Learning Unit 3 - Risk and Lethality-CRJ 461


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Learning Unit 3 - Risk and Lethality-CRJ 461

  1. 1. Learning Unit 3<br />Risk and Lethality: Victim and Abuser Dynamics<br />A mini content lecture designed as a supplemental learning resource for CRJ 461 by Bonnie Black. <br />
  2. 2. Who is the Abuser<br />Appearances can <br />be deceiving!<br />
  3. 3. Stereotypes Exist<br />What is a "wife beater" shirt?<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Abusers Develop Strategies That:<br />Hide emotional vulnerability and skill deficits.<br />Create a conscious deception to protect image – pattern.<br />Prevent real character and weaknesses from being exposed.<br />Calculated<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Abuser Characteristics<br />Limited Tolerance for Change<br />Dependent/ Insecure<br />No Delayed Reinforcement<br />Low Self-Esteem<br />No Boundaries<br />Dysfunctional Family<br />Avoids Facts<br />Better/Different Than Others<br />Use Anger to Intimidate/Control<br />Can’t Express Emotions<br />Views Family as Ownership<br />Avoids Responsibility<br />“Entitled”<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Defendant Statements<br />Pick out the key words!<br />Think about It! <br />Is there minimization and attempts to avoid responsibility?<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Defendant Statement - #1<br />“I became angry and so did she. We started arguing. I hit her with a tire iron, but didn’t mean to. I was just trying to scare her. I love my wife and believe she exaggerated her injuries.”<br />Hit in back w/tire iron<br />“I became angry and so did she. We started arguing. <br />I hit her with a tire iron, but didn’t mean to. I was just <br />trying to scare her. I love my wife and believe she <br />exaggerated her injuries.”<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Defendant Statement - #2<br /> “It was one of those family arguments in which I was coming home from a basketball game and I was accused of being around other women. Arguing started which ended up to this.”<br />Victim hit in head with ax handle<br />“It was one of those family arguments in which I was <br />coming home from a basketball game and I was accused<br />of being around other women. Arguing started which <br />ended up to this.”<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Defendant Statement - #3<br />“My wife and I had stopped communicating so I set <br />up a tape recorder to record her phone calls so I <br />could find out what was bothering her. As I listened to the tape, I found out my wife was having an affair. I <br />was angry and fearful at the same time I confronted <br />her with the tape. I yelled at her and pushed her to <br />the couch and floor a couple times. I waved my gun <br />at her and noticed it was cocked. I did not want it to <br />go off and I attempted to de-cock it. My hands <br />were shaking so badly, they slipped and <br />the gun accidentally discharged.”<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Defendant Statement - #3<br />Choked wife/gun fired on floor<br />“My wife and I had stopped communicating so I set up a <br />tape recorder to record her phone calls so I could find out what was bothering her. As I listened to the tape, I <br />found out my wife was having an affair. I was angry <br />and fearful at the same time I confronted her with the <br />tape. I yelled at her and pushed her to the couch and <br />floor a couple times. I waved my gun at her and noticed <br />it was cocked. I did not want it to go off and I <br />attempted to de-cock it. My hands were shaking so <br />badly, they slipped and the gun accidentally discharged.”<br />Witnessed by 14 yr old daughter<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Expect Abusers to Avoid Responsibility<br />1.Deny…………………….. Did not happen that way! <br />2. Minimize………………… Downplays significance of abuse! <br />3. Externalize...…………… Actions caused<br /> by others! <br />4. Rationalize...…………… Justifies behavior!<br />NOT<br /> ME!<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Patterns of Thinking and Behavior<br />Blaming Shifts responsibility to others<br />Immediate Gratification Now oriented<br />Grandiose Presents image of self-importance<br />Build Up Better than others<br />Unique Different than others<br />Lying Used to control information, confuse or gain the advantage<br />Lack of Boundaries “I do what I want”<br />You’re Mine Owner of others; like property<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Abuser Types<br />Theory 1: Low self-esteem/inadequate<br />Theory 2: High self-esteem/egoism <br />Theory 3: Pit Bulls vs. Cobras <br />Theory 4: One size doesn’t fit all<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Theory 1: D.V. Stems From:<br />FEAR <br />INSECURITY<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Theory 2: DV Stems From:<br />Inflated ego/invincible <br />Better than others/grandiose sense of self<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Theory 3: Pit Bulls vs. Cobras<br />Pit Bulls<br />Great Guys<br />Charming to Others<br />Emotionally Dependent<br />Stalkers/Jealous<br />No Criminal Record<br />Cobras<br />Sociopaths<br />Antisocial<br />Cold, No Emotional Bond - Needs Victim<br />Aggressive towards Anyone when Challenged<br />Has Criminal Record, Substance Abusers<br />Studied 201 married couples, <br />63 were abusive. <br />Is this a valid sample?