(L9) types of chem. reactions
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(L9) types of chem. reactions

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(L9) types of chem. reactions (L9) types of chem. reactions Presentation Transcript

  • Types of Chemical Reactions
  • Chemical Reactions  A reaction takes place if the following indications are observed: 1. Gases are produced 2. Precipitates are formed 3. Color changes 4. Formation of distinct odor
  • Combination Reaction  Two or more substances react to form a single product.
  • 7 Combination Reactions  Combination reactions occur when two or more substances combine to form a compound.  There are three basic types of combination reactions. 1. Two elements react to form a new compound 2. An element and a compound react to form one new compound 3. Two compounds react to form one compound
  • 8 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound A. Metal + Nonmetal Binary Ionic Compound sg2s NaCl2ClNa2
  • 9 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound A. Metal + Nonmetal Binary Ionic Compound sg2s MgO2OMg2
  • 10 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound A. Metal + Nonmetal Binary Ionic Compound s32s AlBr2Br3Al2 
  • 11 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound B. Nonmetal + Nonmetal Covalent Binary Compound s104g2s4 OPO5P
  • 12 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound B. Nonmetal + Nonmetal Covalent Binary Compound 3g2s4 PCl4Cl6P
  • 13 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound B. Nonmetal + Nonmetal Covalent Binary Compound • Can control which product is made with the reaction conditions. chlorinelimitedin AsCl2Cl3As2 s3g2s chlorineexcessin AsCl2Cl5As2 s5g2s
  • 14 Combination Reactions 1. Element + Element Compound B. Nonmetal + Nonmetal Covalent Binary Compound • Can control which product is made with the reaction conditions. fluorinelimitedin SeFF2Se s4g2s fluorineexcessin SeFF3Se g6g2s
  • 15 Combination Reactions 2. Compound + Element Compound s5g2s3 AsClClAsCl g6g2s4 SFFSF
  • 16 Combination Reactions The reaction of oxygen with oxides of nonmetals is an example of this type of combination reaction. g3 &catalyst g2g2 SO2OSO2 g2g2g COOCO 104264 OPO2OP
  • 17 Combination Reactions 3. Compound + Compound Compound  gaseous ammonia and hydrogen chloride  lithium oxide and sulfur dioxide s4gg3 ClNHHClNH 3222 SOLiSOOLi
  • Decomposition Reaction
  • 19 Decomposition Reactions  Decomposition reactions occur when one compound decomposes to form: 1. Two elements 2. One or more elements and one or more compounds 3. Two or more compounds
  • 20 Decomposition Reactions 1. Compound Element + Element  decomposition of dinitrogen oxide  decomposition of calcium chloride g2g2g2 ON2ON2 g2 yelectricit 2 ClCaCaCl  2s h s BAg2AgBr2 r  decomposition of silver halides
  • 21 Decomposition Reactions 2. Compound One Element + Compound(s)  decomposition of hydrogen peroxide g22 or Mnor Feνh aq22 OOH2OH2 3 
  • 22 Decomposition Reactions 3. Compound Compound + Compound  decomposition of ammonium hydrogen carbonate g2g2g3s34 COOHNHHCONH
  • Decomposition Reactions
  • 24 Displacement Reactions  Displacement reactions occur when one element displaces another element from a compound.  These are redox reactions in which the more active metal displaces the less active metal of hydrogen from a compound in aqueous solution.  Activity series is given in Table 4-14.
  • Displacement Reactions
  • Displacement Reactions
  • 27 Displacement Reactions 1. [More Active Metal + Salt of Less Active Metal] [Less Active Metal + Salt of More Active Metal]  molecular equation (s)aq3(s)aq3 AgCuNOCu+AgNO
  • 28 Displacement Reactions  Total ionic equation You do it!  Net ionic equation You do it! (s) - aq3aqs - aq3aq AgNO+CuCu+NO+Ag (s)aq(s)aq AgCuCu+Ag
  • 29 Displacement Reactions 2. [Active Metal + Nonoxidizing Acid] [Hydrogen + Salt of Acid]  Common method for preparing hydrogen in the laboratory.  HNO3 is an oxidizing acid.  Molecular equation g2aq342aq42(s) H3+)(SOAlSO3H+Al2
  • 30 Displacement Reactions  Total ionic equation You do it!  Net ionic equation You do it! g2 -2 aq4 3 aq -2 aq4aq(s) H3+SO3+Al2SO3+H6+Al2 g2 3 aqaq(s) H3+Al2H6+Al2
  • 31 Displacement Reactions  The following metals are active enough to displace hydrogen  K, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, & Pb  Notice how the reaction changes with an oxidizing acid.  Reaction of Cu with HNO3. • H2 is no longer produced.
  • 32 Displacement Reactions 3. [Active Nonmetal + Salt of Less Active Nonmetal] [Less Active Nonmetal + Salt of More Active Nonmetal]  Molecular equation (aq)s2aqg2 NaCl2INaI2+Cl Total ionic equation You do it! - aqaqs2 - aqaqg2 Cl2+Na2II2+Na2+Cl
  • 33 Displacement Reactions  Net ionic equation You do it! - aqs2 - aqg2 Cl2II2+Cl
  • Double Displacement Reactions
  • 35 Metathesis Reactions  Metathesis reactions occur when two ionic aqueous solutions are mixed and the ions switch partners. AX + BY AY + BX  Metathesis reactions remove ions from solution in two ways: 1. form predominantly unionized molecules like H2O 2. form an insoluble solid  Ion removal is the driving force of metathesis reactions.
  • 36 Metathesis Reactions 1. Acid-Base (neutralization) Reactions  Formation of the nonelectrolyte H2O  acid + base salt + water
  • 37 Metathesis Reactions  Molecular equation )(2(aq)(aq)(aq) OH+KBrKOH+HBr  Total ionic equation You do it! )(2 - aqaq - aqaq - aqaq OH+Br+KOH+K+Br+H  Net ionic equation You do it! )(2 - aqaq OHOH+H 
  • 38 Metathesis Reactions 2. Precipitation reactions are metathesis reactions in which an insoluble compound is formed.  The solid precipitates out of the solution much like rain or snow precipitates out of the air.
  • 39 Metathesis Reactions  Precipitation Reactions  Molecular equation (s)3)aq(3aq)(32(aq)23 CaCO+KNO2COK+)Ca(NO Total ionic reaction You do it! s3 - aq3aq -2 aq3aq - aq3 2 aq CaCONO2K2 COK2NO2Ca
  • 40 Metathesis Reactions  Net ionic reaction You do it! (s)3 -2 aq3 2 aq CaCOCO+Ca