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western art history semester 1 presentation 1

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  • 1. FOR THE PURPOSES OF THI S TUTORI AL SESSI ON: Kindly gather w your Tutorial ith Reading G roups and sit together. Thank you f or kind cooperation.
  • 2. ADM131 I NTRODUC ON TO WESTERN ART HI STORY TI Michelang and Leonardo Da Vinci elo Tutorial G up 4 Reading G up 2 ro ro
  • 3. Overview • An I ntroductio (Bryan Lim n ) • Sig icance of the Ref orm nif ation (Wendy Chui) • I m es and the Divine (Syazali) ag •Gender and Sexuality (Kwok) • “ inordinate f ondness f or Davids” rian Lee) An (B • LDV: Humans, Anim / Hum als ans and Nature (Henry) • Naturalism& Abstraction (Candice Lee)
  • 4. An I ntroduction Early 16th Century I taly The Hig Renaissance h Leonardo Da Vinci Buonarroti Michelangelo By Bryan Lim
  • 5. An I ntroduction Early 16th Century I taly •P olitical stress and constant w are in I taly arf • Florence m oved f romRepublicanismto Autocracy – Medici f am ily • Northern I taly w invaded by France tw as ice – 1499 to 1512; 1515 to 1525 •P apacy w seeking to extend its tem as poral power –P ope Julius I I and military cam paigns • Turbulent situation g ave birth to the Hig h Renaissance
  • 6. An I ntroduction The Hig Renaissance h • The art m vem o ent during the I talian Renaissance between 1500 to 1525 • The maturity of the early Renaissance • Widely view as the g ed reatest explosion of creative g enius in history • “…an art of serene and elevated conception, of great but controlled energy and, above all, of Classical balance” •Painting reached its peak of technical competence, rich artistic im ination and com ag position
  • 7. An I ntroduction The Hig Renaissance h •Characteristics: – Harm ony and balance in construction – Form colors and proportions, lig and shade s, ht ef f ects, spatial harmony, com sition, po perspective, anatom w y ere handled in total control • K Representatives: ey – Leonardo Da Vinci – Michelang B elo uonnarotti – Raf f aello Sanzio
  • 8. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci Overview • I talian painter, sculptor, architect, desig ner, theorist, eng ineer and scientist • Leonardo di Ser P eiro – Translates to Leonardo, son of Messer Piero • Founding f ather o hig renaissance f h style – The Last Supper • Writing help established ideals of s representation and expression Archetype of ‘Renaissance man’ or
  • 9. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His Work • Fam ous w orks include: Mona Lisa, Last Supper and The Vitruvian Man • Only f if teen of his painting survived s • Works know throug his little notebooks n h
  • 10. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci Character and Personality • Derived f rompersonal aspects of his notebo oks: –G entle w g ith reat respect f or living things – Fastidious in personal habits –G racious in m anner yet rem aining reserved • Secretive about his inventions • Notebooks w ere written in mirror handw riting
  • 11. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His Early Lif e •B orn illegitimately to Ser Piero and Caterina, April 15th 1452 in Vinci, Florence •B roug up in paternal g ht randf ather’ house s • 1466: B ecam an apprentice to Verrocchio e • Verrocchio’ ws orkshop undertook a w rang of ide e com issions m –P rovided so g unding f or Leonardo’ lid ro s versatility •C areer: – First Florentine period, First Milanese period,
  • 12. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His First Florentine Period (1472 - c.1472) • First know w n ork: Arno Valley (P and I nk draw ) en ing • Early draw s f or varied artistic proj ects, notes ing and early co pleted w rks indicated his bro m o adening interests – Machinery (w precise g ith earing of scientif ic
  • 13. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His First Florentine Period (1472 - c.1472) • 1472: q ualif ied as a m aster in G uild of St Luke • Started his ow n w orksho in Florence p betw een 1476 and 1481 • 1478: Altarpiece f or C hapel of St B ernard • 1481: Adoration of the Magi f or m onks at Scopeto
  • 14. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His First Milanese Period (c.1482 - 1499) • Lef t Florence f o Milan r (probably dring 1482) •P ainted tw o his m f am o f ost ous w orks in this period – The Virg of the Ro in cks – The Last Supper
  • 15. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His First Milanese Period (c.1482 - 1499) • For Ludovico il Moro (Duke of Milan): – Floats and pag eants f or special occasions – Do e desig f or Milan C m ns athedral – Model f or equestrain m umom ent f or Francesco Sf orza (Not com pleted) • 1495: The Last Supper f or the monastery of Santa Maria delle G razie • 1499: French invaded Milan under Louis XI I • Leonardo f led Milan f or Venice • Em ployed as a m ilitary architect in Venice
