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Lesson 12: Introductions And Conclusions
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Lesson 12: Introductions And Conclusions

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  • 1. Lesson Twelve Introductions & Conclusions
  • 2. You must be in class because we will be doing a peer review in class. If you are not in class, you must come to my office hours the following week. Ne x t Week
  • 3. Short Reflection Preparation for Final Exam Week 18 Final Portfolio Argument in Life Week 17 Editing Week 16 Second Draft / Formal Outline / Reading notes Peer Review Week 15   Introductions / Conclusions Week 14 Avoiding Plagiarism Week 13 First Draft / Outline Example Text/ Introductions Week 12   Example Text Week 11
  • 4.
    • Reading Notes (pg 252-255)
    • Second Draft with in-text notes and works cited (pg 276 – 281)
    • Formal Outline (pg 275)
    Due Next We e k
  • 5. Reading N o tes How to remember the information Discuss pg 252 – 255 in text Of course, there are many different ways to take notes. Do whatever works best for you.
  • 6. 1,700 – 2,000 words You must include an introduction and a conclusion . Also, you must include in-text notes and a works cited page. Sec o nd Draft
  • 7. At the beginning of your outline, please write your thesis statement. At the end of you essay, write the following sentence and sign your name: “ I promise that I have not plagiarized on this essay. I know that if I am caught plagiarizing, I will receive a zero as my grade.” Sec o nd Draft
  • 8.
    • Read through each paragraph of your first draft very carefully. Ask yourself these questions:
    • Have I provided enough evidence to support my claim/thesis statement?
    • Do my introduction and conclusion achieve their purposes?
    • Have I provided correct in-text notes for any words/ideas that are not my own?
    • Have I clearly and correctly listed all source material in my works cited?
    Sec o nd Draft
  • 9. Structure of Analytical Thesis Statements This pattern can serve as an aid: Independent clause(s) + restricting clause(s) [general ideas are stated] [qualifying idea(s) defined] Thesis Stat e ments
  • 10. Nowadays, women are no longer looked down upon by society, for they are playing an important part in many fields which cause society to advance. Th e sis Statement Independent Clause Dependent Clause Relationship Word
  • 11. This paper tells us Chinese traditional culture. It is divided into several aspects: the first aspect is lead-in, it is not the most important one but give us a general beginning; the second aspect shows excellent points of Chinese traditional culture; the third aspect shows some negative points; the last aspect is a conclusion but not a simple conclusion. The whole paper shows us the author's idea on Chinese traditional culture and how to judge the culture. The author uses relative method. Th e sis Statement
  • 12. In this article we will discuss the situation of graduates' employment in China by analyzing the reasons and measures of their unemployment. What is the writer’s claim? Th e sis Statement
  • 13. Sex education is necessary for the teenagers because the growing incidence of teenage pregnancies and the rise in HIV. Th e sis Statement
  • 14. Talk about the generation gap between the parent and the child. How it comes out and how to narrow the generation gap. What is the writers claim? Th e sis Statement
  • 15. I: Give the situation of the relationship between the parent and the child in China II: Why does the generation gap exist? III: How to narrow the generation gap? How can we expand this outline? O utline
  • 16. The problems existing in the development of the left-behind children are mainly caused by parental absence because parents play the most important role in children's development. Th e sis Statement
  • 17. I. Introduction of parental absence in the countryside of China II. Lack of supervision caused by parental absence A. Grandparents' supervision B. Relatives' supervision III. Children's problems caused by lack of supervision A. In education B. In behavior O utline
  • 18. I. Introduction of parental absence in the countryside of China II. Lack of supervision caused by parental absence A. Grandparents' supervision B. Relatives' supervision III. Children's problems caused by lack of supervision A. In education B. In behavior O utline
  • 19. IV. Parents' role playing in the children's development A. Getting an example B. Supporting in feeling C. Mother and father's function V. Conclusion O utline
  • 20. Introduct o ry Paragraphs
  • 21.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • The introduction answers these questions:
      • What is this?
      • Why am I reading it?
      • What do you want me to do?
  • 22.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • You should answer these questions by doing the following:
    • 1. Set the context – provide general information about the main idea, explaining the situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and support
  • 23.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • You should answer these questions by doing the following:
    • 2. State why the main idea is important – tell the reader why s/he should care and keep reading. Your goal is to create a compelling, clear, and convincing essay people will want to read and act upon
  • 24.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • You should answer these questions by doing the following:
    • 3. State your thesis/claim – compose a sentence or two stating the position you will support.
