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The translator as mediator in researcher/referee correspondence
 

The translator as mediator in researcher/referee correspondence

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A presentation to the I Jornadas sobre Ciencia y Traducción, University of Córdoba, Spain, 11 April 2012....

A presentation to the I Jornadas sobre Ciencia y Traducción, University of Córdoba, Spain, 11 April 2012.
Presenters Julian Bourne and Bryan Robinson, Dept of Translation and Interpreting, University of Granada, Spain.

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    The translator as mediator in researcher/referee correspondence The translator as mediator in researcher/referee correspondence Presentation Transcript

    • The trans lator as mediator in res earcher/referee corres pondence Ju lian Bou rne and Bryan R ob ins on D e p artm e nt of Trans lation and Inte rp re ting U nive rs ity of G ranad a, S p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/refereecorrespondence “Translation Studies, like translation itself, should be seen as a social problem-solving activity.”1Ju lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondenceIndex 1. Hypothesis 2. Review of the literature 3. Research question 4. Data analysis 5. DiscussionJu lian Bou rne and Bryan 6. Further researchR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Professional translatorsHypothes is often mediate in the complex relation between the authors of scientific articles (their clients) and the referees of scientific journals (their clients’Ju lian Bou rne and Bryan clients).R ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Introspection2-5R e vie w of th e – Guidelineslite ratu re • Empirical6,7Peer review – Corpus-based studies – Anglophone gatekeepers to publication • Inclusion • ExclusionJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on, • Periphery (“off-network”)D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondenceIntros p e ction • Results of peer reviewG uidelines – Unqualified acceptance – Acceptance with minor revision – Revision with no guarantee of acceptance – Outright rejectionJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/referee • Peer review = mediationcorrespondence • Golden rulesIntros p e ction – Respond promptlyG uidelines – Put your emotions aside – Read reviews carefully – Respond point by point – Answer • CompletelyJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on, • PolitelyD e p artam e nto d e Trad u cción • With evidencee Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in • NNS (Dutch) authors6researcher/referee – NetworkedcorrespondenceIntros p e ction • Shaping processG uidelines – Indirect vs direct – Discourse community members – Language professionals • Authors’ editorsJu lian Bou rne and Bryan • Levels of editingR ob ins on, – Higher orderD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re tación – Lower orderU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in • Submission historiesresearcher/refereecorrespondence • 9 journal articlesE m p irical, • Content vs ToneC orp u s -b as e ds tu d ie s • NS vs NNSMicro-level7 • Conclusions: – “Off-network” scholars need help interpreting referees’ commentsJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on, – Politeness and politenessD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re tación strategies are fundamentalU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Politics of accessE m p irical, • 46 scholarsC orp u s -b as e ds tu d ie s • Hungary, Slovakia, Spain,Macro-level8 Portugal • Psychology, Education • Text historiesJu lian Bou rne and Bryan • Literacy brokeringR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondenceE m p irical, • Mediation:C orp u s -b as e ds tu d ie s “…ways in which people areMacro-level involved in helping others interact with written texts, whether formally or informally, paid or unpaid.”8Ju lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondenceE m p irical, C orp u s -b as e d s tu d ie s ,M acro-le ve lLiteracybrokersJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in • Academic professionalsresearcher/referee – General academics, disciplinecorrespondenceE m p irical, C orp u s - experts, sub-disciplineb as e d s tu d ie s , expertsM acro-le ve l • Language professionalsLiteracy – Translators, copy editors,brokers proofreaders, and (sic) – English-language specialists • Teachers of EnglishJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on, • Non-professionalsD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re tación – Spouse, family, friendsU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Authors are concernedE m p irical, C orp u s -b as e d s tu d ie s , about…M acro-le ve l – The process of brokeringLiteracy – Changes introduced inbrokers brokering • Complexity is reduced • The contribution of text isJu lian Bou rne and Bryan “shifted”R ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondenceRes earchques tion • What is the translator’s role?Ju lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • According to Brown andTrans lator’s Levinson (1987),9role (1) politeness is conditioned by – Social Distance – PowerJu lian Bou rne and Bryan between interlocutorsR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • In RRC, translatorTrans lator’s intervenes in an interactionrole (2) characterized by: – Moderate Social Distance – Marked imbalance in Power • Translator is on the side ofJu lian Bou rne and Bryan the powerlessR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • In situations of asymmetrical power, X (-Trans lator’s power) will promote facerole (3) of Y (+ power) • In RRC, this is typically done through: – Giving thanks to Y (whether referee or editor) – Agreeing with YJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on, – Showing deference to YD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • However,Y sometimesTrans lator’s threatens face of Xrole (4) through: – Requesting – Disagreeing – CriticisingJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondenceTrans lator’s • On basis ofrole (5) autoethnographic observation, translator typically: – Intensifies promotion of editor/referees’ faceJu lian Bou rne and Bryan – Mitigates threat toR ob ins on, editor/referees’ faceD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondenceData analys is • Based on translating RRC for:(1) – Instituto de Agua, Universidad de Granada – Departamento de Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológico, Universidad de GranadaJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/referee • Targetted journals:correspondence – Journal of Hazardous WasteData analys is – Desalination(2) – Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology – Psychology in the Schools – Learning and Individual Differences – Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology – Aging Clinical and ExperimentalJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on, ResearchD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Emphasizing gratitudeD ata analys is – Gracias por sus comentarios(3) – Thank you very much for yourIntens ifying commentspromotion of – A la espera de sus noticias, reciba un saludo cordial…face – Thank you very much for your attention, with bestJu lian Bou rne and Bryan wishes…R ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Reinforcing agreement (a)D ata analys is – También se ha corregido the ‘Research Highlights’(4): – We have also corrected theIntens ifying ‘Research Highlights’ in linepromotion of with your commentsface – Se han realizado los cambios propuestos por los revisores – All the suggested changes haveJu lian Bou rne and Bryan been carried outR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Reinforcing agreement (b)D ata analys is – Respecto a estas cuestiones(5) tenemos que decirle queIntens ifying evidentemente la muestra utilizada es representativa del sur depromotion of España…face – In this regard, we agree that the sample is indeed representativeJu lian Bou rne and Bryan of the south of Spain…R ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/referee • Enhancing deference (a)correspondence – HonorificsD ata analys is • Estimado P. Philips(6) • Dear Professor PhilipsIntens ifying – Conventional politeness markers:promotion of • Adjuntamos el artículo revisado • Please find enclosed theface revised version… • Ver respuesta 3 revisor 1Ju lian Bou rne and Bryan • Please see Answer 3 toR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u cción referee 1e Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator as • Enhancing deference (b)mediator in – Lowering own faceresearcher/referee • Respecto a los problemas decorrespondence comprensión en p.11 • Finally, regarding theD ata analys is confusing sentence in the(7) middle of page 11 • ...el revisor estará de acuerdoIntens ifying con nosotros en que es unapromotion of comprobación básica • ...we hope the referee willface agree that this is a basic assumption • Esperamos que ahora puedanJu lian Bou rne and Bryan aceptar nuestro trabajoR ob ins on, • We very much hope that theD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re tación article will now be acceptedU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/referee • Impersonalizing requestscorrespondence (a)D ata analys is – Me permito pedirle que no se(8) demoren demasiado en la revisión para que este trabajo no pierdaMitigating actualidadthreat to face – I am also taking the liberty of requesting that there should not be too long a delay in the revision of this third version, soJu lian Bou rne and Bryan that the article does not becomeR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u cción out of datee Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/referee • Impersonalizing requestscorrespondence (b)D ata analys is – Esperamos que con estos cambios y(9) aclaraciones puedan definitivamenteMitigating aceptar nuestro trabajo para su publicaciónthreat to face – We hope that with these changes and clarifications, our article may now be definitivelyJu lian Bou rne and Bryan accepted for publication in yourR ob ins on, journalD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/referee • Hedging disagreement (a)correspondence – No tiene mucho sentido hacer losD ata analys is subgrupos que nos indica…(1 0) – We feel there is little point in specifying the proposedMitigating subgroups…threat to face – …mantenemos la referencia a los trabajos previos realizados sobre minorías étnicas – …here we do maintain a briefJu lian Bou rne and Bryan reference to previous studiesR ob ins on, involving ethnic minoritiesD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondenceD ata analys is • Hedging disagreement (b)(1 1 ) – El número de sujetos participantesMitigating (215) es suficientemente representativo de la poblaciónthreat to face objeto de estudio – We consider that the number of participating subjects (215) is sufficiently representative of theJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on, population under studyD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Softening criticism (a)D ata analys is – Hasta el momento hemos intentado responder a todos los puntos que(1 2) nos plantean los revisores pero estosMitigating parecen no entender el objetivo que perseguimos con nuestro trabajo…threat to face – Up to now we have tried to answer all the points raised by the referees; however, we feel they may have misunderstoodJu lian Bou rne and Bryan the objective of our studyR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/refereecorrespondence • Softening criticism (b)D ata analys is – …no hemos podido profundizar(1 3) más en en este tema dado que seMitigating nos pedía no alargar más el manuscritothreat to face – …we have not been able to go into detail in view of the need to avoid extending theJu lian Bou rne and Bryan manuscript furtherR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator inresearcher/referee • Softening criticism (c)correspondence – También hemos intentado noD ata analys is aumentar la longitud del trabajo, cosa muy difícil, dado que nos han(1 4) pedido descripciones de instrumentos que han tenido queMitigating ser incluidas.threat to face – We have also done our best to avoid increasing the length of the manuscript, although this has proved difficult in view of the referees’ request that weJu lian Bou rne and Bryan should provide descriptions ofR ob ins on, the instruments used.D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/refereecorrespondence • Softening criticism (d)D ata