  • 16. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His Second Florentine Period (1500 - 1508) • 1500: Returned to Florence; stayed w Servite m ith onks •C reated The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist at the m onastery • 1502: Military architect and eng ineer f or Cesare B ia, son of P pe org o Alexander VI • 1503: Rej oined Guild of St Luke
  • 17. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His Second Florentine Period (1500 - 1508) •P ainted Mona Lisa in this period – La Gioconda • 1506: Returned to Milan; worked w his prom ith inent pupils and f ollowers • 1507: Death of f ather; Back to Flo rence to settle Father’ estate s
  • 18. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci His Second Milanese Period (1508 - 1513) • 1508: Lived in his ow house n • Representative w ork of the w ork in this period: St John the Baptist – Developm ent of the treatm ent of lig and ht shade (chiaroscuro)
  • 19. An I ntroduction: Leonardo Da Vinci Rom (1508 - 1513) e • 1513 - 1516: Lived in Belvedere, Vatican, Ro e m • Virgin and Child with St Anne and a Lamb one of Leonardo’ s surviving w orks at that tim e • Leonardo died at C Lucé,los France, May 2 1519
  • 20. Activity One (Part One): LDV Trivia
  • 21. Activity One (Part One): LDV Trivia Question One Which of the f o w is Leonardo Da Vinci’ real llo ing s nam e? – Leonardo di Messer Piero – Leonardo Da Vinci – Leonardo s/ o Balakrishna – Leonardo di Ser Piero – Leonardo di Caprio
  • 22. Activity One (Part One): LDV Trivia Question Two Which of the f o w com llo ing binations are Leonardo Da Vinci’ w s orks? – Mona Lisa, The Virg and the C in hild w St ith Anne and a Lam Depo b, sition – Creation of Adam David, P , ieta – La Gioconda, The Last Supper, The Virg and in Child w St Anne and St John the Baptist ith – Virg on the Rocks, The Virg and C in in hild w St Anne and St John the B ith aptist, The Last Supper
  • 23. Activity One (Part One): LDV Trivia Question Three Who w Leonardo Da Vinci’ m as s aster? – G iotto di Bondone – Verrocchio – Raf f aello Sanzio – C abue im – B uonnarotti Michelangelo
  • 24. Activity One (Part One): LDV Trivia Question Four Leonardo Da Vinci’ St John the Baptist w the s as development of which of his ideas? – Naturalism – P aram ount – C hiaroscuro – Mannerism – Three-P oint Lig hting
  • 25. Activity One (Part One): LDV Trivia Question Five Most of Leonardo Da Vinci’ ws orks are f ound in his noteboo I n these notebooks, w k. hat did w discover e about his writing? – He w amas bidextrous – He w rote illegibly – He w rote in m irror writing – He w rote in po g or ram ar m – He w dyslexic as
  • 26. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo Overview • I talian painter, sculptor, architect, poet and eng ineer • Leonardo di Lodovico B uonarroti Sim oni • March 6, 1475 - February 8, 1564 •C onsidered as a contender f or title of archetypal renaissance m an • 70 years of prof essional career • Terribilità: heroic and awe-inspiring g randeur
  • 27. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo Character and Personality • Of ten arrog ant w others, dissatisf ied w ith ith him self • Sawart as o inating f rominner inspiration and rig f romculture • Fig ures he created are f orcef ul and dynam ic – Free the f orm entrapped in the stone s •P ersonal lif e: abstem ious – I ndif f erent to f ood and drink; “ ore out of m necessity than of pleasure” – Reputation f or being bizzarro e fantastico • Love of m beauty; idealisation of m beauty ale ale
  • 28. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo His Work • B ore thirty: Pieta and David ef •C eiling painting in Sistine C s hapel, Rome • Do e desig of St P m n eter’ B s asilica
  • 29. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo His Lif e • Born, Caprese near Arezzo, Tuscany, March 6th 1475 • Raised in Florence; lived w a ith stonecutter and his f am in ily Settignano • Apprenticeship in painting with Domenico G hirlandaio • Apprenticeship in sculpture with Bertoldo di Giovanni • 1490 - 1492: Attended Lorenzo de’ Medici’ school s – I nf luenced by prominent people (platonic view s) Finished Madonna of the Steps and Battle of
  • 30. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo His Lif e • Lef t Medici co urt af ter death of Lorenzo • 1493: P roduced a w ooden crucif ix f or Church of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito in thanksg iving – Study of anatom of y corpses • 1493: Re-entered Medici court ag but lef t soon af ter ain Medici’ expulsion s
