Purpose and Objectives Group A: WBI development standards - - IEEE, ADL, ISO, IMS emerging conceptual specifications for the design of reusable content within web-based training. These standards are being used primarily in the DoD, but have great implications for the corporate, consumer, and academic markets as well. Our group will present general information on the standards organizations and their current work.
Group A Organization Berta Sanchez Regina Miller ADL IEEE Group A WBI development standards Tanya Reber Leisa Eiland ISO IMS
IntroductionAccording to Friesen (2004),standards for e-learningtechnology are normallydeveloped for systems designand implementation to ensureinteroperability, portability,and reusability which appliesto both the systemsthemselves and of the content,data, and managed processes.
Standards usually have many partsconsisting of the following:
The development of technical standardsin e-learning can be viewed as part of thematuration of distance learning andtraining via digital technology orpersonal computer. (Friesen, 2004)
ADL HISTORY Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative was established in 1997 to standardize and modernize training and education management. It was developed by the Department of Defense after they saw a need for on-demand training for both individuals and units worldwide.
ADL STANDARD? Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) was developed by ADL Initiative. It is a collection of technical standards, specifications, and guidelines used for e-learning. The technical standards are used to ensure that one can create a lesson using SCORM and that lesson can be used in different online Learning Management Systems without having to make any changes. SCORM 2004 is the latest version of this reference model, it focuses on defining a model for packaging learning content and defining an API for enabling communications between learning content and the system that delivers it (Collier and Robson, 2002).
SCORM Individuals or organizations create Sharable Content Objects (SCOs). SCOs are launchable and reusable learning objects that contain units of learning. As you can see from the diagram below how the SCOs get to the learner through the LMS. (Source: Collier and Robson, 2002)
SCORM COMPLIANT LMS There are many Learning Management Systems, both open source and commercial, that are able to use SCORM created lessons. Open Source Examples Moodle eFront Commercial Examples Desire2Learn SharePointLMS JoomlaCMS Blackboard Learning System
SCORM BOOKS According to the SCORM 2004 section FAQ of the ADL website (n.d.), the SCORM guide consists of four books that are used to create SCORM conformant lessons. Book 2 Content Aggregation Book 3 Book 1 Model Run-Time Book 4 Environment Sequencing and• History • describes the components Navigation• Status used • describes the LMS• Concepts • how to package requirements on using • describes how to components the run-time environment sequence the objects• Future • how to describe the • information about the • how to branch or set the Direction components SCOs in regard to API flow of the content. • how to define and CMI Data Model sequencing
BENEFITS TO USING SCORM In the ADL website, the SCORM 2004 section FAQ (n.d.) states, there are four benefits to using SCORM:• The ability to locate and access • The ability to take instructional components instructional components from multiple developed in one system and use them in locations and deliver them to other another system. For example, content locations. For example, a content author packaged for delivery in one SCORM- can search the ADL Registry and identify conformant LMS could be loaded into relevant content that has already been another LMS that is conformant to the same developed by another organization and version of SCORM for delivery to learners. deploy that content on any LMS that is conformant to the same version of SCORM to learners anywhere in the world. Accessibility Interoperability Durability Reusability• The ability to withstand technology • The ability to withstand technology evolution and/or changes without costly evolution and/or changes without costly redesign, reconfiguration, or recoding. For redesign, reconfiguration, or recoding. example, upgrading to a new computer For example, upgrading to a new operating system should have no impact on the computer operating system should have delivery of content to learners. no impact on the delivery of content to learners.
IEEEInstitute of Electrical and ElectronicsEngineers, Inc. (IEEE)
Institute of Electrical and ElectronicsEngineers, Inc. (IEEE) The IEEE “is a non-profit, technical professional association of more than 380,000 individual members in 150 countries” (IEEE, 2004, 1).LTSC is the Learning Technology Standards Committee(LTSC) of the (IEEE). Developed by communities orforums.Only individual experts, no organizations or enterprises canjoin IEEE/LTSC.•IEEE is an accredited standards development organization.•IEEE is the most frequently referenced data model.
IEEE LTSC is currently divided into FourWorking Groups (WG) that are working onthe development of new specifications: WG 4: Digital WG 11: Computer Rights Expression managed Language instruction WG 20: WG 12: Learning Competency data object metadata standards Stracke, C. M. (2006. )
The specifications developed by IEEE LTSC:IEEE LTSC has developed six specifications ("technicalstandards"): IEEE 1484.1 "IEEE IEEE 1484.11.1 "IEEE IEEE 1484.11.2 "IEEE Standard Standard for Learning Standard for Learning for Learning Technology — Technology — Technology — ECMAScript Application Data Model for Content Programming Interface for Content Learning Technology Object Communication " to Runtime Services Systems Architecture" Communication" IEEE 1484.11.3 "IEEE IEEE 1484.12.3 "IEEE Standard for Learning IEEE 1484.12.1 "IEEE Standard for Learning Technology — Standard for Learning Technology — Extensible Markup Language Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema Binding for Technology — (XML) Schema Definition Data Learning Object Language Binding for Learning Model for Content Object Metadata" Object Communication" Stracke, C. M. (2006. )
History of IMS In 1997 the National Learning Infrastructure Initiative of Educause began a project to create a set of learning standards. The universities that participated included California State University, University of Michigan, and University of North Carolina. The acronym IMS stood for Instructional Management Systems; now the name includes,”Global Consortium”. IMS got started in higher education, quickly it evolved into a range of learning environments; including corporate and government training and K-12 education.
