Changing definitions have been interpreted as changing methods (The dominant
method being explicit, direct, systematic, and decodable instruction – Publishers package it this way with the assumpytion that teachers will buy it and do it) (The emerging metaphor seems to be education as opportunity – invitations, demonstrations, ownership, strategy lessons, mini-lessons, strategic, counter- narrtives, etc.)
(Even meaning-making is often seen as something learned from the teacher
rahter than constructed by the individual reader)
Teacher have been seen as technicians rather than as professional
decision-makers (There still is not widespread belief that one should invest In teachers and professional development)
Teachers are seen as knowledge users rather than knowledge producers
Lower class children are seen as needed lower end literacy training
Understand the kid’s in-head theory of reading Believe in the child’s ability to make sense of text Find it pleasurable Growth in Readings equals problem solving with flexibility, independently, and with Increasingly more complex texts. You are not giving kids strategies so much helping them Develop a functional in-head model of reading To do this effectively you need to trust children and trust The learning process To become literate one needs to see oneself in literacy and Find it pleasurable.
Reading is seen as a Linguistic Process *Cue Systems *Incidentally Visual *Syntax is one of our most powerful cuing systems
Reading is seen as a Psycholinguistic Process *Language learning is rule governed *Language is learned through use *There is no order to the way in which language is learned – interest and experience as opposed to age and stage *Meaning is central to language learning *The very complexity of the reading process support learning to read *Most of what we know about language is learned from being in the presence of others
Reading as a Cognitive Process *Reading is first and foremost a meaning-making process *Meaning is constructed *Schemata -- Background Knowledge *Schema – Learned *Comprehension – Finding Slots *Comprehension – Affected by Text Structure *Comprehension – Teaching Overrides Text Structure *Metacognition -- Monitoring *Strategies – Underlying Processes
Reading as Reader Response *The Reader, The Text, The Poem – Reading as Transaction *A search for unity drives the reading process *Reading, and literacy more generally, is a matter of morality and ethics *To understand reading is to understand the “lived-through” experience of reading *Great books complicate our lives; our lives ought to complicate great books, in turn.
Reading as a Sociolinguistic Process *Dialects are not inferior forms of language *Dialects do not make reading more difficult *Context includes not only the words on the page but the child’s instructional history *Language is inherently social *What you believe about reading affects what strategies you employ and has a direct relationship to instruction *Semantics and pragmatics are key systems if one wishes to understanding meaning-making and language learning
Reading as a Critical Process *Literacy is a cultural (community) construction *There is not one literacy but multiple literacies *Literacy is kept in place by the social practices that are operating *All language is ideological – from letters, words, sentences, texts, to discourse) *Discourse is never neutral – readers need to become text analysts who understand the relationship between language and power *To be literate is to understand how you as a reader are positioned by text as well as to understand how texts do the work they do. *Children for the 21st Century need to be agents of texts rather than victims of text
Reading as a Multimodal Process *Entails being visually literate – be able to read and use the grammar of visual design for purposes of meaning-making and critique *Digitally literate – be able to work the information and communication technologies in a networked environment as well as understand the social, cultural, and ethical issues that go along with the use of these technologies *Media literate – to have the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, create, reflect upon, and act with the information products that media disseminate