  • 31. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo His Lif e •C m om issioned the f inish carving of sm f ig all ures of the to b of m St Dom inic • 1494: Returned to Florence, then f led upon French invasion • June 1496: Arrival in Rom e (Cupid incident) • July 1496: Statue of Rom G B an od, acchus; rej ected by Cardinal Raf f aele
  • 32. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo His Lif e • Nov 1497: C m issioned o m to do Pieta f or the Holy See • 1499 - 1501: Returned to Florence –C m om issioned to do David, sym of bol Florentine f reedom –P ainted the Holy Family and St John
  • 33. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo His Lif e • 1505: I nvited back to Rom by P e ope Julius I I –C mom issioned to build P ope’ tom s b – I nterm ittenly w orked on other proj ects –C entral central of P ope’ tom Moses, w not s b, as com pleted to Michelang s satisf action elo’ – Also w orked on painting on ceiling of Sistine s C hapel • 1513: P ope Julius I I died; Pope Leo X (Medici) took over –C mom issioned to reconstruct f açade of San Lorenzo (never com pleted)
  • 34. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo His Lif e • 1505: I nvited back to Rom by P e ope Julius I I –C mom issioned to build P ope’ tom s b – I nterm ittenly w orked on other proj ects –C entral central of P ope’ tom Moses, w not s b, as com pleted to Michelang s satisf action elo’ – Also w orked on painting on ceiling of Sistine s C hapel • 1513: P ope Julius I I died; Pope Leo X (Medici) took over –C mom issioned to reconstruct f açade of San Lorenzo (never com pleted)
  • 35. An I ntroduction: Buonarroti Michelangelo His Lif e • 1530: Florence f ell, Medici restored to po er; w Michelang lef t Florence f or g elo ood – Designed the Laurentian library in Flo rence • Michelang died in February 18, 1564, Rom elo e
  • 36. Activity One (Part 2): MB Trivia
  • 37. Activity One (Part 2): MB Trivia Question One Which of the f o w is f alse about Michelang llo ing elo? – He w a poet as – He w an eng as ineer – He w an architect as – He w a theorist as – He w a sculptor as
  • 38. Activity One (Part 2): : MB Trivia Question Two Under w hose school did Michelang g elo ained inf luence f ro prom m inent people? – During his apprenticeship under Francesco da Urbino – During his apprenticeship under Domenico Ghirlandaio – During his apprenticeship under Berto di ldo Giovanni – During his tim in Lorezeno de Medici’ court e s – During his tim in P e iero de Medici’ court s
  • 39. Activity One (Part 2): : MB Trivia Question Three Why did he m ake the w ooden crucif ix in 1493 to the Church of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito? – Thanksg iving f or curing his illness – Thanksg iving f or Christm as – Thanksg iving f or dispensation indulg ences – Thanksg iving f or curing his parents’ illness – Thanksg iving f or perm his study of anatom it y of corpses
  • 40. Activity One (Part 2): : MB Trivia Question Four Which proj ect w the m or interruption that as aj Michelang experienced during his co elo nstruction of Pope Julius I I ’ tom s b? – C eiling painting f or the Sistine C s hapel – Bacchus – Pieta – Doni Tondo – Façade of B asilica o San Lorenzo f
  • 41. Activity One (Part 2): : MB Trivia Question Five What w the cause of his “orcef ul and dynam as f ic” f igures? – His neo-platonic philosophy – His philosophy on f reeing f orm inside the s stone – His love f or m beauty ale – His po etic nature – His non self indulg ent philosophy towards his personal lif e
  • 42. Question One S ignif icance of t he Re f ormat ion What is the ref ormation about? Discuss the long termpolitical econom ic, philosophical and cultural sig icances of The nif Ref orm ation f or the developm ent of Western Civilisations, Thoug and Art ht
  • 43. Question One: Sig icance of the Ref orm nif ation What is the Ref ormation? • A 16th-century m ovem ent in Western Euro that pe aim at ref o ing so e doctrines and practices ed rm m of the Rom C an atholic C hurch and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant churches. • I t w due to the church being em as phasizing too m uch on rituals and procedures • The abuse o such by clerg and people of hig f y h positions in the church. • Exam of abuse: the sale of indulg ple ence
  • 44. Question One: Sig icance of the Ref orm nif ation Ref ormation, Philosophy and Culture • Martin Luther • Erasmus • John Calvin • Jacobus Arminius • Ulrich Zw li ing Luther in 1529 by Lucas Cranach
  • 45. Question One: Sig icance of the Ref orm nif ation Martin Luther • Questioned the doctrine in the sale o indulg f ences • Wro 95 theses that challeng the doctrine of te ed indulgences • Has an im ediate ef f ect w people w read it. m ith ho • The technolog of printing helps circulate his y new o f und theories.