IMS Goals“Improving the quality of and access to education is the global challenge that underpins all other global challenges. Harnessing the potential power of new technologies that can enhance the reach and effectiveness of education is a compelling priority for society. The IMS Global Learning Consortium is a unique collaboration of corporations, educational institutions, and government organizations that can play a significant role in recognizing advances in technology that address key educational challenges worldwide.” (IMS Global Consortium)
WHY IS ISOIMPORTANT? How can an organization guarantee that they have met stringent quality standards, control quality, compete globally, and save money? Auditing is the answer. Quality management comes in all shapes and sizes; Kaizen, Six Sigma, TQM, ISO, etc. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) provides a system of standards which help to address the needs of an organization. ISO provides organizations with a set of international standards by which to measure quality management and quality assurance. The standards allow businesses to benchmark quality and management practices against competitors. ISO can be used in any size organization.
How did ISO come about? According to ISO’s website, “In October 1946, delegates from 25 countries, meeting at the Institute of Civil Engineers in London, decided to create a new international organization, of which the object would be "to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards". The new organization, ISO, officially began operations on 23 February 1947.”
Focus ISO’s popularity can be attributed to its worldwide acceptance as a vehicle for process documentation. It can be used in any size business. Organizations in 150 countries all over the world use, respect, and recognize ISO quality management as the standard. ISO fulfilled a need for an accepted list of standards that could be used worldwide. ISO was created when two organizations for standards came together: ISA (International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations) and UNSCC (United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee).
How can ISO be implementedinto an organization ? Easily! If a quality management system exists, a gap analysis will help identify what needs to be done to implement this system. Bridge the gap between what is to what should. Fixing the gaps will improve overall efficiency while inching towards ISO compliance. How will an organization know if it is “on track” without a plan? ISO is the plan
ISO focuses on eight (8) steps to ensure an organization complies to the stringent standards that are set.Customer Leadership Involvement Decision Focus of People MakingSystemApproach to Continual Process Suppliermanagement improvement Approach Relations
What are the needs of currentand future customers? Fulfilling the needs of customers, internal and external, will increase customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, revenue, and market share. Companies in tune with their target audience can be flexible and respond quickly to new opportunities.
What is needed fromleadership? An involved workforce is motivated and committed to the organizational cause. Fostering an atmosphere of inclusion enables trust, creativity, accountability, and participation. Communication can flow freely in an open environment.
Process and System Approach Why Process approach? System approach to A step by step process management provides a map for desired Will identifying, performance. This process understanding, and has lower costs, improved managing interrelated and consistent results, and processes as a system focuses which priorities to contribute to the improve. organizations effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives? Yes, organizations are like the human body, the sum of a whole. Aligning each process allows for efficiency, effectiveness, and are less costly to manage.
Continual improvement anddecision making Continual Factual approach to improvement decision-making An organization must Organizations’ need to strive to grow to base business maintain relevance. decisions on a thorough Continually improving analysis of accurate, the organizations reliable data and overall performance information. Appropriate should be a permanent personnel can access objective of the data and information to organization. make timely and effective decisions.
Mutually beneficial supplier relationships Building relationships between an organization and its suppliers provides a mutually beneficial relationship. Such a relationship enhances the ability to respond to changing markets, customer needs and expectations so both can create value. This symbiosis creates a pool of knowledge, expertise, and resources
REFERENCESAdvanced distributed learning initiative » scorm 2004 4th edition. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.adlnet.gov/capabilities/scorm/scorm-2004-4thAmerican national standards institute - ansi. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ansi.orgCollier, G., & Robson, R. (2002). elearning interoperability standards [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.eduworks.com/Documents/eLearning_Interoperability_Standards_wp.pdfIEEE. (2004). About the IEEE. Retrieved from http://www.ieee.org/portal/index.jsp?pageID=corp_level1&path=about&file=index.xml&xsl=generic.xslIEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee. (2002). Final 1484.12.1-2002 LOM Draft Standard. Retrieved from http://grouper.ieee.org/LTSC/wg12/20020612-FinalLOM-Draft.htmlEvans, M. H. (n.d.). Course 17: Process improvement. Retrieved from http://www.exinfm.com/training/pdfiles/course17.pdfFriesen, N. (2004). Editorial: A gentle introduction to technical e-learning standards. Retrieved from http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/view/136/129
REFERENCESHeyns, R. (2001, August 15). Quality management systems for education and training providers. Retrieved from http://www.saqa.org.za/docs/policy/qms_prov.pdfIso - faqs - list of abbreviations used throughout iso online. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.iso.org/iso/support/faqs/faqs_list_abbreviations.htmMoodle docs. (2012, March 19). Retrieved from http://docs.moodle.orgPRAXIOM RESEARCH GROUP LIMITED. (2011, December 12). Iso 9000 and iso 9001 - plain english introduction. Retrieved from http://www.praxiom.com/iso-intro.htmStracke, C. M. (2006). Interoperability and quality development in elearning: Overview and reference model for e- Learning Standards. Retrieved from http://www.qed-info.de/docs/Standards_Elearning_Stracke.pdfWelcome to ims global learning consortium. (2012, March 26). Retrieved from http://www.imsglobal.org/Wikipedia. (2012, March 26). List of international organization for standardization standards. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ISO_standards