D.V. – A Value Based Behavior and Attitude?<br />LearningUnit1<br />A mini content lecture designed as a supplemental lear...
What is a Value-Based Crime?<br />Value-Based Criminal:  <br />Believes what they do is right<br />Self-righteous  in thei...
Historically - D.V. Accepted<br />What happens between a husband and wife was viewed as private.<br />Acceptance by societ...
Historically – D.V. Accepted Continued<br />Religious values influenced roles of men and women<br />Children and wife view...
The Middle Ages<br />“According to English Common Law, which developed from the 12th Century onward all property which a w...
The Enlightment – 18th Century<br />“The philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau for example thought that it was the order of na...
In 1864 the North Carolina State Supreme Court wrote:<br />“A husband is required to govern his household and for that pur...
Laws Held Violence As Acceptable if Wife:<br />behaved shamelessly and caused jealousy<br />was lazy<br />unwilling to wor...
Concept of “Rule of Thumb”<br />Husband can legally beat his wife with a stick or rod as long as it is no thicker than his...
Laws Change but Historical Values Prevail<br />Women’s place is in the home<br />Subservient to male<br />Think About it:<...
You’ve Come a Long Way Baby!Guess the Year<br />“Women are eternally wounded-unfit to work more than one week a month beca...
You’ve Come a Long Way Baby!Guess the Year<br />1850's<br />“Women are eternally wounded-unfit to work more than one week ...
D.V. is Widespread<br />Estimated that over a million women abused annually; one in four women will experience D.V. in a l...
D.V. is Violent<br />2008: Murder victims killed by an intimate2<br />35% females and 2% males<br />Represents 37% of emer...
Arizona Picture<br />Police Reports= 58,979 (D.V. & O.P.)<br />Arrests At Scene= 18,468<br />Men-73%      Women-22%       ...
Answer to Think About it!<br />Assault<br />Disorderly Conduct<br />16<br />
What Do Statistics Tell Us?<br />Females victimized more often than males.<br />Female victims suffer greater injuries tha...
An Obstacle To An Effective Criminal Justice Response:  Myths<br />Buying-in to misconceptions effects decisions.<br />Per...
Myth= D.V. Effects the Uneducated and PoorFact=Victims and Abusers can be Anyone<br />No Discrimination!<br /><ul><li>Educ...
Professional and Blue Collar Worker
Wealthy and Poor
Teens and the Elderly</li></ul>19<br />
Criminal Justice System May See A Different Picture<br />Why:<br />More enforcement and police patrol in lower income and ...
Myth: Substance use and abuse <br />causes D.V.<br />Fact: Alcohol can  increase the frequency and severity of domestic vi...
Myth: D. V. is a private, family matter.<br />Fact: Domestic violence is a crime!<br />22<br />
Myth: Abusers can easily be identified by <br />their aggressive and mean behavior and demeanor.<br />Fact: Approximately ...
Myth:  D. V. is caused by an anger problem <br />and a solution is learning how to control it.<br />Fact: Domestic violenc...
Abuse Motivated	Abuse Motivated<br />By “ANGER”By“I’M IN CHARGE”<br />Situational			Pattern of Control<br />Emotional			Us...
Abuse is About Power<br />Tactics come in many forms NOT just physical abuse.			<br />Tactics center on domination, oppres...
Abuse is Not Caused By:<br />Illness (less than 5%)			<br />Genetics				<br />Alcohol or Drugs<br />Out of Control Behavio...
Physical Abuse Can Include:<br />Pushing<br />Choking<br />Kicking <br />Punching<br />Throwing objects<br />Slapping<br /...
Emotional and Psychological Abuse Can Include:<br />Intimidation<br />Yelling<br />Criticizing<br />Demeaning remarks<br /...
Sexual Abuse Can Include:<br />Unwanted touching<br />False accusations<br />Sexual name calling<br />Unfaithfulness<br />...
Answer to Think About it!<br />“Arizona was one of seven states that defined spousal rape as different from a sexual assau...
Power and Control is Gained by:<br />Source: Developed by: <br />Domestic Abuse Intervention <br />Project, Duluth, MN<br ...
D.V. in Same Sex Relationships<br />Myth: Same-sex battering is mutual.<br />Fact: D.V. is an imbalance of power.<br />Myt...