  • 46. Question One: Sig icance of the Ref orm nif ation Ref ormation and Art • Decline in the religious art and rise in secular arts – More natural paintings – G being ref lected in everyday lives od –Painting of religious art without sacred sym bolism s
  • 47. Question One: Sig icance of the Ref orm nif ation Noir Me Tangere HOLBEIN, Hans. Noir Me Tangere. 1524. Oil on wood. Royal Collection, Hampton C ourt, UK
  • 48. Question One: Sig icance of the Ref orm nif ation Ref ormation and Political Econom ics • The g w of capitalism ro th – The pow of church is crushed in the econom er ic f ield, thus creating better conditions f or econom developm ic ent and g th of capitalism row .
  • 49. Question Two I mage and The Divine Choose tw or m o ore im es f romthe w ag ork of LDV and MB which illustrate chang perspectives / response to ing the im es and the divine in the late-15th to m ag id-16th century. B Syazali y
  • 50. Question Tw I m es and the Divine o: ag The Last Judg ent em • On the altar w of the all Sistine Chapel, Vatican City • 6 years to complete • I llustrates the second com of C ing hrist and the Apocalypse BUONAROTTI Michelang elo. The Last Judgement 1535 - 1541. Fresco. 1370 x 1200cm . Sistine Chapel, Vatican City
  • 51. Question Tw I m es and the Divine o: ag Chang P ing erspectives • Michelang s The Last Judgement elo’ – Holy people without halo – Ang w els ithout w s ing – Nude depiction in painting
  • 52. Question Tw I m es and the Divine o: ag The Last Supper Leonardo Da Vinci. The Last Supper. C1495-588. Mural Painting 4.6 x 8.56m . . S. Maria delle Grazie, Milan • I n the back halls of the dining hall at Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, I taly. • 3 years to com plete but not continuously • I llustrates a scene where Jesus announces that one of his 12 disciples w ould betray him .
  • 53. Question Tw I m es and the Divine o: ag Chang P ing erspectives / Responses • Leonardo Da Vinci’ The Last Supper s – The painting contains mathem atical aspects with ref erences to the number 3 - Holy Trinity
  • 54. Question Three Ge nde r and S e xualit y Choose tw or m o ore im es f romthe w ag ork of LDV and MB which illustrate chang perspective / responses to ing gender and sexuality in the late-15th to m id-16th century. B K ok y w
  • 55. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Overview • Dif f icult to see a unif ied stance to ards sexuality w w their dif f erent attitudes ith • Similarly am uous big – Men w look like w m and w en w look like ho o en om ho men • Eq em ual phasis placed o both m and f em n ale ale beauty
  • 56. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Overview • Studies of the Foetus in the Wom the b, Uterine Wall and Placenta, with Mechanics and Optics – Windsor, Royal Library, 19102 • Leonardo da Vinci • Appreciation of the biological aspect of sexuality?
  • 57. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Leonardo Da Vinci’ Works s Leonardo Da Vinci. St John the Baptist. Leonardo Da Vinci. Mona Lisa. 1513 - 1516. Oil on walnut. C.1503 - 1506. Oil on poplar. 69 x 57 cm Louvre, P , aris 77 x 53 cm Louvre, P , aris
  • 58. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Leonardo Da Vinci’ Works s Leonardo Da Vinci. Angel in the Flesh
  • 59. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality C paring Earlier Works om VERROC HI O, Andre del. Tobias C and the Angel. 1470-80
  • 60. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality C paring Earlier Works om BOTTECELLI , Sandro. Lamentation over the Dead Christ. 1490
  • 61. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Michelang s Works elo’ Michelang elo. David. 1501 - 1503. Michelang elo. Pieta. 1498/ 9 - 1500. Marble. Approx. 5.5mhig h. Marble. 1.74mx m St P, eter’ s Galleria dell’ Accadem Florence ia, Basilica, Vatican
  • 62. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Michelang s Works: David elo’ • Spent 2 m onths in hiding while a brass girdle of 28 copper leaves w m as ade f or his w aist Michelang elo. David. 1501 - 1503. Marble. Approx. 5.5mhig h. Galleria dell’ Accadem Florence ia,
  • 63. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Michelang s Works: Pieta elo’ • So m uch m ore alig ned w the ith C hurch’ values s • ‘chaste women stay fresh much more than those who are not chaste’ • Running idea of beauty in youth Michelang elo. Pieta. 1498/ 9 - 1500. Marble. 1.74mx m St P, eter’ s Basilica, Vatican
  • 64. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Sig und Freud m • Leonardo Da Vinci and a Mem ory of His C hildho od – ‘Freud’s first sustained venture into biography from a psychoanalytical perspective’ – ‘effort to trace one route that homosexual development can take’ – Thoug ‘most fascinating’, at m st it is hig h o hly ‘speculative’
  • 65. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Sig und Freud m • Leonardo Da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood –C laim that the artist expresses his ‘most secret s mental impulses, which are hidden even from himself, by means of the works that he creates’ – Also claim that Leonardo’ androg s s ynous f igures show‘the unhappiness of his erotic life’ and howhe ‘has triumphed over it in his art’
  • 66. Question Three: Gender and Sexuality Other Examples • ‘his curiosity about the flight of birds was derived from the sexual researches of his childhood’ • On Leonardo’ m ory of his encounter s em w a vulture as a baby: ith – This may be translated: ‘My mother pressed innumerable passionate kisses on my mouth.’
