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Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
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Lost or found in translation? To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?

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Presentation to the 8th International Conference Translation, Text & Interference (Krakow, Poland, June 30- July 2, 2011)

Presentation to the 8th International Conference Translation, Text & Interference (Krakow, Poland, June 30- July 2, 2011)

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  • 1. Lost or found in translation?
    To what extent are the translators of scientific, medical and technical texts the key to their dissemination and impact?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 2. In 2002, RevistaEspañola de Cardiología (REC) began to publish an online English-language edition of the journal. In 2004, the Journal of Citations Reports announced their impact factor (IF) scores for the preceding two years and REC leaped from a 0.959 to 1.802: an 87.9% improvement. The obvious conclusion-especially on the part of the translators-was that the investment in translation had paid off. However, the relation between language of publication and IF has barely been investigated despite much anecdotal evidence about the unbeatable position of English as the lingua franca of science (e.g. Jackson 1968, Ardila 1982, Gibbs 1985); more detailed surveys suggesting that authors themselves feel they must 'publish in English, or perish' (e.g. Bakewell 1992, Bekavac 1994, Vandenbroucke 1989); and empirical studies that …
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 3. …demonstrate the real and potential bias in favour of English-language authors and their publications (e.g. Link 1988, Luwel 1999, Van Leeuwen 2001. The present paper reviews scientific literature on the topic in order to identify those qualitative and quantitative variables susceptible to measurement that might offer empirical proof of such a relationship and describe an appropriate methodological approach to the issue. We conclude that the list of variables has yet to be definitively determined and that the interrelationships between variables are key factors in any such analysis. Following Yue and Wilson (2004), we believe partial least squares regression analysis may be the most appropriate means of studying the range of data…
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 4. …available on variables that influence the performance of scientific publications and propose future studies of the issue.
     
    Keywords: Scientific, medical and technical translation. Bibliometrics. Translation profession. Spanish into English translation.
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 5. Duplicate publications,
    cover-to-cover translations,
    the impact factor and
    x% VAT (Value Added by Translators)
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 6. One argument for duplicate publication is to make significant works available to a wider audience, especially in other languages. […] 20% of manually verified duplicates [… ] are translations into another language.
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Parkins, D. [Cartoon illustrating ‘A tale of two citations’.] Nature 421.24 January (2008): 397.
    Errami, M., & Garner, H. (2008). A tale of two citations. Nature, 451(24 January), 397-399. doi: 10.1007/s10875-011-9510-1.
  • 7. English-language articles have accounted for about 70-85 percent of the SCI files for the last 15 years [1975-1990], depending on whether cover-to-cover translation journals were included.
    Garfield, Eugene. “The Languages of Science Revisited: English (Only) Spoken Here?” Current Contents 31.July 30 (1990): 3-17.
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Parkins, D. [Cartoon illustrating ‘A tale of two citations’.] Nature 421.24 January (2008): 397.
  • 8. Revista Española de Cardiología
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Parkins, D. [Cartoon illustrating ‘A tale of two citations’.] Nature 421.24 January (2008): 397.
  • 9. Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Parkins, D. [Cartoon illustrating ‘A tale of two citations’.] Nature 421.24 January (2008): 397.
  • 10. Citations in 2004 of articles published in 2002-03
    Impact factor (IF)
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    ―――――――――――――
    =
    Total articles published in 2002-03
  • 11. Whatdoesthis mean fortranslators?
    Whatdoesit mean forauthors?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 12. Whatdoesthis mean fortranslators?
    Whatdoesit mean forauthors?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 13. The Matthew Effect
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Jackson, R. “The Matthew Effect in science.” International journal of dermatology 27.1 (1968):16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3346118.
  • 14. “For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.”
    TheGospelaccordingto St. Matthew 25:29 (King James Bible)
    The Matthew Effect:
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Jackson, R. “The Matthew Effect in science.” International journal of dermatology 27.1 (1968):16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3346118.
  • 15. The Matthew Effect
    Status-enhancement
    vs.
    Status-suppression
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Jackson, R. “The Matthew Effect in science.” International journal of dermatology 27.1 (1968):16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3346118.
  • 16. The Matthew Effect
    Non-English
    English
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 17. The Matthew Effect
    Status-suppression =
    “a language barrier”
    First, those whose native language is not English risk being unaware of–and overlooked by–mainstream international research unless they learn to read, write, and publish in English.
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “Language Use in International Research: A Citation Analysis.” Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science 511 (1990): 10-24.
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 18. The Matthew Effect
    Status-suppression =
    “a language barrier”
    Second, native English-speaking researchers risk being ignorant of significant findings reported in foreign languages […] unless they become proficient in at least one other language.
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “Language Use in International Research: A Citation Analysis.” Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science 511 (1990): 10-24.
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 19. Garfield (1990, 1992) and Garfield & Welljams-Dorof (1990, 1992),
    Annales de l’Institut Pasteur,
    Archivos de Investigación Médica
    Revista Española de Cardiología
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 20. Q1: Who writes in what languages?
    Q2: Who cites what languages?
    Q3: Who cites what nations?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “Language Use in International Research: A Citation Analysis.” Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science 511 (1990): 10-24.
     