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Learning Unit 1 - Value-based Behavior and Attitude-CRJ 461

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Learning Unit 1 - Value-based Behavior and Attitude-CRJ 461

  1. 1. D.V. – A Value Based Behavior and Attitude?<br />LearningUnit1<br />A mini content lecture designed as a supplemental learning resource for CRJ 461 by Bonnie Black. <br />
  2. 2. What is a Value-Based Crime?<br />Value-Based Criminal: <br />Believes what they do is right<br />Self-righteous in their commitment to their beliefs<br />Little deterrence <br />Example: Terrorist<br />Traditional Criminal:<br />Knows act is wrong but does it anyway<br />Benefits outweigh consequences or believe they won’t get caught<br />Some deterrence<br />Example: Burglar <br />2<br />
  3. 3. Historically - D.V. Accepted<br />What happens between a husband and wife was viewed as private.<br />Acceptance by society; don’t interfere in family issues <br />Husband viewed as having authority over his family (legally and culturally)<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Historically – D.V. Accepted Continued<br />Religious values influenced roles of men and women<br />Children and wife viewed as property of husband; possessions<br />Legal right of a husband to beat his wife.<br />4<br />
  5. 5. The Middle Ages<br />“According to English Common Law, which developed from the 12th Century onward all property which a wife held at the time of a marriage became a possession of her husband. Eventually English courts forbid a husband's transferring property without the consent of his wife, but he still retained the right to manage it and to receive the money which it produced.”<br />Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_rights<br />5<br />
  6. 6. The Enlightment – 18th Century<br />“The philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau for example thought that it was the order of nature for woman to obey men. He wrote ‘Women do wrong to complain of the inequality of man-made laws’ and claimed that ‘when she tries to usurp our rights, she is our inferior’.”<br />Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_rights<br />6<br />
  7. 7. In 1864 the North Carolina State Supreme Court wrote:<br />“A husband is required to govern his household and for that purpose the law permits him to use …such a degree of force as is necessary to control an unruly temper and make her behave…; and unless some permanent injury be inflicted to gratify his own bad passions, the law will not invade the domestic forum.”<br />Source: State vs. Black, 59-60 N.C. 266<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Laws Held Violence As Acceptable if Wife:<br />behaved shamelessly and caused jealousy<br />was lazy<br />unwilling to work in the fields<br />became drunk<br />spent too much money<br />neglected house<br />Think About it!<br />When could you NOT<br />beat your wife?<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Concept of “Rule of Thumb”<br />Husband can legally beat his wife with a stick or rod as long as it is no thicker than his thumb.<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Laws Change but Historical Values Prevail<br />Women’s place is in the home<br />Subservient to male<br />Think About it:<br />Who is “head of household?” Why?<br />10<br />
  11. 11. You’ve Come a Long Way Baby!Guess the Year<br />“Women are eternally wounded-unfit to work more than one week a month because of their monthly crisis, unfit to work the previous week because she’s troubled about the oncoming crisis, unfit to work the week after the crisis because she is recuperating from the crisis.” <br />“Guys: a word of advice…whatever you do, don’t marry a woman with a career. Why?...Recent studies have found professional women are more likely to get divorced, more likely to cheat and less likely to have children.”<br />3. “The only healthy woman was one who followed her biological destiny and procreated on a regular basis, learned to crochet, avoided higher education at all cost because it will make her frigid…….”<br />Source: Pink Magazine, Dec-Jan 2007<br />11<br />