  • 67. Question Four ‘An I nordinat e Fondne ss For Davids ’ Juxtapose the Davids of Donatello, Verrocchio and Michelangelo. Why does the f ig ure of David capture the im ination of the Florentines. What m ht be the ag ig reason f or the dif f ering representations of David throug hout the centuries? B B y rian Lee
  • 68. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Davids Donatello. David. C.1440s. VERROC HI O, Andrea del. C Michelang elo. David. 1501 - Bronze. 158cmtall. Museo David. 1473 - 1475. Bronze. 1503. Marble. Approx. 5.5m Nazionale del B ello, arg 125cmtall. Museo Nazionale hig G h. alleria dell’Accadem ia, Florence del Barg ello, Florence Florence
  • 69. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Donatello’ David s • First f reestanding work in bronze cast during the Renaissance period • First nude statue of the Renaissance • Classical Greek boy nude (homoerotism) • Seen f romall angles • Hat is Florentine arm headw y ear • Related controposto, sensuality and f low, showthat G oliath w not a big threat to as him • C ness and dem alm ureness David. C.1440s. Donatello. Bronze. 158cmtall. Museo Nazionale del B ello, arg
  • 70. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Donatello’ David s • I nscription accom panied the statue: – “The victor is he who defends the country; God crushed the wrath of a huge enemy behold a boy has defeated a great tyrant. Conquer o citizens.” • Contrasts betw een the larg sw e ord of Goliath and David’ sm stature s all has conq uered G oliath not by physical prow ess, but throug the w of G h ill od Donatello. David. C.1440s. Bronze. 158cmtall. Museo Nazionale del B ello, arg
  • 71. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Verrocchio’ David s • Not as calmand dem ure as Donatello’ David s • Plucky • Hand on hip • Eroticised even thoug it is not nude, h body contours showthroug arm h our • More realismand dramatic • Verrocchio modelled the statue af ter the young Leonardo Da Vinci. VERROC HI O, Andrea del. David. C 1473 - 1475. Bronze. 125cmtall. Museo Nazionale del Barg ello, Florence
  • 72. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Verrocchio’ David s • David w intended as a as representation of Florence, as both were m ore pow ul than erf they appeared, and bo the th shepherd bo and Florence could y be view as rising po ers ed w VERROC HI O, Andrea del. David. C 1473 - 1475. Bronze. 125cmtall. Museo Nazionale del Barg ello, Florence
  • 73. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Michelang s David elo’ • Tallest sculpture f roma durable material • About m otion in f igure, f rozen in motion, dynam ismin f ig ure • He had studied anatom knewevery y, muscle, accentuated muscles • First nude to be sculpted on such a larg scale in history e • I nitially badly blocked out and abandoned by another sculptor Michelangelo. David. 1501 - 1503. Marble. Approx. 5.5m hig G h. alleria dell’ Accademia, Florence
  • 74. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Michelang s David elo’ • Took about 3 years to complete • Upper body seem larg due to the s er making up f or perspective • Sym bolises the Florentine republic's triumphant over the Medici in 1494 • Not show as the victor w f oot on n ith the severed head of Goliath • Cham pion of a j ust cause, bravely conf ronting a physically strong er opponent Michelangelo. David. 1501 - 1503. Marble. Approx. 5.5m hig G h. alleria dell’ Accademia, Florence
  • 75. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Michelang s David elo’ • Unclassical looking w big hands and ith f eet, swollen muscles and veins, lim not bs at rest • Michelang s concept of the body being elo’ the prison of the soul g ave the heroic f igure the f eeling of pent up energ calm y, on the outside intense on the inside • Depicts David af ter the decision to f ight Goliath is made but bef ore the actual battle. Show the m ent betw s om een conscious choice and conscious action • Depiction to represent the m ent om Michelang elo. David. 1501 - im ediately af ter battle, as David m 1503. Marble. Approx. 5.5m serenely contem plates his victory Accadem hig G h. alleria dell’ ia, Florence
  • 76. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids C paring Davids om Goliat h’s Dat e Mat e rial Pat ron Nude ? De pict ion he ad? • ea B uty • race G Dona - 1440 Bronze Cosim de o •Youth Yes Yes t e llo ’s Medici • alm C ness •Dem ure • assive P •Audacious conq ueror 1473-1 Ve rro - • lucky P 475 Bronze Medici f amily Yes No cchio’s •More realismand detail •Supercilious smile •Mascular, masculine Opera del • iance Def Duom (board o Miche l- 1501-1 •Dynam ic Marble of directors No Yes ange lo ’s 503 • ntense outside I of the • alm C ness on the inside cathedral) •Serentity
  • 77. Question Four: I nordinate Fondness f or Davids Florence and David • Florence and David both were seen as the underdogs • Both sm in size all • Both conquered against larg and strong opponents er er • Verrochio's w ork w acq as uired in 1476, Florence w a as "rising republic" among the established city-states of I taly. • Sym bolic of the em ence of Florence as a m or erg aj political and econom f orce. ic • Michelang s David sym elo’ bolises the Florentine republic’ s triumphant over the Medici in 1494 • David represented streng energ and youthf ul th, y
  • 78. Activity Tw : o MB Trivia
