• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Shultz AAG 2008

Shultz AAG 2008



This presentation, co-authored with Brian Johnson, is from the AAG meeting in 2008.

This presentation, co-authored with Brian Johnson, is from the AAG meeting in 2008.



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Hello, my name is ___________________ and this afternoon I’ll be presenting a paper entitled “ Social Networks Considered in an Examination of Exurban Migration Motivations .”

Shultz AAG 2008 Shultz AAG 2008 Presentation Transcript

  • Benjamin Shultz Brian E. Johnson Department of Geography Department of Geography University of Tennessee Indiana University Knoxville, Tennessee Bloomington, Indiana Social Networks Considered in an Examination of Exurban Migration Motivations
  • Exurbanization
    • Exurban growth
      • 1970s to current
      • Emphasis on neighborhood context
      • Social networks overlooked
    • Exurbia’s reach and relevance
      • Public Service Provision
      • Transportation
      • Politics
      • Land Use
  • Explaining Exurban Migration
    • How to explain such moves?
      • Urban blight
      • Land cost away from city centers
      • Attraction to nature and amenities
    • Migration decisions are influenced by social networks (Boyd 1989, Brown 2002)
    • Information a key factor (Williams and McMillen 1980)
    • Lack of emphasis on “social amenities” (Nelson 2006)
    • Few exurban studies incorporate this perspective
  • Research Question
    • Integrated theoretical approach
      • Traditional Push/Pull Factors
      • Consideration of Social Networks
    • How did social networks influence the moves of new exurban migrants in addition to conditions in origin/destination communities?
  • Methodology
    • “ Exurban migrant”
    • definition
    • In-depth interviews
      • Semi-structured
      • questioning
      • 34 subjects
      • Northwest Illinois and
      • Northern Indiana
  • Huntington County, IN
    • Traditional Reasons
      • Privacy
      • Independence
      • Space
    • “ I’m not a yard person and in a subdivision if a dandelion pops up people run out there and get those damn things. I’m not into that.”
  • Huntington County, IN
    • Many exurban areas could have satisfied his needs
    • Social networks influenced his move east
      • In the direction of his daughter, son-in-law, and two young grandchildren.
      • Ended up moving to an exurban property about 5 miles from his daughter’s family
    • Move was motivated by his preferences but was guided by his social network connection
  • Kinship Ties
    • Move was motivated by his preferences but was guided by his kinship ties
    • Important theoretical link
      • Migration decisions and kinship ties
      • “ Theoretical arguments suggest that the family outside the household is likely to influence residential choice" (Mulder 2007, 270)
  • Marshall County, IN
    • Traditional Factors:
      • Privacy
      • Space
    • “ [We moved to Marshall County, Indiana] because my husband didn’t like living close to people who were always watching what he was doing.”
  • Marshall County, IN
    • Subject wanted to move to the exurbs, and
    • seemingly, any would do
    • Moved in the direction of parents
    • Importance of kinship
    • “ My parents had moved to Koontz Lake…They gave us a direction to go.”
  • Personal Attachments
    • “ Quality of life” migrants are attracted to
        • Environmental amenities and
        • Social surroundings
    • Personal attachments directly influence the decision to move
        • To particular places
        • Via kinship
        • Via other close relationships (Beyers and Nelson 2000)
    • “ My parents got married in Crown Point…so I said if they have an opening there I’ll take it. That’s just how it happened.”
  • Hampton, IL
    • Crowding
    • Blandness
    • Small lots
    • Suburban sprawl
    • “ The houses were jammed right next to each other and there was really no character to it at all…”
  • Hampton, IL
    • Personal Attachments to Place
    • Kinship Ties
    • “ Our current house is actually my grandfather’s old farmhouse, he had built it about 1935….”
  • Merrillville, IN
    • Casually looking for “some acreage”
    • Suburban life generally satisfactory
    • Quality of life
    • Eventually wanted to move to exurbia
    • “ I wanted a place where I could garden. I love to put in flowers and trees…”
  • Merrillville, IN
    • Transferred house from father
    • Desire for space
    • Push factor away from suburban sprawl
    • “ We weren’t really looking for a house at the time, but when Dad bought the land out here and offered it to us, well we couldn’t pass it up.”
  • Intergenerational Transfers
    • Role of family in modern Western societies
      • Exchange of ideas
      • Support
      • Money
      • Goods
    • Intergenerational transfers of wealth
    • Important link between migration and residential choice