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “The microbiology literature: Languages of publication and their relative citation impact.” FEMS Microbiology Letters 100 (1992): 33-37.
  • 21. Q: Who writes in what languages?
    A: Everyone writes in English.
    Only 32.8% of Spanish authors write in Spanish.
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “Language Use in International Research: A Citation Analysis.” Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science 511 (1990): 10-24.
     
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “The microbiology literature: Languages of publication and their relative citation impact.” FEMS Microbiology Letters 100 (1992): 33-37.
  • 22. Q: Who cites what languages?
    A: Citing authors are mainly native-speakers of the language they cite.
    But, 1.5% of Spanish authors cite Spanish-language articles.
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “Language Use in International Research: A Citation Analysis.” Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science 511 (1990): 10-24.
     
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “The microbiology literature: Languages of publication and their relative citation impact.” FEMS Microbiology Letters 100 (1992): 33-37.
  • 23. Q: Who cites what nations?
    A: Self-citation is the most common practice: i.e. Spanish authors cite other Spanish authors.
    But, most authors cite English-language literature the most!
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “Language Use in International Research: A Citation Analysis.” Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science 511 (1990): 10-24.
     
    Garfield, Eugene, and Alfred Welljams-Dorof. “The microbiology literature: Languages of publication and their relative citation impact.” FEMS Microbiology Letters 100 (1992): 33-37.
  • 24. How can I win the race?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 25. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Bracho-Riquelme, R. L. “ThechangefromFrenchtoEnglish and itseffectupontheimpact factor and ranking of the Pasteur journals.” Journal of InformationScience 25.5 (1999): 413-417. 8 Jun. 2011 <http://jis.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/016555159902500507>.
    Bracho-Riquelme, Rodolfo L., Nazario Pescador-Salas, and Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero. “Repercusión bibliométrica de adoptar el inglés como idioma única de publicación.” Revista de Investigación Clínica 49.5 (1997): 369-372. http://www.imbiomed.com.mx/1/1/articulos.php?id_revista=2&id_ejemplar=827.
  • 26. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur
    Hypothesis: changinglanguageis a valid editorial strategy
    Objective: to improve dissemination
    Conclusions: <11% variation in IF due to English (r2 0.108)
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Bracho-Riquelme, R. L. “ThechangefromFrenchtoEnglish and itseffectupontheimpact factor and ranking of the Pasteur journals.” Journal of InformationScience 25.5 (1999): 413-417. 8 Jun. 2011 <http://jis.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/016555159902500507>.
    Bracho-Riquelme, Rodolfo L., Nazario Pescador-Salas, and Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero. “Repercusión bibliométrica de adoptar el inglés como idioma única de publicación.” Revista de Investigación Clínica 49.5 (1997): 369-372. http://www.imbiomed.com.mx/1/1/articulos.php?id_revista=2&id_ejemplar=827.
  • 27. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur
    Method:
    • year-by-yearanalysis 1974-1992
    • 28. simple regressionanalysisbetweenindependent variable and twodependent variables
    • 29. % articlespublished in English
    • 30. IF
    • 31. ISI ranking, expressed as %
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Bracho-Riquelme, R. L. “ThechangefromFrenchtoEnglish and itseffectupontheimpact factor and ranking of the Pasteur journals.” Journal of InformationScience 25.5 (1999): 413-417. 8 Jun. 2011 <http://jis.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/016555159902500507>.