  • 79. Question Five Humans , Animals / Humans and Nat ure (LDV) LDV did a num ber of close studies of naure. Howare nature, plants, anim and landscapes represented in als LDV’ w s ork? What is their relationship to the w orld of hum ans? By Henry
  • 80. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Types of Notebooks • Code x Arunde l - Studies in geom etry, w hts and architecture eig • Code x At lant icus - Mathem atics to geometry, astronom botany, zoo y and the y, log military arts • Code x Trivulzianus - Architecture and relig ious themes • Code x ' On t he Flight of Birds ' - Mechanics of f lig as w as to air resistance, ht, ell winds and currents • Code x Ashburnham - P ictorial studies and assorted draw s ing • Codice s of t he I nst it ut de France - Military art, optics, geometry, the f lig of ht birds, hydraulics • Code x Forst e r - Studies o gn eom etry, w hts and hydraulic m eig achines • Code x Le ice st e r - Studies in hydraulics and the movement of w ater • Winds or f olios - Anato y and g raphy, horse studies, draw s, caricatures and a m eog ing series of m aps • The Madrid Codice s - Studies in mechanics
  • 81. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Leonardo’ studies of nature s Notebook of study sketches on: • nature • Landscape •P lants • Anim als • Hum anato y an m
  • 82. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Leonardo Da Vinci’ Annunication s Leonardo Da Vinci. Annunication. c.1472-1475. Oil on panel. 98 x 217cm Uf f izi, Florence .
  • 83. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV LDV: Studies of Water
  • 84. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV LDV: Studies of Water
  • 85. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Nature - Plantation The Annunciation (1492 – 1475) • Study of water movement • Twist and surge like little waves • abandoned botanical accuracy
  • 86. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV The Arno Landscape Leonardo Da Vinci. Arno Landscape. 1473. P and ink. en Uf f izi, Florence
  • 87. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV LDV: Waterf all and Draperies • Like the w aterf all in the landscape draw s, the ing drapery f alls and f lowout in sw irling eddies
  • 88. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Nature - Plantation “ Water is the driver of nature… I t is the expansion and hum of all vital bodies. or Without it, nothing retains its f orm B its inf lowit unites . y and aug ent bodies” m
  • 89. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Nature - Plantation • Did not stick strictly to the studied draw ing • reinterpreted • precise arrang ent em • Show g th of s row f lower The Annunciation (1492 – 1475)
  • 90. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Pollaiuollo’ Annunciation s Pollaiuollo. Annunication.
  • 91. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Nature –Plantation •Used nature element as composition •Growing out from one another
  • 92. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Nature - Landscape •Accurate studies and observation •Able to draw from any height •Understands geography Drew Maps
  • 93. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Nature –Landscape • Sf umato technique – P ected Aerial erf perspective • Hazy ef f ect in accordance to the atm osphere Close-Up of The Baptism of Christ
  • 94. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Anim Studies al • Express interests in gestures o anim f als
  • 95. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Anim Studies al • Facial Expression of the horse
  • 96. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Anim Studies al • Dem ostrated his understanding of anim anatom al y •Gesture of anim is al w captured ell - Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and a Lamb (1510~1513)
  • 97. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Anim Studies al •Accurate recorded the flow of air support birds •The balancing movements depended on the current air passing across the wings •Led to ideas of flight ‘inventions’
  • 98. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Anim Studies al •‘Inventions’ of Flights •Could be the source of later inventions
  • 99. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Anim Studies al
  • 100. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Anim Studies al Anemometer - wind so as to show its direction Hygrometer - measuring the amount of moisture in the air
  • 101. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Hum Anatom an y - Lady with an Ermine (1488~1490) - Mona Lisa (1503~1514) •strong understanding of anatomical structure •Successful painting of naturalism
  • 102. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Hum Anatom an y • Sf umato technique – Aerial perspective • Hazy ef f ect in accordance to the atm osphere Vitruvian man Drawing of Womb
  • 103. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Hum Anatom an y Drawing by Leonardo Da Vinci Drawing by Michelangelo
  • 104. Question Five: Humans, Animals, Nature and LDV Hum Anatom an y •Leonardo’s robot was created Dr Mark •Base on his sketches of a robot •It was believe to be base on his anatomy studies of human
  • 105. Activity Six Literature Meets Art History
  • 106. Activity Six: Literature Meets History Question One Next is a sonnet by one of yo art heroes about an ur experience of his that m ade a MARK in history!
