Ways of the World: A Brief Global History Part 5: Ch. 17-20 Part 6: Ch. 21-24 By: Bryce John
The North American RevolutionChapter 17 American Revolution was a conservative political movementaimed to preserve colonial liberties, rather than gain new ones. Declaration of the “right to revolution” inspired other colonies around the world Britain made a new drive to control the colonies and get more revenue from them in the 1760s British North America was revolutionary for the society that had already emerged, not for the revolution itself.
The French RevolutionChapter 17 Unlike the American Revolution, the French rising was driven by pronounced social conflicts such as the titled nobility resisted monarchic efforts to tax them, middle class resented aristocratic privileges, urban poor suffered from inflation and unemployment, and the peasants were oppressed. French Revolution was violent, far-reaching, and radical. It ended hereditary privilege. The influence of French Revolution spread through conquest.
The Haitian RevolutionChapter 17 The Haitian Revolution lasted from 1791 to 1804. Example of the French Revolution sparked a spiral of violence, but revolution meant different things to different people. Massive slave revolt began in 1791. Power gradually shifted to the slaves, who were led by former slave Toussaint Louverture. The result was a unique revolution—the only completely successful slave revolt in world history.
The Abolition of SlaveryChapter 17 Slavery was largely ended around the world between 1780 and 1890. Three major slave rebellions in the British West Indies showed that slaves were discontent; brutality of suppression appalled people. Abolitionist movements were most powerful in Britain.
The Industrial RevolutionChapter 18 The Industrial Revolution was one of the most significant elements of Europe’s modern transformation. At the heart of the Industrial Revolution lay a great acceleration in the rate of technological innovation, leading to enormous increases in the output of goods and services.
The British AristocracyChapter 18 Landowning aristocrats had little material loss in the Industrial Revolution, but the aristocracy declined, because urban wealth became more important. By 1900, businessmen led the major political parties. Titled nobles retained great social prestige and personal wealth. Many found an outlet in Britain’s colonial possessions.
The Middle ClassesChapter 18 The middle classes had the most obvious gains from industrialization. They gain large numbers of smaller businessmen and professionals, politically liberal, and there were more employment opportunities for women as well as men.
Europe Industry and EmpireChapter 19 The nineteenth century was Europe’s greatest age of global expansion. They became the center of the world economy. Much of the world became part of European colonies. The Industrial Revolution fueled much of Europe’s expansion. Growth of mass nationalism in Europe made imperialism broadly popular. The industrial age promoted a secular arrogance among Europeans.
Chinas Century of CrisisChapter 19 China was, to a large degree, the victim of its own success. Population had grown from about 100 million in 1685 to some 430 million in 1853, but China didn’t have an accompanying Industrial Revolution. The Opium Wars show the transformation of China’s relationship with Europe.
The Ottoman EmpireChapter 19 The Ottoman Empire was still strong, at center of the Islamic world; by 1900, it was known as “the sick man of Europe”. Region by region, Islamic world fell under Christian rule, and the Ottomans couldn’t prevent it. Ottomans attempted ambitious reforms, going considerably further than the Chinese. by 1900, both China and the Ottoman Empire were “semicolonies” and both gave rise to a new nationalist conception of society.
European RuleChapter 20 European takeover was often traumatic for the colonized peoples; the loss of life and property could be devastating. In the new colonial empires, race was a prominent point distinguishing rulers from the ruled. education for colonial subjects was limited and emphasized practical matters, suitable for “primitive minds”, even the best-educated natives rarely made it into the upper ranks of the civil service. Colonial states imposed deep changes in people’s daily lives.
Economies of Wage LaborChapter 20 Wage labor in European enterprises was common and hundreds of thousands of workers came to work on Southeast Asian plantations. In Africa, people moved to European farms/plantations because they had lost their own land. Mines employed millions, but it was a very high risk of death working in them.
ReligionChapter 20 Widespread conversion to Christianity in New Zealand, the Pacific islands, and non-Muslim Africa. By the 1960s, some 50 million Africans were Christian. Christianity did not spread widely in India, but it led intellectuals and reformers to define Hinduism. New definition of Hinduism helped a clearer sense of Muslims as a distinct community to emerge.
The First World WarChapter 21 by around 1900, the balance of power in Europe was shaped by two rival alliances: Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, Italy), Triple Entente (Russia, France, Britain). a Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne causing World War I. Germany was finally defeated November 1918
Hitler and the NazisChapter 21 German fascism took shape as the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler. the Nazis had only 2.6 percent of the vote in 1928; 37 percent in 1932 and Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933. As chancellor, Hitler suppressed all other political parties, arrested opponents, censured the press, and assumed police power. He successfully brought Germany out of Depression. He used Jews as the ultimate scapegoat for the ills of society.
A Second World WarChapter 21 World War II was even more global than World War I. War was perhaps actually desired by the Nazi leadership in Europe. Attack on Poland in 1939 triggered war in Europe. An estimated 60 million people died in WWII. The USSR suffered more than 40 percent of the total number of deaths.
Global CommunismChapter 22 Communism had its roots in nineteenth-century socialism, inspired by Karl Marx. At communism’s height in the 1970s, almost one-third of the world’s population was governed by communist regimes. The most important communist societies by far were the USSR and China. Communism also came to Eastern Europe, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Cuba, Afghanistan.
Russian RevolutionChapter 22 Russia’s revolution in 1917 was sudden and explosive. Bolsheviks seized power of Russia in 1917. three-year civil war followed this and it was called Bolsheviks vs. a variety of enemies. During the civil war, the Bolsheviks regimented the economy. for 25 years, the new USSR was the only communist country.
the End of CommunismChapter 22 The communist era ended rapidly and peacefully between the late 1970s and 1991. In Europe, popular movements overthrew communist governments in 1989. Communist states couldn’t catch up economically. Economic failure limited military capacity.
Struggle For IndependenceChapter 23 India, Pakistan, Burma, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, and Israel won independence in the late 1940s. African independence came between mid-1950s and mid-1970s. Imperial breakup wasn’t new; the novelty was mobilization of the masses around a nationalist ideology and creation of a large number of new nation-states.
Experiments with FreedomChapter 23 New nations emerging from colonial rule confronted the problem of how to parlay independence into economic development and industrial growth, unification, and political participation. In the 1950s, British, French, and Belgians set up democratic institutions in their African colonies. Widespread economic disappointment discredited early African democracies.
Ending ApartheidChapter 23 South Africa won freedom from Great Britain in 1910, but its government was controlled by a white settler minority. Black South Africans were extremely dependent on the white-controlled economy. Policy of apartheid tried to keep blacks and white completely separate, while retaining black labor power. By the 1950s Africa moved to nonviolent civil disobedience. The government’s response was overwhelming repression. 69 unarmed demonstrators were shot at Sharpville in 1960. Soweto uprising in 1976, was the start of spreading violence. Apartheid was ended without major bloodshed.
ReglobalizationChapter 24 Global economic transactions quickened dramatically after WWII. world trade skyrocketed and money became highly mobile globally. by 2000, 51 of the world’s 100 largest economic units were transnational corporations, not countries. large numbers of workers, both laborers and professionals, have moved all over the world from poor countries to richer ones.
International FeminismChapter 24 The “woman question” became a global issue in the twentieth century. The UN declared 1975 as International Women’s Yearand declared 1975–1985 as the Decade for Women. By 2006, 183 nations had ratified the UN Convention to Eliminate Discrimination against Women.