    Bracho-Riquelme, Rodolfo L., Nazario Pescador-Salas, and Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero. “Repercusión bibliométrica de adoptar el inglés como idioma única de publicación.” Revista de Investigación Clínica 49.5 (1997): 369-372. http://www.imbiomed.com.mx/1/1/articulos.php?id_revista=2&id_ejemplar=827.
  • 32. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur
    Results:
    <11% variation in IF due to English (r2 0.108)
    Linear regression analysis:
    r2 for ranking = 0.178, 0.045, and 0.122
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 33. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur
    Limitations:
    • Dependent variables are inter-dependent, i.e.theymeasurethesamething
    • 34. IF
    • 35. ISI ranking isbasedon IF
    • 36. Is a year-by-yearstudyvalidwhen IF isbasedontwo-yearlyperiods?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Bracho-Riquelme, R. L. “ThechangefromFrenchtoEnglish and itseffectupontheimpact factor and ranking of the Pasteur journals.” Journal of InformationScience 25.5 (1999): 413-417. 8 Jun. 2011 <http://jis.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/016555159902500507>.
    Bracho-Riquelme, Rodolfo L., Nazario Pescador-Salas, and Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero. “Repercusión bibliométrica de adoptar el inglés como idioma única de publicación.” Revista de Investigación Clínica 49.5 (1997): 369-372. http://www.imbiomed.com.mx/1/1/articulos.php?id_revista=2&id_ejemplar=827.
  • 37. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur
    • Isthe IF a measureindicatinggreaterdissemination?
    • 38. Doesnumber of subscribers = number of readers?
    • 39. Howdoesthedivision of onejournalintothreeaffectthestudy?
    • 40. Howdoesthechange of title(s) (FR to EN) affectthestudy?
    • 41. Howdoes marketing affectdissemination?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Bracho-Riquelme, R. L. “ThechangefromFrenchtoEnglish and itseffectupontheimpact factor and ranking of the Pasteur journals.” Journal of InformationScience 25.5 (1999): 413-417. 8 Jun. 2011 <http://jis.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/016555159902500507>.
    Bracho-Riquelme, Rodolfo L., Nazario Pescador-Salas, and Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero. “Repercusión bibliométrica de adoptar el inglés como idioma única de publicación.” Revista de Investigación Clínica 49.5 (1997): 369-372. http://www.imbiomed.com.mx/1/1/articulos.php?id_revista=2&id_ejemplar=827.
  • 42. Archivos de Investigación Médica
    Archives of MedicalResearch
    Archivos de Investigación Médica underwent a similar process of change.
    Itsubsequently LOST its JCR status, althoughthiswasregainedsomeyearslater.
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
    Benítez-Bribiesca, L. (2002). The ups and downs of the impact factor: the case of Archives of Medical Research. Archives of medical research, 33(2), 91-4. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11886705.
    Gibbs, W. W. (1995). Lost Science in the Third World. Scientific American, (August), 92-99. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/scientificamerican/journal/v273/n2/pdf/scientificamerican0895-92.pdf.
  • 43. Revista Española de Cardiología
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 44. Lost or found in translation?
    If I contract a translator will my publications make more impact?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 45. Variables
    Independent variable = Languageor IF?
    Dependent variables = IF, orlanguage, or…?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 46. Review of theliterature
    • 59 publications
    • 47. 17 variables
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 48. Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 49. Researchscope
    • Macroanalysis
    • 50. e.g.Science, USA
    • 51. Mesoanalysis
    • 52. e.g.Neurology, Psychology
    • 53. Microanalysis
    • 54. e.g.Revista Española de Cardiología, Bias in peer-reviews, Citationbehavior and place of publication
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 55. Studydesign
    Empiricalapproach (32/59):
    • Quantitative 10/32
    • 56. Qualitatitive 26/32
    • 57. Quantitative and qualitative 5/32
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 58. Data collection and/orstatisticalanalysis