<br />16<br />Source: http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/17/science/battered-women-face-pit-bulls-and-cobras.html<br />
  17. 17. Theory 4: Abusers are All Different<br />One size doesn't fit all.<br />Underlying issues may vary <br />but common characteristics <br />exist!<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Abuser Uses:<br /><ul><li>Domination
  19. 19. Oppression
  20. 20. Control</li></ul>Tactics<br />Violence is a Choice--<br />Cause is Decision<br />18<br />
  21. 21. Identifying Abusers: What To Look For<br />Cites good intentions for abuse <br />Can’t show empathy<br />Often compliant with criminal justice system or creates an appearance of<br />Socially isolated<br />Traditionalist<br />19<br />
  22. 22. Identifying Abusers: Continued<br />Past battering<br />Controlling in relationships<br />Accepts behavior as normal/right<br />Jealousy<br />Blames victim<br />Master at manipulation<br />20<br />
  23. 23. What Victims Should Look For<br />Reactive Hypersensitive<br />Intensive Rapid escalation of emotion/ dramatic <br />Depth Lack of emotional substance in relationships (no growth)<br />Oppositional Manipulates conflicts and argument to maintain controlling position<br />False Front Disparity in private and public self<br />Historical No info about previous life<br />Information Hard to gain access to other life activities and relationships<br />Monopoly “All I need is you!”<br />21<br />
  24. 24. Victim Characteristics<br />Low Self-Esteem<br />Self-Blame<br />Isolation<br />Lack of Trust<br />Shame<br />Embarrassment<br />Denial<br />Minimizations<br />Believes Myths<br />Depression<br />Possible Substance Abuse<br />22<br />
  25. 25. Every Victim is Different<br />Recognize individuality of every situation.<br />23<br />
  26. 26. Victim Safety is #1 Priority<br />Extends to children, family members and community.<br />Ongoing risk can result in homicide.<br />24<br />
  27. 27. Safety: A Victim Perspective<br />How does she define it?<br />Does she feel safe at this time?<br />When does she feel safe?<br />Does her partner know she is talking to you?<br />What does she think will be her partner’s next move?<br />What can I do to improve your safety?<br />25<br />
  28. 28. Through the Eyes of a Victim<br />“I asked the victim if she was safe and she said yes. I removed the candlesticks by the front door so I am now safe.” (Boyfriend use to threaten her with them.)<br />“I asked the victim if she was safe and she said yes. I asked where her husband was. ‘In the bedroom” she replied. Has he been drinking? ‘Yes, but only a six pack.’ Are there weapons in the house? ‘Yes, he has a gun in the bedroom.” Victim was directed to leave the house immediately.<br />26<br />
  29. 29. Different Views of Risk<br />Criminal Justice Professional’s View ofVictim Risk:<br />Loss of life<br />Physical abuse and injuries<br />Victim’s View of Risk:<br />Losing custody of children<br />Loss of job due to court hearings, etc.<br />Impact on children who may be removed from school<br />Public and/or family shame<br />Victim’s concerns extend <br />well beyond traditional <br />definitions of “safety.”<br />27<br />
  30. 30. Lethality Indicators<br />Can We Determine Who Will Kill?<br />
  31. 31. What is Risk?<br />Source: “Risk assessment approach for the prevention of recidivism…” by Anna CostanzaBaldryIntervict, PowerPoint.<br />Likelihood<br />“Probability”<br />29<br />
  32. 32. Predictions<br />History of violence is one of the<br />best predictors of future violence!<br />Homicide most difficult to predict<br />because it’s rare!<br />30<br />
  33. 33. Predictions of Risk are Based on:<br />INTUITION <br />KNOWLEDGE<br />EXPERIENCE<br />BIASES <br />INSTRUMENTS<br />Source: Assessing Dangerousness by Jacquelyn C. Campbell<br />31<br />
  34. 34. Computerized Risk Assessment Instruments<br />CAN: <br />Be a tool to think through the elements of a case and compare it to other cases that resulted in serious injury or death.<br />Be a good reminder to do a thorough investigation and analyze elements.<br />CAN NOT: <br />Predict the behavior of any given individual.<br />Interpret the world of the battered victim’s problem solving; D.V. is about coercive control not just a problem of assaultive behavior.<br />Source: Metro Nashville Police Department, Stalking, Safety and <br /> Assessment.<br />32<br />