  12. 12. You’ve Come a Long Way Baby!Guess the Year<br />1850's<br />“Women are eternally wounded-unfit to work more than one week a month because of their monthly crisis, unfit to work the previous week because she’s troubled about the oncoming crisis, unfit to work the week after the crisis because she is recuperating from the crisis.” <br />“Guys: a word of advice…whatever you do, don’t marry a woman with a career. Why?...Recent studies have found professional women are more likely to get divorced, more likely to cheat and less likely to have children.”<br />3. “The only healthy woman was one who followed her biological destiny and procreated on a regular basis, learned to crochet, avoided higher education at all cost because it will make her frigid…….”<br />2006<br />1947<br />Source: Pink Magazine, Dec-Jan 2007<br />12<br />
  13. 13. D.V. is Widespread<br />Estimated that over a million women abused annually; one in four women will experience D.V. in a lifetime1<br />85% of victims are women3<br />Is chronically underreported1 (estimated only one in ten report it)<br />Approximately 20% of D.V. victims obtain protective orders.1<br />In same sex relationships*, 47% were men, 48% were women and 5% were transgender.<br />Source:<br />1 National Coalition Against<br />D.V.-”Domestic Violence Facts”<br />2National Center for Victims of <br />Crime, www.ncvc.org<br />*Same sex = lesbians, gays, bisexual<br />and transgender<br />13<br />
  14. 14. D.V. is Violent<br />2008: Murder victims killed by an intimate2<br />35% females and 2% males<br />Represents 37% of emergency room visits by women3<br />15% of teens in a relationship report date violence2<br />2007: Accounts for 23% of all violent crimes against females and 3% of violent crimes against males (excludes homicide)2<br />Source: 2National Center for Victims of Crime, www.ncvc.org<br />3Family Violence Prevention Fund, “Fact Sheet, Intimate Violence and Healthy People 2010”<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Arizona Picture<br />Police Reports= 58,979 (D.V. & O.P.)<br />Arrests At Scene= 18,468<br />Men-73% Women-22% Dual-5%<br />Alcohol Involved= 6,661 (previous yr 8,062)<br />Classification of Crimes<br />92.5% Misdemeanors & 7.5% Felonies<br />Conviction Rate = 39.9% (Maricopa)<br />Think About it! 73% of D.V. charges involve what two crimes?<br />Source: SACT Report 2005, Arizona Governor’s Division for Women & Morrison Institute for Public Policy-C. J. Issues for Arizona #1, May 2006<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Answer to Think About it!<br />Assault<br />Disorderly Conduct<br />16<br />
  17. 17. What Do Statistics Tell Us?<br />Females victimized more often than males.<br />Female victims suffer greater injuries than male victims.<br />D.V. issues prevalent in cases charged with other crimes.<br />Arrest and conviction rate low for D.V.<br />Risks exist even if charged as a misdemeanor.<br />Arrest records are not good indicators of abusive history.<br />Secrecy makes risk assessment difficult.<br />D.V. is deadly.<br />17<br />
  18. 18. An Obstacle To An Effective Criminal Justice Response: Myths<br />Buying-in to misconceptions effects decisions.<br />Perpetuates victim blaming.<br />Allows abusers to avoid responsibility.<br />Discretion is influenced and monitoring becomes lax because abuser appears compliant and cooperative.<br />Risk/safety concerns seem unnecessary.<br />Perceptions/beliefs about D.V. are <br />culturally ingrained and value based.<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Myth= D.V. Effects the Uneducated and PoorFact=Victims and Abusers can be Anyone<br />No Discrimination!<br /><ul><li>Educated and High School Dropout
  20. 20. Professional and Blue Collar Worker
  21. 21. Wealthy and Poor
  22. 22. Teens and the Elderly</li></ul>19<br />
  23. 23. Criminal Justice System May See A Different Picture<br />Why:<br />More enforcement and police patrol in lower income and high crime areas<br />Neighbors hear violence and call 911 more in housing projects and apartment living<br />High income areas less likely to call police<br />What else? <br />*Most D.V. is Not reported!<br />20<br />
  24. 24. Myth: Substance use and abuse <br />causes D.V.<br />Fact: Alcohol can increase the frequency and severity of domestic violence but no causal relationship exists.<br />21<br />
  25. 25. Myth: D. V. is a private, family matter.<br />Fact: Domestic violence is a crime!<br />22<br />
  26. 26. Myth: Abusers can easily be identified by <br />their aggressive and mean behavior and demeanor.<br />Fact: Approximately 80% of men who batter are generally not violent in other aspects of their lives<br />23<br />
  27. 27. Myth: D. V. is caused by an anger problem <br />and a solution is learning how to control it.<br />Fact: Domestic violence is not anger driven.<br />It is a purposeful<br />and deliberate act of controlling another person!<br />Most Common belief<br />24<br />