  • 107. Activity Six: Literature Meets History Question One • Here like a cat in a Lom bardy sew er! Sw elter and toil! With m neck puf f ed out like a pig n, y eo belly hang like an em ing pty sack, beard pointing at the ceiling and m brain , y f allen backw ards in m head!… y the only w ay to counterw ht m shoulders is to stick eig y m butt out. Don’ knoww y t here m f eet are- y they’ j ust dancing by them re selves! I n f ront I ’ sag ed and stretched ve g
  • 108. Activity Six: Literature Meets History Question One Michelang s sonnet about his experience in elo’ painting the Sistine Chapel!
  • 109. Question Six Nat uralism & Abst ract ion in S culpt ure , Drawing & Paint ing Both LDV and MB’ approaches and belief s about s painting sculpture and draw chang during their , ing ed lif etim as did the kind of w e, ork they produced. Select and j uxtapose w orks and statem ents by the artists that dem onstrate each of the artists’ changing preoccupations and styles in dif f erent tim of their es career.
  • 110. Question Six: Chang Style And P ing reoccupation Michel a e o d Lo o co (14 -15 4 ng l i d vi 75 6 ) • Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and eng ineer
  • 111. Michelang Early Years elo’ (1475-1512) • Michelang w m elo as ore involved w sculpture ith • His ideas and concepts were af f ected by Neo platonismthat w in f ashion at the tim as e; • Did not ignore naturalism
  • 112. Question Six: Chang Style And P ing reoccupation Michelang s Early Years elo’ • Moses : • spirituality portrayed in hug proportions of the body e and m assive streng depicting inner streng th, th • the pow ul m erf usculature of the arm the f iery m s, ood, and the torsions of the body radiate the inner f ury • David : • use of contraposito; trunk alw ays appears twisted no matter w hat action the f igure is eng ed in, rig hand ag ht extended lef t body w ithdraw s • “ ays m alw ake a f igure pyram idal… … and serpentine f orm ed”consonant w the viewthat the soul should ith Michelang elo. David. be expressed w bodily m ith ovem ents rather than with 1504. C arrara expressions Michelangelo. Moses. 1515. Mrable. Florence, Marble. Approx. 235cm Galleria hig Rom San P h. e ietro in dell’ Accadem ia Vincoli
  • 113. Question Six: Chang Style And P ing reoccupation Michelang s Early Works elo’ • illustrates the truim of the soul over the ph m aterial world • vigorous colors Michelang elo. Sistine Chapel. 1508 - 1512. Fresco. Sistine C hapel the • contrapposto f orm expression throug bodily , h Vatica movem ents rather than expression • foreshortening and perspective evident s • the bondag of the soul on earth w deeply e as f elt by Michelangelo: "since half of m e, descended f romthe heavens, thereto w ith long f lies and turns ag ing ain” Michelangelo. Doni Tondo. C irca 1503. Oil and tempera on panel. 120cmdiam eter. 471/ 2 in diameter. Uf f izi, Florence
  • 114. Question Six: Chang Style And P ing reoccupation Michelang s Early Years elo’ • His po s and sonnets g expression to the em ive them that love helps hum being in their e an s dif f icult ef f ort to ascend to the divine
  • 115. Question Six: Chang Style And P ing reoccupation Michelang s Later elo’ Years(1512-1564) • Less involved w sculpture, m re w ith o ith architecture and painting and poetry • Moved into the m annerist school f romclassicism (moving into abstraction) • Poetry and f rescoes took on newqualities
  • 116. Question Six: Chang I n Style And P es reoccupation Michelang s Later Years elo’ • The Last Judgement: • noticeably dif f erent f romthe rest of the sistine chapel painted 25 years earlier • persuasive color harmony sim of brow ple n bodies agains the dark blue sky • f igures have less energy • f orm less articulate; torsos tending to be s sing f leshy m le asses w ithnout w aistlines Michelang elo. The Last Judgement. • architectural and sculptural vision replaced by 1535-1541. Fresco. 1370x1200cm. Sistine sw irling m ; ore pictorial representation of Chapel, Vatican City. tortured hum ans
  • 117. Question Six: Chang I n Style And P es reoccupation Michelang s Later Years elo’ • Pieta Rondanini: • veered aw f romhis norm ay al dram atic near-illusionistic style • elongated proportions Michelang elo. Pieta Rondanini. 1564. • af f ected poses Marble. Height 195cm. Milan, Castello Sforzesco. • unclear perspective
  • 118. Question Six: Chang I n Style And P es reoccupation Leonardo Da Vinci(1452-1519) • w an I talian polym as ath: scientist, m athem atician, eng ineer, inventor, anatom ist, painter, sculptor, architect, m usician and w riter. Michelang elo. Pieta Rondanini. 1564. Marble. Height 195cm. Milan, Castello Sforzesco.
