Lesson Three Sentence Expansion Neijiang Normal University - Week Three - Brent A. Simoneaux
Dimensions of Language Cultural Dimension Syntagmatic Dimension Paradigmatic Dimension
1. Formal Informal 2. Standard Nonstandard 3. General Specific 4. In Group Out Group Word Categories
The Writing Assignment Write one or two paragraphs in which you describe and/or explain to one of your classmates your like or dislike for writing in English. Length : 100 - 200 words Due at the beginning of next week’s class.
Writing Advice When asked wether I like writing in English or not, I will probably say: "That depends". And for most of the time, the answer is "no". whether Page 9 , But No When asked whether I like writing in English or not, I will probably say, "That depends". But most of the time, the answer is “No".
Writing Advice Many foreign teachers may feel surprised for the first time they teach in China. And I also heard some of them complaining. They want us to write whatever we can think of, anything, any style. And that is what most of us want. because they -- Page 12 us as well. have Many foreign teachers feel surprised the first time they teach in China. I have also heard some of them complaining because they want us to write whatever we can think of--anything, any style. And that is what most of us want as well.
Writing Advice But just have a look at what we are doing here. The compositions we write are always consist of three paragraphs, the beginning, the body and the end. For the body, we begins like this: firstly... secondly... thirdly... last but not least... as a whole... Page 9 : But just have a look at what we are doing here. The compositions we write always consist of three paragraphs: the beginning, the body and the end. For the body, we begin like this: firstly... secondly... thirdly... last but not least... as a whole...
Sentence Base We can also add the following optional third elements to the clause: an object (O) a complement (C) and/or an adverbial (AV). We add these elements to the clause to make a more informative sentence
Sentence Expansion Coordination means “ being of equal structural rank.” Coordination occurs when we use a coordinator (or, and, but, nor, yet, so) to connect parts of a sentence together.
Sentence Expansion We can use coordination to connect words or phrases: 1. Brent was happy but nervous. 2. He was happy with having met a beautiful girl but nervous because of his personality.
Sentence Expansion We can use coordinated elements in the subject or the predicate. Her beauty and popularity was too much to resist. The opportunity was new and exciting.
Sentence Expansion Subordination means ‘being of lower structural rank.’ Words that are added to the bare sentence base are said to be subordinate because they are grammatically secondary to the main elements.
Sentence Expansion Subordinating elements modify the meaning of the sentence base. We call theses subordinating elements modifiers . Modifiers are absolutely essential to writing effectively because they provide vital, substantial, and specific information.
Sentence Expansion 1. Relative Clauses Relative clauses enable the writer to embed a complete subject/predicate into a noun phrase. Relative = relationship Relative Clauses are introduced by either a relative pronoun (that, who, or which) or a relative adverb (where, when, why)
Sentence Expansion 1. Relative Clauses Example: 1. Brent cautiously took Olivia out on a date. 2. The date consisted of dinner and a movie. What is the relationship between these two sentences? How can we make the relationship more clear?
Sentence Expansion 1. Relative Clauses Combining the sentences requires the use of a relative clause: Brent cautiously took Olivia out on a date which consisted of dinner and a movie.
Sentence Expansion 2. Appositive Phrases An appositive phrase is a reduced sentence headed by a noun, functioning, just like a relative clause, to define or restrict the noun by adding definition-like details to it. Appositive phrases rename nouns or noun phrases.
‘ Appositive’ simply means being ‘positioned’ next to something, generally a noun. Therefore, the most common and expected sentence position for the appositive phrase is immediately after the noun it expands.
Brent, an extremely nervous boy when around girls, took Olivia on a date which consisted of dinner and a movie.
However, we can also place them at the beginning or the end of a sentence.
These are fairly unusual sentence patterns (especially the latter) and are considered fairly dramatic, so they will usually come as a surprise to the reader and will send the message that the writer has taken pains in crafting the sentence.
Placing an adverbial clause in the middle of a sentence will interrupt the flow of the sentence and slow the reader down.
They add stress and length to the words they modify and changes the rhythm.
I wanted, when Olivia allowed me, to kiss her.
Next Week: Sentence Expansion & Sentence Combining
The Reading Assignment Preview Chapter 3, pgs 57-74 for next week’s class
The Writing Assignment What is your opinion of the new McDonald’s that recently opened in our city? What negative effects will this have? What positive effects will this have? Write two paragraphs in which you state and support your opinion. I am your audience. You must use all of the sentence patterns that we learned today at least one time each. Please underline and label all sentence patterns. Length : 200 – 300 words
Office Hours Every Tuesday 1:00 – 3:00 pm Building 5, Second Floor