BENJAMIN SHULTZ AND CHARLYNN BURD UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE  GEOGRAPHY SEDAAG  NOVEMBER 25, 2008 The Southern Gentry:  Re-Ex...
Introduction <ul><li>Patterns of nonmetropolitan growth and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary research for pa...
Introduction <ul><li>Economic restructuring and natural amenities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural amenities population/econo...
Introduction <ul><li>Goal of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the spatial relationships between growth and natural ...
Methods <ul><li>County-level data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>853 total counties (ten independent VA cities) </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Methods and Data <ul><li>Growth:  US Census Bureau (1990-2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul></ul><u...
Methods and Data <ul><li>Economic Shifts:  Bureau Economic Analysis 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent Retail </li></u...
Amenities
Methods <ul><li>16 total variables </li></ul><ul><li>K-Means cluster analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Hierarchical Clust...
Sunbelt Service
Southern Gentry
Equilibrium
Chronic Poverty
Discussion <ul><li>Divide between nonmetropolitan and suburban places exists, but is concentrated </li></ul><ul><li>Not al...
Discussion <ul><li>Many places are neither booming nor declining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steady growth </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Thank You! <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
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Shultz Sedaag 2008

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This presentation, co-authored with Charlynn Burd, was given at the 2008 meeting of the Southeastern Division of the AAG.

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  • Shultz Sedaag 2008

    1. 1. BENJAMIN SHULTZ AND CHARLYNN BURD UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE GEOGRAPHY SEDAAG NOVEMBER 25, 2008 The Southern Gentry: Re-Examining Patterns of Growth and Change in the New South
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Patterns of nonmetropolitan growth and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary research for past 3 decades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major research emphasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional economic base rooted in primary and secondary sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New economic shifts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services, real estate, retail, entertainment, tourism </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Economic restructuring and natural amenities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural amenities population/economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Quality of Life” migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth in nontraditional sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy focus on “New West” </li></ul><ul><li>Research on nonmetropolitan South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demise of rural industrial base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disproportionate resources concentrated in suburbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburban growth leaving vast nonmetropolitan areas behind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide between inner city/rural areas and suburbs </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Goal of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the spatial relationships between growth and natural amenities in the South? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent do nonmetropolitan places suffer at the expense of the suburbs? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study area: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States must be part of “census South” and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have at least one county in Appalachian Regional Commission </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Methods <ul><li>County-level data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>853 total counties (ten independent VA cities) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine economic and demographic changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Shifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amenities </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Methods and Data <ul><li>Growth: US Census Bureau (1990-2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Median Household Income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Employment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Number of People in Poverty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prosperity: Various data sources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty Rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housing Problem Index </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment Rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H.S. Dropout </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Methods and Data <ul><li>Economic Shifts: Bureau Economic Analysis 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent Retail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent Manufacturing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent Farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent Farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent Arts, Recreation, and Entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Amenity Index: ERS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rescaled for Southeast </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Amenities
    9. 9. Methods <ul><li>16 total variables </li></ul><ul><li>K-Means cluster analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Hierarchical Clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calinski and Harabasz Stop Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Group Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cluster trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunbelt Service (70 Counties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Gentry (239 Counties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equilibrium (396 Counties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic Poverty (148 Counties) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Sunbelt Service
    11. 11. Southern Gentry
    12. 12. Equilibrium
    13. 13. Chronic Poverty
    14. 14. Discussion <ul><li>Divide between nonmetropolitan and suburban places exists, but is concentrated </li></ul><ul><li>Not all growth is good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in poverty in Sunbelt Suburban jumped 62% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High costs in desirable places potentially displacing low-income people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal polarization between rich and poor may be masked by data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburbs are more diverse than traditionally discussed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e. increased Latino population growth) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Discussion <ul><li>Many places are neither booming nor declining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steady growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe poverty and depopulation are concentrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old race and class divisions still intact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rise of small towns and accessible rural areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcends suburban vs. inner city/rural area divide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural amenities and growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as clear as in New West </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Thank You! <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>

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