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Lesson 4: Sentence Combining
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Lesson 4: Sentence Combining

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  • 1. Lesson Four Sentence Combining Neijiang Normal University - Week Five - Brent A. Simoneaux
  • 2. The Writing Assignment Write one paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests to the faculty of the English Department. Write another paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests to a Canadian third-year university student. Length : 200 - 300 words total
  • 3. Writing Advice As a four years student in English Department, the English level must achieve the certain degree. According to my character and interests, I have many plans for my career. After I graduate, the first two year I want to be a teacher in Middle school. Because when I was young, my wish is to be a teacher in my future. Because my childhood dream was to be a teacher, I want to be a middle school teacher for the first two years after I graduate.
  • 4. , from north to south, from west to east. Writing Advice After two years later, I will spend half an year traveling around the China After that From north to south, from west to east. The most place which I want to travel is Tibet, then Lijiang of Yunnan province. After I finish traveling, I'd like to get a guide certification. Then I can travel many places of interest freely. . I would obtain certification as a guide. , thus allowing me to
  • 5. Writing Advice According to my character and interests, I have many plans for my career. Because my childhood dream was to be a teacher, I want to be a middle school teacher for the first two years after I graduate. After that, I will travel around China from north to south, from east to west. The places that I most want to visit include Tibet and Lijiang in Yunnan Province. After I finish traveling, I would like to obtain certification as a guide, thus allowing me to travel many places of interest freely.
  • 6. Writing Advice I am glad to talk about my future career with you. After I graduate, the first thing that I will do is to be a teacher. When I was young, I have a dream that is to be a teacher. I'm glad to talk with you about my future career. Because my childhood dream was to be a teacher, the first thing that I'll do after I graduate is teach.
  • 7. Writing Advice I like students, I enjoy the feeling that students respect you. I will gratitude that makes a student go from unknown to known. This is a sense of achievement. I like students and I really enjoy the feeling of respect that they will give me. In addition, when students go from not knowing to knowing, I feel a sense of achievement. What is the relationship between these sentences?
  • 8. Writing Advice The second thing that I want is to get a guide certification. Then I can travel many places of interests. The second thing that I want to do is to get a guide certification which would enable me to travel many places of interest.
  • 9. Writing Advice Of course, the most reason is not that. The real reason is that I like communication, I like communicate with people, I want to guide every traveller to enjoy their travelling. But of course, that's not the most important reason I want to get certified. The most important reason is that I like communication. I like to communicate with people so that every traveler can enjoy their travels.
  • 10. Re view
  • 11. A sentence base is the minimum required for a sentence. The most basic sentence contains a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP). Sentence Bases
  • 12. Sentence Base We can also add the following optional third elements to the clause: an object (O) a complement (C) and/or an adverbial (AV). We add these elements to the clause to make a more informative sentence
  • 13. Sentence Expansion Coordination means “ being of equal structural rank.” Coordination occurs when we use a coordinator (or, and, but, nor, yet, so) to connect parts of a sentence together.
  • 14. Sentence Expansion Subordination means ‘being of lower structural rank.’ Words that are added to the bare sentence base are said to be subordinate because they are grammatically secondary to the main elements.
  • 15. Sentence Expansion Subordination 1. Relative Clauses 2. Appositive Phrases 3. Adverbial Clauses 4. Participial Phrases 5. Absolute Phrases
  • 16. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases Participial phrases are verb phrases headed by the – ing or the – en / –– ed form of the verb which function as adjectives. They enable you to work concrete details into your sentences without actually increasing the number of sentences needed.
  • 17. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases
    • Example:
    • Brent stood next to Olivia.
    • Brent felt helplessly nervous.
  • 18. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases We can combine these sentences: Feeling helplessly nervous, Brent stood next to Olivia.
  • 19. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases What happens when we move the participial phrase? Brent stood next to Olivia, feeling helplessly nervous. The focus of the sentence has shifted to the participial phrase.
  • 20. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases It is important, however, to note that nonrestrictive participial phrases can open or close the sentence only if it modifies the subject—that is, when the subject of the participle is also the subject of the sentence and is in regular subject position. Otherwise, the participle will “dangle.”
  • 21. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases Dangling participle: Feeling helplessly nervous, the scene was suspenseful, as if it had been taken directly out of a movie.
  • 22. Sentence Expansion 5. Absolute Phrases An absolute phrase is a noun phrase—a noun headword with a post-noun modifier that adds specific, concrete detail to the idea of the whole sentence.
  • 23. Sentence Expansion 5. Absolute Phrases
    • You must remember the following about absolute phrases:
      • They can consist of just subject and a participle
      • They do not modify any particular word, but instead, they modify the entire sentence to provide more information to the reader .
  • 24. Sentence Expansion 5. Absolute Phrases Example: Brent finally kissed Olivia, face blushing. Legs running, Brent finally kissed Olivia.
  • 25. Sentence Expansion 5. Absolute Phrases Think of a movie camera focusing in on a specific detail in the scene. Notice that the absolute phrase seems to be the focus of the sentence no matter where we position it in the sentence.
  • 26. The End Olivia moved.
  • 27. Sentence Combining Activity 1. The fire raced through the abandoned warehouse. The fire leveled it in an hour. Example: The fire raced through the abandoned warehouse, leveling it in an hour.
  • 28. Next Week: Sentence Expansion & Sentence Combining
  • 29. Home work Finish the Sentence Combing Worksheet. Write your answers in you exercise book.
  • 30. The Writing Assignment In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of a good husband or wife? If you were looking for a spouse, what would you look for? Explain and support your opinion by giving specific examples. I am your audience. Try to experiment with different sentence patterns by creating more complex sentences than you would usually create. Try something new. Length : 200 – 300 words
  • 31. Office Hours Every Tuesday 1:00 – 3:00 pm Building 5, Second Floor
  • 32. Radio show Every Thursday 12:30 – 1:30 pm
  • 33. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 1 20050540136 20050540135 20050540133 20050540112 20050540111 20050540110 20050540109 20050540108 20050540107 20050540090 20050540089
  • 34. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 2 20050540146 20050540145 20050540144 20050540143 20050540142 20050540118 20050540117 20050540115 20050540114 20050540105
  • 35. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 3 20050540154 20050540153 20050540152 20050540151 20050540150 20050540149 20050540126 20050540125 20050540124 20050540123
  • 36. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 4 20050540163 20050540162 20050540161 20050540160 20050540134 20050540132 20050540131 20050540130 20050540129 20050540128
  • 37. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 5 20050540270 20050540269 20050540266 20050540265 20050540264 20050540260 20050540259 20050540258 20050540257 20050540256
  • 38. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 6 20050540289 20050540282 20050540279 20050540278 20050540275 20050540274 20050540286 20050540271 20050540268 20050540267