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Lesson 3 Sentence Expansion

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  • 1. Lesson Three Sentence Expansion Neijiang Normal University - Week Three - Brent A. Simoneaux
  • 2. Dimensions of Language Cultural Dimension Syntagmatic Dimension Paradigmatic Dimension
  • 3. 1. Formal Informal 2. Standard Nonstandard 3. General Specific 4. In Group Out Group Word Categories
  • 4. The Writing Assignment Write one or two paragraphs in which you describe and/or explain to one of your classmates your like or dislike for writing in English. Length : 100 - 200 words Due at the beginning of next week’s class.
  • 5. Writing Advice When asked wether I like writing in English or not, I will probably say: "That depends". And for most of the time, the answer is "no". whether Page 9 , But No When asked whether I like writing in English or not, I will probably say, "That depends". But most of the time, the answer is “No".
  • 6. Writing Advice Many foreign teachers may feel surprised for the first time they teach in China. And I also heard some of them complaining. They want us to write whatever we can think of, anything, any style. And that is what most of us want. because they -- Page 12 us as well. have Many foreign teachers feel surprised the first time they teach in China. I have also heard some of them complaining because they want us to write whatever we can think of--anything, any style. And that is what most of us want as well.
  • 7. Writing Advice But just have a look at what we are doing here. The compositions we write are always consist of three paragraphs, the beginning, the body and the end. For the body, we begins like this: firstly... secondly... thirdly... last but not least... as a whole... Page 9 : But just have a look at what we are doing here. The compositions we write always consist of three paragraphs: the beginning, the body and the end. For the body, we begin like this: firstly... secondly... thirdly... last but not least... as a whole...
  • 8. Sentence Expansion
  • 9. A sentence base is the minimum required for a sentence. The most basic sentence contains a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP). Sentence Bases
  • 10. Brent moved. NP + VP Sentence Base
  • 11. Sentence Base We can also add the following optional third elements to the clause: an object (O) a complement (C) and/or an adverbial (AV). We add these elements to the clause to make a more informative sentence
  • 12. Sentence Base Object Brent met Olivia .
  • 13. Sentence Base Complement Olivia was a year older .
  • 14. Sentence Base Adverbial Brent fell in love the first time he saw her .
  • 15. Sentence Expansion 1. Coordination 2. Subordination
  • 16. Sentence Expansion Coordination means “ being of equal structural rank.” Coordination occurs when we use a coordinator (or, and, but, nor, yet, so) to connect parts of a sentence together.
  • 17. Sentence Expansion We can use coordination to connect words or phrases: 1. Brent was happy but nervous. 2. He was happy with having met a beautiful girl but nervous because of his personality.
  • 18. Sentence Expansion We can use coordinated elements in the subject or the predicate. Her beauty and popularity was too much to resist. The opportunity was new and exciting.
  • 19. Sentence Expansion Subordination means ‘being of lower structural rank.’ Words that are added to the bare sentence base are said to be subordinate because they are grammatically secondary to the main elements.
  • 20. Sentence Expansion Subordinating elements modify the meaning of the sentence base. We call theses subordinating elements modifiers . Modifiers are absolutely essential to writing effectively because they provide vital, substantial, and specific information.
  • 21. Sentence Expansion Subordination 1. Relative Clauses 2. Appositive Phrases 3. Adverbial Clauses 4. Participial Phrases 5. Absolute Phrases
  • 22. Sentence Expansion 1. Relative Clauses Relative clauses enable the writer to embed a complete subject/predicate into a noun phrase. Relative = relationship Relative Clauses are introduced by either a relative pronoun (that, who, or which) or a relative adverb (where, when, why)
  • 23. Sentence Expansion 1. Relative Clauses Example: 1. Brent cautiously took Olivia out on a date. 2. The date consisted of dinner and a movie. What is the relationship between these two sentences? How can we make the relationship more clear?
  • 24. Sentence Expansion 1. Relative Clauses Combining the sentences requires the use of a relative clause: Brent cautiously took Olivia out on a date which consisted of dinner and a movie.
  • 25. Sentence Expansion 2. Appositive Phrases An appositive phrase is a reduced sentence headed by a noun, functioning, just like a relative clause, to define or restrict the noun by adding definition-like details to it. Appositive phrases rename nouns or noun phrases.
  • 26. Sentence Expansion 2. Appositive Phrases
      • Example:
      • Brent cautiously took Olivia on a date which consisted of dinner and a movie.
      • Brent was an extremely nervous boy when around girls.
  • 27. Sentence Expansion 2. Appositive Phrases
      • ‘ Appositive’ simply means being ‘positioned’ next to something, generally a noun. Therefore, the most common and expected sentence position for the appositive phrase is immediately after the noun it expands.