    Analysis:
    • Qualitative
    • 59. questionnaires
    • 60. Quantitative
    • 61. correlationanalysis
    • 62. linear regressionanalysis
    • 63. partialleastsquaresregression
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 64. Whatdoesthis mean fortranslators?
    Whatdoesit mean forauthors?
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 65. Nextsteps
    • Objectives
    • 66. Revista Española de Cardiología?
    • 67. Spanishbiomedicaljournals?
    • 68. Variables
    • 69. peer-review?
    • 70. citationpatterns?
    • 71. authorshippractice?
    • 72. Polish-Englishtranslation?
    • 73. Quantitativemethods
    • 74. Correlationstudies
    • 75. Regressionanalysis
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 76. Dzięki! 
    Thank you for your attention!
    If you have any further questions, please write to
    robinson@ugr.es
    You can access this presentation at
    http://wdb.ugr.es/~robinson/wordpress/
    or
    http://www.slideshare.net/bryanrobinson3
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 77. References
    Agudelo, D., J. Bretón-López, and G. Buela-Casal. “Análisis bibliométrico de las revistas relacionadas con psicología de la salud editadas en castellano.” Salud Mental 27.2 (2004): 70–85. 14 Jun. 2011 http://www.medigraphic.com/pdfs/salmen/sam-2004/sam042h.pdf
    Alfonso, Fernando, Javier Bermejo, and Javier Segovia. “REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGÍA 2005: actividad y reconocimiento científico.” Revista española de cardiología 58.12 (2005): 1482-1487.
    Ardila, Rubén. “International psychology.” American Psychologist 37.3 (1982): 323–329. 31 Jan. 2011
    http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0003066X07676746
    Bakewell, David. “Publish in English, or perish?” Nature 356.23 April (1992): 648. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=12&did=1729840&SrchMode=3&sid=2&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1298045749&clientId=54638&aid=3
    Bekavac, Anamarija, JelkaPetrak, and ZoranBuneta. “Citation behavior and place of publication in the authors from the scientific periphery: A matter of quality?☆.” Information Processing & Management 30.1 (1994): 33-42
    http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0306457394900221
    Benítez-Bribiesca, Luis. “The ups and downs of the impact factor: the case of Archives of Medical Research.” Archives of medical research 33.2 (2002): 91-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11886705
    Bookstein, A., and M. Yitzhaki. “Own-language preference: A new measure of ‘relative language self-citation’.” Scientometrics 46.2 (1999): 337-348. http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/BF02464782
    Bordons, M. “Evaluación de la actividad científica a través de indicadores bibliométricos.” RevEspCardiol (1999). 14 Jun. 2011 http://www.elsevier.es/cardio/ctl_servlet?_f=40&amp;ident=190
    Bracho-Riquelme, Rodolfo L., Nazario Pescador-Salas, and Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero. “Repercusión bibliométrica de adoptar el inglés como idioma única de publicación.” Revista de Investigación Clínica 49.5 (1997): 369-372.
    http://www.imbiomed.com.mx/1/1/articulos.php?id_revista=2&id_ejemplar=827
    ---. “The change from French to English and its effect upon the impact factor and ranking of the Pasteur journals.” Journal of Information Science 25.5 (1999): 413-417. 8 Jun. 2011 http://jis.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/016555159902500507
    Campbell, F M. “National bias: a comparison of citation practices by health professionals.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 78.4 (1990): 376-82. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=225441&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
    Bryan J. Robinson-Fryer
    robinson@ugr.es
  • 78. Carpenter, M.P., and F. Narin. “The adequacy of the Science Citation Index (SCI) as an indicator of international scientific activity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32.6 (1981): 430–439. 3 Feb. 2011 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/114198313/abstract
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