Love is disappearing. O utlining
26. 26. Homew o rk Use key ideas and informal logic to create a syllogism / outline for your thesis statement. Pg. 127 - 129
27. 27. Read i ng Review Informal Logic Handouts There will be a vocabulary quiz next week.