  28. 28. Abuse Motivated Abuse Motivated<br />By “ANGER”By“I’M IN CHARGE”<br />Situational Pattern of Control<br />Emotional Uses Anger to Intimidate<br /> and Create Fear<br />Reactive Deliberate/Purposeful<br />Out of Control Exerting Control<br />Impulsive Calculated<br />Temper Impacts Most Abusive Responses<br />All Areas of Life Restricted to Intimate<br />25<br />
  29. 29. Abuse is About Power<br />Tactics come in many forms NOT just physical abuse. <br />Tactics center on domination, oppression and control. <br />Emotional and psychological abuse has lingering impact.<br />26<br />
  30. 30. Abuse is Not Caused By:<br />Illness (less than 5%) <br />Genetics <br />Alcohol or Drugs<br />Out of Control Behavior <br />Stress<br />27<br />
  31. 31. Physical Abuse Can Include:<br />Pushing<br />Choking<br />Kicking <br />Punching<br />Throwing objects<br />Slapping<br />Restraining<br />Using weapons<br />Pulling Hair<br />Holding<br />Etc.<br />28<br />
  32. 32. Emotional and Psychological Abuse Can Include:<br />Intimidation<br />Yelling<br />Criticizing<br />Demeaning remarks<br />Using children<br />Isolation<br />Threats<br />Humiliation<br />Ignoring<br />Etc.<br />29<br />
  33. 33. Sexual Abuse Can Include:<br />Unwanted touching<br />False accusations<br />Sexual name calling<br />Unfaithfulness<br />Hurtful sex<br />Rape<br />Etc.<br />Think About it!<br />Is spousal rape<br />a crime in Arizona?<br />30<br />
  34. 34. Answer to Think About it!<br />“Arizona was one of seven states that defined spousal rape as different from a sexual assault that was committed by a non-spouse. Arizona was considered to have the weakest spousal rape law in the country because of the sentence disparity between spousal rape and the rape of a person who is not a spouse. Spousal rape was a Class 6 felony and the punishment options ranged from probation to a maximum of 18 months imprisonment. In addition, judges had the option to lower the charge to a class 1 misdemeanor. In 2005, an Arizona woman was sexually assaulted by her husband. The brutal sexual assault raised awareness about Arizona’s spousal rape law. Through the coordinated efforts of county prosecutor’s and victims rights groups the law was challenged.”<br />Sexual Assault is sexual assault regardless of who commits it!<br />Source: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/2/6/0/2/p126022_index.html<br />31<br />
  35. 35. Power and Control is Gained by:<br />Source: Developed by: <br />Domestic Abuse Intervention <br />Project, Duluth, MN<br />32<br />
  36. 36. D.V. in Same Sex Relationships<br />Myth: Same-sex battering is mutual.<br />Fact: D.V. is an imbalance of power.<br />Myth: Battering in same-sex relationships is not as violent as heterosexual abuse.<br />Fact: Gays and lesbians face the same kinds of violence and danger.<br />Source: Arizona Coalition Against Domestic Violence, www.azcadv.org<br />33<br />
  37. 37. Think About it!<br />Are men victims of domestic violence?<br />“Approximately 1.3 million women and 835,000 men are physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States. <br />Patricia Tjaden & Nancy Thoennes, U.S. Dep't of Just., NCJ 183781, Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, at iv (2000), available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/183781.htm”<br />Source: http://new.abanet.org/domesticviolence/Pages/Statistics.aspx<br />34<br />
  38. 38. D. V. Impacts on Everyone<br />Generational: Children Witness It<br />Considered one of the “strongest risk factor for transmitting violent behavior from one generation to the next.”<br />Costly: Huge Economic Impact<br />Cost “exceeds $5.8 billion” annually for direct medical and mental health services.<br />Community Epidemic: D. V. Linked to Stalking, Sexual Assault, Child Abuse and Other Social Issues<br />Source: National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, “Domestic Violence Facts”<br />35<br />
  39. 39. Conclusion<br />D. V. involves a wide range of tactics used to have power and control; violence is only one of the tactics used.<br />Not all forms of abuse are criminal.<br />Purposeful and systematic dominance is a foundation of the problem.<br />D.V. is a widespread community problem that impacts on everyone.<br />D. V. remains hidden with the C. J. system addressing a small part of the problem.<br />36<br />
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