  35. 35. Because abuse is such a serious risk <br />factor for homicide between intimates, <br />cases should be routinely assessed for <br />homicide risk.<br />Knowledge of risk factors allows potential <br />victims and officers to gauge the <br />degree of danger and make decisions.<br />33<br />
  36. 36. One Size Does Not Fit All<br />D.V. assessment<br />must be case-specific and <br />based on an ongoing analysis <br />of the totality of risks the <br />victim faces.<br />34<br />
  37. 37. Lethality Indicators<br />Frequency/severity of violence<br />Drug/alcohol abuse<br />Threats to harm children<br />Threats to kill<br />Forced sex<br />Suicide threats/ attempts<br />Weapons<br />Pet abuse<br />Psychiatric impairment<br />Proximity<br />Level of obsession/stalking<br />Perceived ownership<br />Separation<br />Indifference to public consequences<br />Service of court papers<br />Adapted from Lenore Walker, 1996<br />35<br />
  38. 38. Don’t Discount Threats<br />Does victim believe it?<br />Made private or public?<br />Detailed and specific?<br />Have the means?<br />Has there been “rehearsals” of act?<br />Does it extend to others?<br />Involve murder, suicide or both?<br />8-8-10<br /> Source: Metro Nashville Police Dept; Stalking, Safety, <br /> Assessment<br />36<br />
  39. 39. Presence of Lethality Indicators Increases Risk of Victim Killing Abuser<br />Frequency of violent incidents<br />Severity of injuries<br />Abuser’s threat to kill<br />Victim’s threats of suicide<br />Abuser’s frequency of intoxication<br />Abuser’s drug abuse<br />Forced sexual acts<br />37<br />
  40. 40. Victim Safety Options<br />Information on D.V.<br />Resources/Services Available<br />Explain role of D.V. Shelter<br />Identify a Support Person – Not Alone<br />Protective Orders<br />Safety Planning<br />*Priority of criminal justice response should be victim safety!<br />38<br />
  41. 41. Do Orders of Protection Work?<br />Think About it!<br />39<br />
  42. 42. Protective Orders: A Tool for Safety?<br />An Important Option For Victims: <br />Allows for police intervention<br />Interfering with Judicial Proceedings is a D.V. crime<br />Majority follow court order<br />Creates a paper trail of abusive history<br />Legal finding by judge <br />40<br />
  43. 43. Cautions with O.P.<br />Only a piece of paper.<br />Nothing ensures safety.<br />Homicide risk increases following service of court papers.<br />Separation most dangerous time. <br />Must be taught how to use it:<br />When to call police<br />Keep copy<br />Full Faith and Credit<br />Valid in ALL states<br />Modifications by judge only<br />Think About it!<br />Does invitation by <br />victim invalidate the <br />protective order?<br />41<br />
  44. 44. Answer to Think About it!<br />NO<br />Protective orders are against the defendant only; not the plaintiff.<br />An invitation by victim may influence arrest and charging decisions. <br />42<br />
  45. 45. Safety Plans<br />Thinking about what you would do in a crisis.<br />Low risk rooms vs. dangerous rooms<br />Create signals/code words<br />Escape plan -- rehearsed<br />Safety planning with children<br />Plan is individualized and varies if staying, having contact or in hiding.<br />Extend beyond home.<br />SAFETY<br />43<br />
  46. 46. Risks of Separation<br />Leads to high risk situations:<br />Stalking<br />Service of court papers<br />Victim independence<br />Secret is revealed/exposing abuser<br />Suicidal tendencies<br />Abusers feels loss of control/need to exert control:<br />Revenge<br />Teach lesson<br />Boundaries broken-”nothing more to lose”<br />44<br />
  47. 47. Push by the C. J. System to Protect Victims<br />Increased state and Federal legislation with stronger laws and harsher punishments.<br />Example: Violence Against Women Act<br />More funding to support victim assistance programs and crisis intervention teams.<br />Full Faith and Credit<br />Protective orders valid in ALL States should victim need to flee.<br />What else?<br />45<br />
  48. 48. Conclusions<br />Abusers are manipulative and calculating; presenting a different public and private image.<br />Separation is the most dangerous time for a victim.<br />Risk assessment within the criminal justice process is important and must be ongoing.<br />Defining victim’s perspective on safety is important.<br />The criminal justice system has a moral responsibility to provide victims with resources and options that will promote safety.<br />Victim safety can NEVER be guaranteed!<br />46<br />