      • Brent, an extremely nervous boy when around girls, took Olivia on a date which consisted of dinner and a movie.
  • 28. Sentence Expansion 2. Appositive Phrases
      • However, we can also place them at the beginning or the end of a sentence.
      • These are fairly unusual sentence patterns (especially the latter) and are considered fairly dramatic, so they will usually come as a surprise to the reader and will send the message that the writer has taken pains in crafting the sentence.
  • 29. Sentence Expansion 2. Appositive Phrases
      • An extremely nervous boy when around girls, Brent cautiously took Olivia on a date which consisted of dinner and a movie.
      • At the beginning of the sentence the appositive phrase will tend to put more stress on the subject.
  • 30. Sentence Expansion 2. Appositive Phrases
      • Brent cautiously took Olivia on a date which consisted of dinner and a movie, an extremely nervous boy when around girls.
      • At the end of the sentence the appositive phrase will be the focus of the sentence.
  • 31. Sentence Expansion 2. Appositive Phrases
      • Introductory Appositive Series
      • Upset stomach, sweaty palms, dizziness—all these symptoms caused Brent to act very strangely.
      • The subject of the sentence is all these symptoms ; the list of appositives names the symptoms.
  • 32. Sentence Expansion 3. Adverbial Clauses
      • Adverbial clauses (subordinating) are clauses that modify verbs using a subordinator.
      • Examples of subordinating words:
      • if, since, while, although, even though, after, before as if, as long as, as soon as
  • 33. Sentence Expansion 3. Adverbial Clauses
        • Example:
        • When Olivia allowed me to, I wanted to kiss her.
  • 34. Sentence Expansion 3. Adverbial Clauses
      • Two frequent problems with adverbial clauses:
      • The wrong idea gets subordinated
      • The meaning of the subordinator is imprecise
  • 35. Sentence Expansion 3. Adverbial Clauses
      • The wrong idea gets subordinated
      • Example:
        • 1. When Olivia allowed me to, I wanted to kiss her.
      • 2. Olivia allowed me to when I wanted to kiss her.
  • 36. Sentence Expansion 3. Adverbial Clauses
    • 2. The meaning of the subordinator is imprecise
      • Example:
        • 1. When Olivia allowed me to, I wanted to kiss her.
      • 2. If Olivia allowed me to, I wanted to kiss her.
  • 37. Sentence Expansion 3. Adverbial Clauses
      • Adverbial clauses can be placed in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence.
  • 38. Sentence Expansion 3. Adverbial Clauses
      • At the beginning of a sentence, adverbial clauses can function as a cohesive link between known and unknown information.
      • When Olivia allowed me to, I wanted to kiss her.
      • I wanted to kiss Olivia when she allowed me to.
      • Notice the change in focus when we change the position.
  • 39. Sentence Expansion 3. Adverbial Clauses
      • Placing an adverbial clause in the middle of a sentence will interrupt the flow of the sentence and slow the reader down.
      • They add stress and length to the words they modify and changes the rhythm.
      • I wanted, when Olivia allowed me, to kiss her.
  • 40. Next Week: Sentence Expansion & Sentence Combining
  • 41. The Reading Assignment Preview Chapter 3, pgs 57-74 for next week’s class
  • 42. The Writing Assignment What is your opinion of the new McDonald’s that recently opened in our city? What negative effects will this have? What positive effects will this have? Write two paragraphs in which you state and support your opinion. I am your audience. You must use all of the sentence patterns that we learned today at least one time each. Please underline and label all sentence patterns. Length : 200 – 300 words
  • 43. Office Hours Every Tuesday 1:00 – 3:00 pm Building 5, Second Floor
  • 44. Web site http://njtcwriting.wordpress.com
  • 45. Radio show Every Thursday 12:30 – 1:30 pm
  • 46. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 1 20050540088 20050540087 20050540086 20050540085 20050540084 20050540083 20050540082 20050540081 20050540080 20050540020
  • 47. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 2 20050540104 20050540101 20050540100 20050540098 20050540097 20050540096 20050540095 20050540094 20050540093 20050540092 20050540031
  • 48. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 3 20050540122 20050540121 20050540079 20050540078 20050540077 20050540076 20050540075 20050540074 20050540073 20050540072
  • 49. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 4 20050540067 20050540066 20050540065 20050540064 20050540063 20050540025 20050540024 20050540023 20050540022 20050540021
  • 50. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 5 20050540255 20050540251 20050540250 20050540249 20050540248 20050540243 20050540242 20050540241 20050540057 20050540056
  • 51. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 6 20050540262 20050540261 20050540254 20050540253 20050540252 20050540246 20050540245 20050540244 20050540054 20050540053