  • 25. Introduct o ry Paragraphs
    • Quintil i an (35 – 100 C.E.):
    • The exordium or introduction tells readers what the argument is about and why it matters. The introduction must also "conciliate the audience," meaning that it should establish a rapport with the reader by demonstrating that the writer is knowledgeable, trustworthy, and mindful of people's best interest.
  • 26.
    • Rapp o rt
    • “ Relation marked by harmony, conformity, accord, or affinity.”
  • 27.
    • Eth o s
    • “ The distinguishing character, sentiment, moral nature, or guiding beliefs of a person, group, or institution.”
  • 28.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • Captures your audience's attention
    • Gives background on your topic
    • Develops interest in your topic
    • Guides your reader to your thesis
    • Establishes a rapport with the audience
  • 29. Introductory Paragr a phs
    • Qu e stion: How do we fulfill these functions?
    • An s w e r: There are so many methods of fulfilling these functions, but there are some that are more frequently used than others.
  • 30.
    • There is no single right form for an introduction to take, but one common form that many writers use is the following:
    • The introduction begins with a broad statement about the main idea. This statement might suggest background or the general category to which the thesis idea belongs.
    Common Meth o ds of Development
  • 31.
    • The next sentences are more specific, moving closer to the actual thesis of the essay.
    • The final sentence of an introduction often contains a fairly specific version of the main idea (thesis statement).
    Common Meth o ds of Development
  • 32.
    • General - Background
    Common Methods o f Development Specific - Thesis
  • 33. Common Methods o f Development
    • Definition
    • Compare / Contrast
    • Brief Definition of Major Issues
    • Questions
  • 34. You can use any of these methods of development in different combinations. You don’t have to use only one. Rem e mber:
  • 35. Definiti o n
    • "Throughout the history of mankind, humans are always trying to find a tool to help them achieve their goals and satisfy their desires. Language, a great tool of power, can be used to obtain these goals and desires. Language is a means to get food, money, and to satisfy many other professional needs. Language has even served as a means of forcing governments to surrender. One of language's most important purposes is to function as one means in the creation of a community...
  • 36. D e finition
    • … A community is a group of people who have similar beliefs and goals and who also work together to sustain their beliefs and reach their goals. In the community itself, language is the keystone of communication--it allows the binding together of a community which leads to the strengthening of relationships of individuals within the community. This in turn will help the individuals of the community to obtain their individual goals."
  • 37.
    • How can development by definition help us achieve our goals in an intr o duction?
  • 38.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • Captures your audience's attention
    • Gives background on your topic
    • Develops interest in your topic
    • Guides your reader to your thesis
    • Establishes a rapport with the audience
  • 39. Common Methods o f Development
    • Definition
    • Compare / Contrast
    • Brief Definition of Major Issues
    • Questions
  • 40. Comparis o ns / Contrast
    • "Mercantilism is to modern economics as the flat-earth theory is to astrophysics or leeching is to brain surgery. The original mercantilist, who reached their notorious zenith in Europe before the French Revolution, preached that government should maximize the nation's hoard of money by promoting exports while pulling up the drawbridge against importers…
  • 41. Comparison / Contr a st
    • … There are obvious parallels with modern Japan, but those who have occupied the high ground on U.S. trade problems have strongly resisted any attempt to label the Japanese latter-day mercantilists."
  • 42.
    • How can development by comparison and contrast help us achieve o ur goals in an introduction?
  • 43.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • Captures your audience's attention
    • Gives background on your topic
    • Develops interest in your topic
    • Guides your reader to your thesis
    • Establishes a rapport with the audience
  • 44. Common Methods o f Development
    • Definition
    • Compare / Contrast
    • Brief Definition of Major Issues
    • Questions
  • 45. Defining Maj o r Issues
    • "A university has many functions. One function is most certainly to provide students with training for their chosen fields of work. This All State University does well. Another, perhaps more important, function is to instill students with the ability to think and reason--the ability to take a situation or a problem apart, consider each part, its function, and its relationship to the other parts, and then to use this knowledge of the problem or situation along with other related knowledge to synthesize an effective solution or a logical conclusion…
  • 46. Defining Major Iss u es
    • … These skills are not easily acquired. In order for students to acquire these skills, they must be deliberately introduced to the skills and instructed in their use. They must also be provided with many opportunities to practice the use of these skills so that eventually these skills will become an integral part of each student's thinking process…
  • 47. Defining Major Iss u es
    • … If students are required to use reasoning skills in only a small number of classes and are allowed to pass other classes by memorizing facts, figures, and formulas they will prefer the easier method of gaining acceptable grades by memorization…
  • 48. Def i ning Major Issues
    • … Therefore, in order to effectively provide students with reasoning skills, All State University has to provide a uniform program of instruction in the use of reasoning skills, and a consistent policy requiring the use of these skills in all classes in all disciplines."