  • Conclusions
    • Social networks must be considered alongside home site characteristics and origin/destination characteristics
    • Amenities and local conditions are important, as is the context in which migration decisions are made
    • Other influences on exurban migration
      • Kinship Ties
      • Attachment to Particular Places
      • Personal Relationships
      • Intergenerational Transfers
  • Thank You! Questions or comments?
  • Works Cited
        • Ash, A., and N. Thrift. 2002. Cities: Reimagining the Urban . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
        • Atkinson, P., and M. Hammersley. 1994. Ethnography and Participant Observation. In Handbook of Qualitiative Research , eds. N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln, 241-61. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
        • Atkinson, R., and J. Flint. 2001. Accessing hidden and hard-to-reach populations: Snowball research strategies. Social Research Update 33 (Summer):1-4.
        • Audirac, I., A. H. Shermyen, and M. T. Smith. 1990. Ideal Urban Form and Visions of the Good Life: Florida's Growth Management Dilemma. Journal of the American Planning Association 56 (4):470-82.
        • Barnett, J. 2002. Turning Edge Cities Into Real Cities. Planning 68 (11):11.
        • Berry, B. J. L., and J. D. Kasarda. 1977. Contemporary Urban Ecology . New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.
        • Berube, A., A. Singer, J. H. Wilson, and W. Frey. 2006. Finding Exurbia: America's Fast-Growing Communities at the Metropolitan Fringe. In Living Cities Census Series . Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institute.
        • Beyers, W. B., and P. B. Nelson. 2000. Contemporary development forces in the nonmetropolitan west: new insights from rapidly growing communities. Journal of Rural Studies 16 (4):459-474.
        • Boyd, M. 1989. Family and Personal Networks in International Migration: Recent Developments and New Agendas. International Migration Review 23 (3):638-670.
        • Boyle, P., K. Halfacree, and V. Robinson. 1998. Exploring Contemporary Migration . New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
        • Brown, D. L. 2002. Migration and Community: Social Networks in a Multilevel World. Rural Sociology 67 (1):1-23.
        • Carlino, G. A. 1985. Declining city productivity and the growth of rural regions: A test of alternative explanations. Journal of Urban Economics 18 (1):11-27.
        • Chambers, D. 1997. A Stake in the Country: Women's Experiences of Suburban Development. In Visions of Suburbia , ed. R. Silverstone, 86-107. London; New York: Routledge.
        • Comer, K. 1997. Sidestepping Environmental Justice: "Natural" Landscapes and the Wilderness Plot. Frontiers: A Journal of Womens Studies 18 (2):73.
        • Cook, I., and M. Crang. 1995. Doing Ethnography . Norwich, England: University of Norwich Press.
        • Coppak, P. 1988. Reflections on the role of amenities in the evolution of the urban field. Geografska Annaler 70B:353-363.
        • Crump, J. R. 2003. Finding A Place In The Country. Environment & Behavior 35 (2):187.
        • DaVanzo, J. 1981. Microeconomic approaches to studying migration decisions. In Migration Decision Making: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Microlevel Studies in Developed and Developing Countries , eds. G. F. De Jong and R. W. Gardner, 90-129. New York: Pergamon Press.
        • Davis, T. S., A. C. Nelson, and K. T. Dueker. 1994. The New Burbs - the Exurbs and Their Implications for Planning Policy. Journal of the American Planning Association 60 (1):45-59.
        • Dawkins, C. J. 2006. Are Social Networks the Ties that Bind Families to Neighborhoods? Housing Studies 21 (6):867-881.
        • Findlay, A. M., and L. Garrick. 1990. Scottish Emigration in the 1980s: A Migration Channels Approach to the Study of Skilled International Migration. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 15 (2):177-192.
        • Findlay, A. M., and F. L. N. Li. 1998. A Migration Channels Approach to the Study of Professional Moving to and from Hong Kong. International Migration Review 32 (3):682-703.
        • Fontana, A., and J. Frey. 1993. Interviewing: The Art of Science. In Handbook of Qualitative Research , eds. N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln, 361-76. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
        • Fox, K. 1985. Metropolitan America: Urban Life and Urban Policy in the United States 1940-1980 . London: Macmillan.
        • Halfacree, K., and P. Boyle. 1993. The challenge facing migration research: the case for a biographical approach. Progress in Human Geography 17:333-348.
        • Hart, J. F. 1976. Urban Encroachment on Rural Areas. Geographical review 66 (1):1-17.
        • Herbert, S. 2000. For Ethnography. Progress in Human Geography 24 (4):550-568.
        • Kandel, W., and E. A. Parrado. 2005. Restructuring of the U.S. Meat Processing Industry and New Hispanic Migrant Destinations. Population and Development Review 31 (3):447-471.
