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Hanson 10e Pp Ts Ch05

Hanson 10e Pp Ts Ch05






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    Hanson 10e Pp Ts Ch05 Hanson 10e Pp Ts Ch05 Presentation Transcript

    • How and Why Drugs Work Chapter 5
    • Intended and Unintended Effects of Drugs
      • Intended responses
        • reason for using the drug
      • Unintended responses
        • side effects
      • The main distinction between intended responses and side effects depends on the therapeutic objective.
    • Common Side Effects of Drugs
      • Nausea or vomiting
      • Changes in mental alertness
      • Dependence
        • Withdrawal
      • Allergic reactions
      • Changes in cardiovascular activity
      © fred goldstein/ShutterStock, Inc.
    • Common Side Effects of Drugs (continued)
    • Dose-Response
      • Many factors can affect the way an individual responds to a drug, including the following:
        • Dose
        • Tolerance
        • Potency
    • Dose-Response (continued)
      • Additional factors
        • Pharmacokinetic properties
          • Rate of absorption
          • Manner distributed throughout the body
          • Rate metabolized and eliminated
        • Form of the drug
        • Manner in which the drug is administrated
    • Dose-Response Curve
    • Margin of Safety
      • The range in dose between the amount of drug necessary to cause a therapeutic effect and a toxic effect
    • Potency vs. Toxicity Toxicity the capacity of a drug to do damage or cause adverse effects in the body Potency the amount of drug necessary to cause an effect
    • Drug Interaction
      • Additive effects
        • Summation of effects of drugs taken concurrently
      • Antagonistic (inhibitory) effects
        • One drug cancels or blocks effects of another
      • Potentiative (synergistic) effects
        • Effect of a drug is enhanced by another drug or substance
    • Pharmacokinetic Factors That Influence Drug Effects
      • Administration
      • Absorption
      • Distribution
      • Activation
      • Biotransformation and elimination
    • Forms and Methods of Taking Drugs
      • oral ingestion
      • inhalation
      • injection
      • topical application
      © Oscar Knott/FogStock/Alamy Images
    • Distribution
      • Most drugs are distributed throughout the body in the blood.
      • It takes approximately 1 minute for a drug to circulate throughout the body after it enters the bloodstream.
      • Drugs have different patterns of distribution depending on their chemical properties.
    • Required Doses for Effects
      • Threshold dose —the minimum amount of a drug necessary to have an effect
      • Plateau effect —the maximum effect a drug can have regardless of the dose
      • Cumulative effect —the buildup of drug concentration in the body due to multiple doses taken within short intervals
    • Time-Response Factors
      • The closer a drug is placed to the target area, the faster the onset of action.
      • Acute drug response
        • Immediate or short-term effects after a single drug dose
      • Chronic drug response
        • Long-term effects after a single dose
    • Biotransformation
      • Biotransformation —the process of changing the chemical or pharmacological properties of a drug by metabolism.
      • The liver is the major organ that metabolizes drugs in the body.
      • The kidney is the next most important organ for drug elimination.
    • Physiological Variables That Modify Drug Effects
      • Age
      • Gender
      • Pregnancy
      © Pixtal/SuperStock
    • Adaptive Processes
      • Tolerance – changes causing decreased response to a set dose of a drug
      • Dependence – the physiological and psychological changes or adaptations that occur in response to the frequent administration of a drug
      • Withdrawal
    • Adaptive Processes (continued)
    • Tolerance
      • Reverse tolerance (sensitization)
        • Enhanced response to a given drug dose; opposite of tolerance
      • Cross-tolerance
        • Development of tolerance to one drug causes tolerance to related drugs
    • Drug Dependence Physical dependence Psychological dependence
    • Psychological Factors Affecting Drug Effect
      • Individual’s mental set
      • Placebo effects
    • Addiction and Abuse
      • The term addiction has many meanings. It is often used interchangeably with dependence, either physiological or psychological in nature; other times, it is used synonymously with the term drug abuse.
    • Addiction and Abuse (continued)
      • Factors affecting variability in dependence
        • Hereditary factors
        • Drug craving
    • Addiction and Abuse (continued)
      • Other factors contributing to drug use patterns
        • Positive versus negative effects of drug
        • Peer pressure
        • Home, school, work environment
        • Mental state