  • 49.
    • How can development by defining maj o r issues help us achieve our goals in an introduction?
  • 50.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • Captures your audience's attention
    • Gives background on your topic
    • Develops interest in your topic
    • Guides your reader to your thesis
    • Establishes a rapport with the audience
  • 51. Common Methods o f Development
    • Definition
    • Compare / Contrast
    • Brief Definition of Major Issues
    • Questions
  • 52. Questi o ns
    • "The 'power of negative thinking'--just what does that mean? Does it conjure up images of the eternal pessimist who always looks on the dark side of a situation? Or, perhaps of someone who never demonstrates hope in anything or anyone?...
  • 53. Questi o ns
    • … These are possible images our society holds of negative thinking and may be the major reasons why very few people imply such thought processes. People tend to flock to the "positive" side of the situation, disregarding the fact that not every situation really has a positive side…
  • 54. Qu e stions
    • … Negative thinking should not be construed as an attitude which is always pessimistic but rather as one which is realistic. The lack of this critical thinking in our society today could prove to be a cause for the unhappiness of future generations because the foundation is being laid for a ‘pretend’ world that does not encourage young people to develop more critical thinking and attitudes."
  • 55.
    • How can devel o pment by questions help us achieve our goals in an introduction?
  • 56.
    • General functions of an intr o duction:
    • Captures your audience's attention
    • Gives background on your topic
    • Develops interest in your topic
    • Guides your reader to your thesis
    • Establishes a rapport with the audience
  • 57. You can use any of these methods of development in different combinations. You don’t have to use only one. Rem e mber:
  • 58.
    • Draws together separate threads of the writer’s argument clearly and precisely.
    • Concludes the essay with implications that both teachers and parents should consider.
    • Persona appears concerned and intelligent.
    Concl u sion
  • 59.
    • What do m o st students believe?
    • Most students believe that the conclusion is either a word-for-word restatement of the thesis or a point-by-point restatement of main ideas presented in the essay.
  • 60.
    • Things to Rem e mber
    • Don't depend on your conclusion to sum up the body paragraphs. Your paragraphs should flow naturally into one another and connections should be made among them. Summary can be an important function of conclusions but keep this part brief; readers know what they've just read.
  • 61.
    • Things to Rem e mber
    • Don't simply regurgitate your introduction. Try to talk about your topic in a new way now that you've presented all that you have about it.
  • 62. Writing Conclusi o ns
    • Creating New Meaning
    • You don't have to give new information to create a new meaning. By demonstrating how your ideas work together and their implications, you can create new meaning.
  • 63.
    • Characteristics o f a Good Conclusion
    • A conclusion should:
    • Stress the importance of the thesis statement,
    • Give the essay a sense of completeness, and
    • Leave a final impression on the reader.
  • 64.
    • What is a concl u sion?
    • Think of a conclusion as a statement drawn from all the ideas and analysis done in the body of the essay. The perspective presented in the conclusion is something like this:
    • “ If you accept all the ideas in the main body, here are a few implications drawn from those ideas.”
    • What is at stake?
  • 65. Writ i ng Conclusions
    • How do we create a conclusion?
    • The creation of an effective conclusion is a work of "craft" of writing where the writer may do many things, depending upon what the essay's subject is, what the purpose is, and what the audience is like.
  • 66.
    • Conclusion usually draw certain general kinds implications:
    • 1. A call to action
    • 2. A need for the audience to reevaluate opinion or beliefs
  • 67. Implicati o ns
    • (continued)
    • 3. An application of the essay's main ideas to some real life situation
    • 4. A return to some significant idea in the essay wherein the original idea takes on added meaning or added intensity as a concluding statement--because of all that precedes the concluding statement
  • 68. More Strat e gies
    • Return to the ongoing conversation , emphasizing the importance of your own contribution to it.
    • Consider again the background information with which you began, and illustrate how your argument has shed new light on that information.
  • 69. M o re Strategies
    • Return to the key terms and point out how your essay has added some new dimension to their meanings.
    • Remember: language is especially important to a conclusion. Your goal in your final sentences is to leave your ideas resounding in your reader's mind. Give her something to think about. Make your language ring.
  • 70. You must be in class because we will be doing an in-class peer review. If you are not in class, you must come to my office hours the following week. Ne x t Week

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