        • Kasarda, J. D. 1978. Urbanization, community, and the metropolitan problem. In Handbook of Contemporary Urban Life , ed. D. Street. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
        • Kutay, A. 1986. Effects of Telecommunications Technology on Office Location. Urban Geography 7 (3):243-57.
  • Works Cited
        • Lamb, R. F. 1983. The Extent and Form of Exurban Sprawl. Growth and Change 14 (1):40-47.
        • Lawson, V. A. 2000. Arguments within geographies of movement: the theoretical potential of migrants' stories. Progress in Human Geography 24 (2):173-189.
        • Marx, L. 1964. The Machine in the Garden . New York: Oxford University Press.
        • Massey, D. S., J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kouaouci, A. Pellegrino, and J. E. Taylor. 1993. Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal. Population and Development Review 19 (3):431-466.
        • Massey, D. S., and N. A. Denton. 1988. Suburbanization and segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas. American Journal of Sociology 94 (3):592-626.
        • Massey, D. S., L. Goldring, and J. Durand. 1994. Continuity of Transnational Migration: An analysis of 19 Mexican communities. American Journal of Sociology 99 (6):1492-1533.
        • McHugh, K. E. 2000. Inside, outside, upside down, backward, forward, round and round: a case for ethnographic studies in migration. Progress in Human Geography 24 (1):71-89.
        • Mincer, J. 1978. Family Migration Decisions. Journal of Political Economy 86 (5):749-773.
        • Morrill, R. 1992. Population redistribution within metropolitan regions in the 1980s: core, satellite, and exurban growth. Growth and Change 23 (2).
        • Mountz, A., and R. A. Wright. 1996. Daily Life in the Transnational Migrant Community of San Agustín, Oaxaca, and Poughkeepsie, New York. Diaspora 5 (3):403-428.
        • Mulder, C. H. 2007. The Family Context and Residential Choice: a Challenge for New Research. Population, Space and Place 13:265-278.
        • Nelson, A. C. 1992. Characterizing Exurbia. Journal of Planning Literature 6 (4):350-368.
        • Nelson, A. C., and T. W. Sanchez. 1997. Exurban and Suburban Households: A Departure from Traditional Location Theory? Journal of Housing Research 8 (2):249-276.
        • Nelson, P. B., J. P. Nicholson, and E. H. Stege. 2004. The Baby Boom and Nonmetropolitan Population Change, 1975-1990. Growth and Change 35 (4):525-544.
        • Patel, D. I. 1980. Exurbs: Urban Residential Development in the Countryside: Washington, DC: University Press of America.
        • Petersen, W. 1958. A General Typology of Migration. American Sociological Review 23 (3):256-266.
        • Ritchey, P. N. 1976. Explanations of Migration. Annual Review of Sociology 2:363-404.
        • Rowe, P. G. 1991. Making a Middle Landscape . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
        • Silverstone, R. 1997. Visions of Suburbia . London ; New York: Routledge.
        • Sjaastad, L. A. 1962. The costs and returns of human migration. Journal of Political Economy 705:80-93.
        • Spectorsky, A. C. 1955. The Exurbanites : Lippincott.
        • Teaford, J. C. 1997. Post-suburbia: Government and Politics in the Edge Cities . Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
        • Theobald, D. M. 2001. Land-Use Dynamics Beyond The American Urban Fringe. Geographical review 91 (3):544.
        • Walker, P. A., and L. A. Fortmann. 2003. Whose Landscape? A Political Ecology of the 'Exurban' Sierra. Cultural Geography 10 (4):469.
        • Wardwell, J. M. 1980. Toward a Theory of Urban-Rural Migration in the Developed World. In New Directions in Urban-Rural Migration: The Population Turnaround in Rural America , eds. D. L. Brown and J. M. Wardwell, 71-114. New York: Academic Press, Inc.
        • Wardwell, J. M., and D. L. Brown. 1980. Population Redistribution in the United States during the 1970s. In New Directions in Urban-Rural Migration: The Population Turnaround in Rural America , eds. D. L. Brown and J. M. Wardwell, 5-36. New York: Academic Press, Inc.
        • Williams, J., and A. Sofranko. 1979. Motivations for the Inmigration Component of Population Turnaround in Nonmetropolitan Areas. Demography 16 (2):239-255.
        • Williams, J. D., and D. B. McMillen. 1980. Migration Decision Making among Nonmetropolitan-Bound Migrants. In New Directions in Urban-Rural Migration: The Population Turnaround in Rural America , eds. D. L. Brown and J. M. Wardwell, 189-212. New York: Academic Press, Inc.
        • Wirth, L. 1938. Urbanism as a Way of Life. American Journal of Sociology 44:3-24.
        • Wolpert, J. 1965. Behavioral Aspects of the Decision to Migration. Papers of the Regional Science Association 15:159-169.
        • Wright, G. 1981. Building the Dream: A Social History of Housing in America . 1st ed. New York: Pantheon Books.