analys is – Se han quitado las notas a pie de(1 5) página, aunque en algunos de los artículos de esta revista consultados,Mitigating sí se incluyenthreat to face – The footnotes have been eliminated, although when consulting other papers of this journal, we did notice thatJu lian Bou rne and Bryan some of these include footnotesR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/refereecorrespondence • Softening criticism (e)D ata analys is – Se han eliminado las referencias(1 6) internas…a pesar de que en la guía del autor se encontraron ejemplosMitigating de citas con referencias internasthreat to face – The internal references have been eliminated…However, in the Guide for Authors we did find some examples of citationsJu lian Bou rne and Bryan with internal referencesR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/referee • In order to intensify promotioncorrespondence of editor/referees’ face, theD ata analys is translator:(1 7) – Emphasizes gratitudeS ummary – Reinforces agreement/compliance – Supplies honorifics where appropriate – Intensifies deference – Stresses hope of publicationJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/ • In order to mitigate threat toreferee editor/referees’ face, thecorrespondence translatorD ata analys is(1 8) – Reduces assertiveness – Impersonalizes requestsS ummary – Hedges disagreement through generalization, modality and opinion markers – Minimizes extent and significance of non-compliance – Reduces force of criticismJu lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on, through indirect expression,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u cción temporal distance and minimizinge Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/referee • Why should the translator feelcorrespondence the need to mediate in this way?Dis cus s ion (1) – According to various authors10-14: • Spain: positive politeness • Anglo-Saxon cultures: negative politeness – This results in more direct style in Spanish especially when requesting, disagreeing and criticising – Researchers may be too busy and content-focused to worry aboutJu lian Bou rne and Bryan interpersonal dimensionR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/ • How far is this translator’srefereecorrespondence behaviour characteristic ofDis cus s ion (2) professional translators from Spanish into English? • Hypothesis: professional translators act as mediators in RRC to a greater or lesser extent – In doing so they provide a valuable service – Service should be made explicitJu lian Bou rne and Bryan – Mediation should be taught as partR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u cción of scientific translator traininge Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/ • Determine extent and types ofreferee RRC mediation practice incorrespondence professional translatorsFurther – Compile questionnaire based onres earch practices observed here – Analyse corpus of translator- mediated RRC • Use results to incorporate RRC mediation in scientific translation trainingJu lian Bou rne and Bryan – Design activities to fomentR ob ins on, mediation skillsD e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/  Pym, A. (2002). Translation Studies as Social Problem-Solving. October. Retrieved fromreferee • http://usuaris.tinet.cat/apym/on-line/research_methods/thessaloniki.pdf Cummings, P., & Rivara, F. P. (2002). Responding to reviewers’ commentscorrespondence on submitted articles. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 156(2), 105-7. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11814367References • DeBehnke, D. J., Kline, J. a, & Shih, R. D. (2001). Research fundamentals: choosing an appropriate journal, manuscript preparation, and interactions with editors. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 8(8), 844-50. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11483464 • Samet, J. M. (1999). American Journal of. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150(5), 433-436. • Williams, H. C. (2004). How to reply to referees’ comments when submitting manuscripts for publication. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 51(1), 79-83. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2004.01.049 • Burrough-Boenisch, J. (2003). Shapers of published NNS research articles. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(3), 223-243. doi:10.1016/S1060-3743(03)00037-7 • Belcher, D. D. (2007). Seeking acceptance in an English-only research world. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(1), 1-22. doi:10.1016/j.jslw.2006.12.001Ju lian Bou rne and Bryan • Lillis, T., & Curry, M. J. (2006). Professional Academic Writing byR ob ins on, Multilingual Scholars: Interactions With Literacy Brokers in theD e p artam e nto d e Trad u cción Production of English-Medium Texts. Written Communication, 23(1), 3-35. doi:10.1177/0741088305283754e Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/refereecorrespondence 9. Brown, P. and S. Levinson. (1987). Politeness: some universals in language use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.References 10. Arnaiz, C. 2006. ‘Politeness in the portrayal of workplace relationships: second person address forms in Peninsular Spanish and the translation of humour.’ Journal of Politeness Research, 2. 123-141. 11. Ballesteros Martín, F. (2001). ‘La cortesía española frente a la cortesía inglesa. Estudio pragmalingüístico de las exhortaciones impositivas’. Estudios ingleses de la Universidad Complutense, 9: 171-207. • Lorenzo-Dus, N. (2001). ‘Compliment responses among British and Spanish university students: a contrastive study’. Journal of Pragmatics, 33: 107-127. •  Hickey, L. (2000). ‘Politeness in translation between English and Spanish’. Target: 12 (2). 229-240. 14. Lorés Sanz, R. (1997). ‘Contribución al estudio de la equivalencia pragmática de las estrategias de cortesía lingüística en la traducción al español de textos dramáticos americanos’. Tesis Doctoral inédita, 1997.  Ju lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain
    • The translator asmediator in researcher/refereecorrespondenceYou can vie w th isp re s e ntation at… www.slideshare.net/bryanrobinson3/Ju lian Bou rne and BryanR ob ins on,D e p artam e nto d e Trad u ccióne Inte rp re taciónU nive rs id ad d e G ranad aS p ain