  • 119. Question Six: Chang I n Style And P es reoccupation Da Vinci’ Early Years(1452-1480s) s • w prim as arily reno ned as a painter w • interest in studies of proportion of the human bo chiaroscuro, perspective and nature dy, • f igures initially had stif f tig rig m ht id ovements • humanistic belief ref lected in artwork • heavy w hidden sym ith bolismin w rk o
  • 120. Question Six: Chang I n Style And P es reoccupation Leonardo’ Later Years s • developed studies of anatom chiaroscuro, y, humanism • undertook f ew larg painting m er e s, ore scientif ic f ocus • da vinci continued to have an interest in the scientif ic side of things • works continued to contain heavy symbolism
  • 121. Question Six: Chang Style And P ing reoccupation Leonardo’ P ression Of Work s rog • Baptism Of Christ: • stif f and rig f orm id • lack of chiaroscuro Leonardo. BaptismOf C hrist. • Annunciation: 1472-1475. Oil On Wood. 177x151cm Uf f izi, Florence. . • perspectival mistake that creates depth and enhances im rtance of m po ary • da vinci presents humanist f ace of mary Leonardo. Annunciation. Circa 1472-1475. Oil on panel • still no distinctive evidence of chiaroscuro 98x217cm Uf f izi, Florence. .
  • 122. Question Six: Chang Style And P ing reoccupation Leonardo’ P ression Of Work s rog • Adoration Of The Magi: • background and scenery symbolic • develops pioneering use of chiaroscuro • bo f orm less rig and m dy s id ore proportionate • Virgin On The Rocks: Leonardo. Leonardo. Virg On in Adoration Of The The Rocks. Circa 1495-1508. Oil on Mag 1481. Oil on i. • Mary required to radiate purity and wood. 246x243cm . panel 189.5x120cm . Uf f izi, Florence. I n London. virginity • plants in his painting directly f rom nature • use of chiaroscuro
  • 123. Question Six: Chang Style And P ing reoccupation Leonardo’ P ression Of Work s rog • Virgin And Child With St Anne: • symbolismrepresented by inf ant and lam and the position of the f ig b, ures • chiaroscuro has been f urthur developed • f oreshortening is employed Leonardo. Virg And C in hild With St Anne. C 1499-1500. C . harcoal, black and white chalk on tinted paper. 141.5x104.6cmNational G allery, London.
  • 124. Bibliography • http:/ / w w w .capm .com article.asp?I D=3895 ag / • http:/ / w w h.org david/ sym w .hig / bol.htm l • http:/ / w w w .catholicherald.com articles/ 04articles/ david0311.htm / • http:/ / w w eocities.com Vienna/ C w .g / hoir/ 4792/ davidm .htm l • http:/ / en.wikipedia.org w Michelang / iki/ elo • http:/ / en.wikipedia.org w Leonardo_ da_ vinci / iki/ • http:/ / w w roveart.com w .g .ezlibproxy1.ntu.edu.sg shared/ view article.htm / s/ l? section=art.057716& authstatuscode=202# art.057716 • http:/ / w w roveart.com w .g .ezlibproxy1.ntu.edu.sg shared/ view article.htm / s/ l? f rom =search& session_ search_ id=456722705& hitnum section=art.050401 =1& • http:/ / w w w .huntf or.com arthistory/ renaissance/ hig / hren.htm • http:/ / w w g w .w a.hu • http:/ / w w useoscienza.org w .m • History of I talian Renaissance Art, Frederick Hartt & David G Wilkins, I SB 0-13-188247-3, . N P rentice Hall • Leonardo da Vinci and a Mem ory of His C hildhood, Sig und Freud, I SBN 0-793-00149-0, W.W. m Norton • Leonardo, Martin K p, 2004, I SB 0-19-280546-0, Oxf ord University P em N ress I nc. • Leonardo –Maria C ostantino published by G reenw Edition 2002 ich • Leonardo Notebooks –Edited by Anna Suh published by Black Dog & Leventhal publishers 2005 • LEONARDO DA VI NC I N HI S OWN WORDS - WilliamWray published by Arcturus P I ublishing Lim ited • Art C lassics LEONARDO DA VI NC –Mario P ilo published by Rizzoli I nternational P I om ublication 2005

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